Chapter [Sarga] 1-UTF enabled text
All pervasive Exuberant Krishna

सामोद दामोदरम्

Poet Jayadeva wishing to portray the divine love of Rādha and Krishna in his immortal song giita govindam starts this with a benedictory verse that indicates the theme of his poetic work, as poets are required to start their poetic works with ashiish, namaskriya, or vastu nirdeshanam.

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सामोद दामोदरम्

मेघैर्मेदुरमम्बरम् वनभुवः श्यामास्तमालद्रुमैः
नक्तम् भीरुरयम् त्वमेव तदिमम् राधे गृहम् प्रापय।
इत्थम् नन्दनिदेशितश्चलितयोः प्रत्यध्वकुञ्जद्रुमम्
राधामाधवयोर्जयन्ति यमुनाकूले रहःकेलयः॥ १-१

पदच्छेद : मेघैः मेदुरम् अंबरम् वन भुवः श्यामाः तमाल द्रुमैः नक्तम्
भीरुः अयम् त्वम् एव तत् इमम् राधे गृहम् प्रापय इत्थम् नन्द निदेशितः
चलितयोः प्रति अध्व   कुंज द्रुमम् राधा माधवयोः जयन्ति यमुना कूले रहः केलयः

1-1. Tiika/word order/meanings: hè raadhe= hey! Rādha; ambaram meghaiH meduram = sky, with clouds, thick with; tamaala drumaiH = with tamaala, trees; vana bhuvaH = wood, lands; shyaamaaH= are blackened; naktam [ca abhivartate]= night [is also drawing nigh]; bhiiruH ayam= [naively] timorous, that one [Krishna is]; tat= thereby; tvam eva= you, alone; imam gR^iham praapaya= him, to home, see he reaches [lead him forth]; ittham nanda nideshitaH= this way, by Nanda, she who is instructed [Rāldha]; chalitayoH= while both are on the go [to home]; rāldhaa maadhavayoH = of both Rādha, Mādhava; yamunaa kuule= on Yamuna, banks of; prati= each, at each and every; adhva= on pathway; kunja drumam= in arbour, at tree; rahaH kelayaH= sequestered, [Gr. erōs, or epithymia, or philia not just love] plays of passion [that are the happenstances, bechanced events]; jayanti= won over, fructified [let them be transcendentally exquisite.]

"hè! Rādha, clouds are thickening on the sky, black Tamaala trees blacken the woodlands, and night is also drawing nigh... and that one is naively timorous... thereby, you alone lead him home..." this way when Nanda instructed Rādha, both Rādha and Mādhava are on the go homeward, and then the happenstances of their sequestered plays of passion, on each pathway, at every tree, and in each and every arbour on the banks of River Yamuna, are transcendentally exquisite. [1-1]


This is the 'worm's eye view' of this poetic work, but not the invocation of deity of speech / poetics. The invocation is in next verse.

A parable is said about this verse. As usual with any other poet, Jayadeva was also said to be a twiddler of his thumbs, and seeing this maternal uncle daunts him for not taking up any job or profession like any other youngster. Jayadeva refuses trivial jobs and declares himself as a poet of par excellence, and he can portray ayam 'that' god in an innovative manner and in off the beaten track. Then his maternal uncle questions who ‘that’ god is, and the theme of 'that' poetry, about 'that' god. Then this poem emerged from the depths of heart of Jayadeva about ayam, ‘that god’ and his sequestered deeds. At the last words of this verse, that uncle sprang up to his feet in ire, and almost said to have stifled Jayadeva to death, for uttering such 'blasphemous poetry' on 'that' god.

Then Jayadeva, to stand by his own self declaration as an eminent poet, started to compose the rest of this work, and put the next verse, an invocatory poem, to stylus. Thus, though unconnected, this poem remained at the head of the work as a prologue, preamble etc., in the pattern of aashiirvaada, vastu nirdehsa, mangala aadiini 'a sort of blessings, indicative of the topic of poetry, and for auspicious beginning of the poetic works’ etc which the poets usually employ. Here the love game of Rādha and Mādhava itself became the auspicious, blessing a priori, and content of this poetic work. That way, without naming him as Krishna, Govinda, or Mādhava etc., the poet puts the pronoun on the tongue of Nanda, the father of Krishna, as ayam, ayam bhiiruH... on the lines of kaalidasa, who did the same in his kumaara sambhavam 5 ayam janaaH prahR^iShTa manaaH tapo dhane However, the poet really starts his work with the next verse.

raadhe said by Nanda has three shades; anunaya vaakya 'Rādha, please take him home, for he is still a boy...’ kopa ukti ‘said in anger...' 'Rādha, don't you know that he is boyish and naively timorous... when it is dusking and darkening... what is it you play in nights... you go home, and while going take this fellow also to his home... no night wanderings... '; tattva ukti 'with some subtext... 'Rādha, tvam eva you alone are his, gR^iham 'house, personified by wife you on becoming wife...' praapaya 'make him prosperous...' 'On your account Krishna became a householder; hence you alone lead him forth and enrich his prosperity as his wife...'

Rādha did not get her cherished desire fulfilled in a trice, or at a snap of finger. She had to undergo her historical ordeal, put to test by Krishna. Why should she? When she is willing, when Krishna is at her side, when father Nanda permitted, when her maid encourages her... is she still put to test? These would be the pertinent doubts that arise, though they are not the questions in reality. Yes! She is put to litmus test by this most mischievous Krishna, and she had to shed her tears, sob her sobs, frown her resentments etc. Where all this has happened? On each and every pathway to home, at each and every tree, and in each of the bowers. Krishna seems to be there, but actually he is not there; though he is supposedly unavailable, but his fluting is audible very nearly. So, to depict that a true devotee has to undergo a step by step process for the culmination of his/her ardent desire, the poet indicates that there are many a pathway to tread, many are the trees of wisdom, and many are the bowers to contemplate lonely and solitarily, not only for Rādha but to any devotee. All these are godsend gifts of nature and humans.

The clouds spreading on sky will naturally be many. Here the word meghaiH is also in plural, but the commentators limit them to number nine, without the sense of innumerability, and simile them with the nine states, out of the ten states of love pangs or manmatha avastha s:

manmatha avastha s
dR^ik, manas, sankalpa, jaagaraaH, kR^ishataa, aratiH |
hrii tyaago, unmaada, muurcChaa, antaa, iti ananga dashaa dasha

1] eyeing; 2] heart loosing; 3] endeavour; 4] sleeplessness; 5] shrivelling; 6] disinterestedness in anything; 7] shamelessness; 8] maddening; 9] swooning; 10] trying to end oneself. The word ambaram sky suggests 'openness, sky is the limit for enjoyment; elate yourselves to sky...' And the word vana bhuva 'woodland areas are like heavens, lonely, secluded... thus a secreted heaven is said to be there on earth, on the banks of River Yamuna...' because Krishna is present there. And naktam 'night time' is the proper time for such activity, since it is forbidden from dawn to dusk. And yamunaa kuule 'on the banks of Yamuna, exciting environ of Yamuna, with breezes wafting coolness of Yamuna waters and fragrances of flowers on to its banks. The openness, solitude, rivers, waters, flowers, fragrances, all of them made that place heavenly. Above all, ayam, 'that' god is here. Then what more does a devotee require for his/her dedication, in order to commingle in him physically, in mortal's parlance, and psychically in a devotee's experience.

On the use of ultramundane word maa dhava lakSmii's, husband Vishnu may be observed, even when Krishna is manifestly a mortal, and available just before the eye. Though Krishna is Vishnu and though Rukmini, his first consort, is lakSmii, Krishna's longing for an ephemeral and poetic embodiment called Rādha is more, and it suggests that god is inclined more towards real devotees, rather than for his coequals, like Rukmini or lakSmii and the like.

Aesthetics info for Sanskrit students: The whole work revolves round the following aesthetics. 1] uddipanaa bhaavaaH excitants of mood: clouds, woodlands, night, arbours and bowers, riverside, cool breezes etc; 2] aalambana bhaavaaH mood for devotement: Rādha, Yamuna banks, arbours and bowers, solitude etc.; 3] anu bhaava indicatives of mood timorousness, prudishness, coyness of all characters; 4] vybhicaara bhaavaaH deviating moods ecstasy, fear, interestedness, embarrassment etc; 5] sthaayii bhaavaaH common mood longing, desperation, jealousy, resentment etc., with these moods, it is sambhoga vipralambha sR^ingaara and the metre of this verse is shaarduula vikriiDitam.

Though the moods are available in each foot of whole poem, they may not be brought in here, as they do not mean anything these days. But in a prima donna ish fashion, some are said here. From meghaiH to praapaya it is vipralmbha sR^ingaara; iththam to kelayaH it is sambhoga sR^ingaara; shyaamaa tamaala, radhaamaadhavoH are in anu praasaa aalnnkaara; first part of verse has samuccaya alankaara while the later part is having ashiir alankaara and on total it is said in samshR^iSTi alankaara. And the first verse itself is indicative of the activities of Krishna, and his playful acts, disporting, or the frolicking that is termed as raasa liila, raasa kriiDa, krishna liila, which will be heart pleasing.

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वाग्देवताचरितचित्रितचित्तसद्मा पद्मावतीचरणचारणचक्रवर्ती।
श्रीवासुदेवरतिकेलिकथासमेतम् एतम् करोति जयदेवकविः प्रबन्धम्॥ १-२

पदच्छेद : वाक् देवता चरित चित्रित चित्त सद्मा पद्मावती चरण – चारण
चक्रवर्ती श्री वासुदेव रति केलि कथा समेतम् एतम् करोति जयदेव कविः प्रबन्धम्

1-2. Tiika/word order/meanings: vaak devataa= speech, deity of; charita= with legend of; chitrita chitta sadmaa= depicted, [painted, with murals, embellished with] heart [soul,] [called] house; caraNa= feet; caaraNa= [which are] massaged by; padmaavatii= Goddess lakSmii; chakra vartii= wheel, mover [either His own Sudarshana disc, or the wheel of world, i.e., by the grace of one whose feet are massaged by Goddess lakSmii, Vishnu, the Prime Mover]; padmaavatii= padma= lotus; vatii= on who handles it, [one who is presiding deity of aSTaakShari hymn,] Goddess lakSmii; charaNa = at feet; chaaraNa= by serving; chakravartii = one who became kingly poet; padmaavatii= Padmaavati as proper noun, one named as Padmaavati, poet's wife; caraNa caaraNa= with feet, by moving, by making the feet of his wife Padmaavati to dance; chakra vartii = one who became kingly poet; shrii= epitome of Fortune, lakSmii, here Rādha; vaasudeva= vasu deva = earth's, deity of [Krishna]; rati keli= epithalamic passion [Gr. eros, epithymia, not just love, or lust,] plays; kathaa sametam= episodes, along with [comprising of]; etam= this [one that is abiding in the heart like house with murals, poetic work]; prabandham= poetic work; jayadeva kaviH = Jayadeva [named,] poet; karoti= [he is, or, I am] doing [authoring.]

Saraswati, the presiding Deity of Speech, embellishing his soul with her legends, like a home ever embellished with murals, and he who has become an emperor among poets by his service at the feet of Goddess lakSmii, such a poet Jayadeva is now authoring this poetic lore called Gita Govindam that is so far abiding in such a soul with such murals, which lore comprises the episodes of plays of passion of Rādha and Krishna. [1-2]


Saraswati, the presiding Deity of Speech, embellishing his homelike soul, ever embellished with murals like legends of her literary grace, and he who has become an expert in poetry by the grace of one whose feet are ever massaged by Goddess lakSmii, namely Vishnu or Krishna, who also is the Prime Mover of this world, such a poet Jayadeva is now authoring this poetic lore called Gita Govindam that is so far abiding in such a soul with such murals, which lore comprises the episodes of plays of passion of Rādha and Krishna.


Saraswati, the presiding Deity of Speech, embellishing my soul with her legends, like a home ever embellished with murals, and I who became an emperor among poets by my service at the feet of Goddess lakSmii, and even by the service rendered by my wife Padmaavati, for she tightly fastened my lyrics to tune and rhythm with her dancing feet, such as I am, I the kingly poet Jayadeva, am now authoring this poetic lore called Gita Govindam, which is so far abiding in my soul, an d it comprises the episodes of plays of passion Rādha and Krishna.

This invocation starts with vaak devataa after Kalidasa's vaak arthaav iva sampR^iktau in epic kumaarassambhavam. In those days, poetic narration about one's own wife or about her performing arts was a taboo. Jayadeva pooh poohed this with the above stanza, questioning as to how Satyabhama danced before Krishna, and how Paarvati always dances with always dancing Shiva. Further, devotion does not equate with solitary self surrender, or by hermetic sainthood, or by murmuring hymns singly. That is for devotees of nirguNa brahma and this ' bhaagavata devotion' culminates only when upacaaraa s 'devotional offerings' are offered, and the singing and dancing are the end part of any worship. Even today this custom continues, but only as a lip service, Chatram dhaarayaami, caamaram viijayaami, giita vaadya nR^ityam pradashayaami 'I hold up an parasol, I fan you, I show dance, sing, play music instruments... oh, god give me what I want...' Instead of worshipping with a dialogue, Jayadeva and Padmaavati danced. It is said the Jayadeva recognised not only a dancer in his wife, but a bhaagavatii pratipatti 'female devotee' in her, and thus both have adored their god jointly.

The analogy between Vaasudeva and Jayadeva is vasubhiH diipyata iti vaasudeva 'one shines forth with his wealth...' If Krishna is resplendent with his charm, Jayadeva is glistening with his wordplay. tasya apatyam vaasudeva 'his son is Vaasudeva...' meaning that one who has come out of his indebtedness towards his father, hence a free bird to take his own wings and to flirt as he may. Jayadeva is equally free to flirt away from the orthodoxy of poetics.

Aesthetics: Heart and house are in simile, hence ruupaka alankaara and at sametametam it is anupraa alankaara vyanjana vyR^ittena; kaavya guNa oja; riiti gaudiiya; vR^itti bhaarati metre vasanta tilaka.

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यदि हरिस्मरणे सरसम् मनो यदि विलासकलासु कुतूहलम्।
मधुरकोमलकान्तपदावलीम् शृणु तदा जयदेवसरस्वतीम्॥ १-३

पदच्छेद : यदि हरि स्मरणे सरसम् मनः यदि विलास कलासु
कुतूहलम् मधुर कोमल कांत पद आवलीम् शृणु तदा जयदेव सरस्वतीम्

1-3. hè sat jana gaNa [adhyaahR^ita, ellipted word] = oh, gracious, people, assemblage [rounded off to oh, gracious people]; hari= on Hari, on Krishna; smaraNe= in meditation; manaH = soul; sa rasam= with, elixir [of devotion]; yadi= if, [should it be filled with, plethoric with]; vilaasa= in flirtaceous [women's]; kalaasu= arts [arts of coaxing]; kutuuhalam yadi= curiousness, if [should you have]; tadaa= then; madhura = mellowly; komala = delicate [willowy]; kaanta= heart pleasing [mellifluous]; pada aavaliim= words, medley of; jaya deva= [about] glorious, god Krishna [or, poet Jayadeva's]; sarasvatiim= divine speech, praise song; shR^iNu= be listened.

Oh, gracious people, should your hearts be plethoric with the elixir of devotion for meditating on Krishna, and should you be curious enough about the arts of coaxing of flirtaceous womenkind, then listen to the praise song of Jayadeva on that glorious god Krishna, which is a medley of willowy words, worded mellowly and mellifluously... [1-3]

 This verse will be at 4th place in North Indian versions and in South, it is as above. The word used mathura melodious mellowly, meaning that the words used have shabda gata, artha gata, maadhuryam sound based and meaning based melody. In them sound based melody occurs when harsh sounding consonants like Tha Dha are not used, while the meaning based melody occurs when those words are primarily heart pleasing, yet a little thinking is necessary to derive their meanings, unlike the words of absolute philosophy, which do not give any satisfaction eve after delving deep into them. Again the komala has the two aspects of meaning. In them, sound based delicacy occurs when too much of combining vowels and consonants is not adopted as in nistriaguNya, tymbaka and the like, which usage is called as cakra bandha padma bandha way of compounding. And the word kaanta is also the same, in that the poetic work is desirable for it has sound based lissomness, and meaning based litheness. The usefulness of this verse is hari smaraNa, vilaasa vidya sikShaNa meditation on Krishna, and how the coaxing and combing of womenfolk will be delightfully inciting. Thus, this work's subject matter contains cognizable god in Krishna, if it is mulled over by his cognitive devotees smaarya smaaraka bhaava; diipaka alankaara; paancaalii riiti; kaishikii vR^itti; vR^ittam dR^ita vilambita With this invocatory poem the poet is embarking on the usual prologues necessary for a poetic work.

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वाचः पल्लवयत्युमापतिधरः सन्दर्भशुद्धिम् गिराम्
जानीते जयदेव एव शरणः श्लाघ्यो दुरूहद्रुते।
स्पर्धी कोऽपि न विश्रुतः श्रुतिधरो धोयी कविक्ष्मापतिः॥ १-४

पदच्छेद : वाचः पल्लवयति उमापतिधरः संदर्भ शुद्धिम् गिराम् जानीते जयदेव एव
शरणः श्लाघ्यः दुर् ऊह द्रुते शृंगार उत्तर  सत् प्रमेय रचनैः आचार्य गोवर्धन
स्पर्धी कः अपि न विश्रुतः श्रुतिधरः धोयी कवि क्ष्मा पतिः

1-4. umaapatidharaH= Poet Umaapatidhara, [a contemporary poet of Jayadeva]; vaachaH pallavayati = words, spreads [uses words with prolixity and expansile meanings]; sharaNaH= poet Sharana; dur uuha drute= impossible, to think, in speediness [words are unpronounceably speedy]; shlaaghyaH= praiseworthy [Sharana poet]; shR^ingaara= romance; rachanaiH= with writings; uttara= before [prioritized]; sat= best; prameya= inferable subject of poetic work [or, sat= by scholars, prameya= inferable, knowable; aachaarya govardhana= scholar, poet Govardhana; spardhii= antagonist; kaH api na= anyone, even, not there; shrutidharaH vishrutaH= poet Shrutidhara, renowned [for he is a wordsmith]; dhoyii kavi kShmaa patiH = Dhoyii, poet, poets, king of; [but] giraam= of words; sandarbha shuddhim= situational, pureness [properness] jayadeva eva jaaniite= Jayadeva, alone, knows.


umaapatidharaH vaachaH pallavayati= Umaapatidhara, words, spreads [verbose]; sharaNaH= Sharana poet; dur uuha drute= impossible, to think, in speediness [words are unpronounceably speedy]; shlaaghyaH= praiseworthy [Sharana poet]; shR^ingaara = romance; uttara= before [prioritized]; sat= by his work called saccarita; prameya= inferable [as a poet by his work called saccitra]; rachanaiH= with writings; aachaarya govardhana= for [pedagogic] scholar, poet Govardhana; spardhii= antagonist; kaH api na= anyone, even, not there; dhoyii kavi kShmaa patiH = Dhoyii, poet, poets, king of; shruti dharaH vishrutaH= what he has heard, he retains [parroted poetry,] thus renowned; giraam= of words; sandarbha shuddhim= situational, pureness [properness] jayadeva eva jaaniite= Jayadeva, alone, knows.

Poet Umaapatidhara uses words with prolixity and with expansile meanings; poet Sharana is praiseworthy for his unpronounceable speedy wordplay; none is an antagonist to the scholarly poet Govardhana, for he inferentially prioritises romance; poet Shrutidhara is renowned as an expert wordsmith; poet Dhoyii is a king among poets; but poet Jayadeva alone knows the situational properness of words and wordplay. [1-4]


Poet Umaapatidhara is verbose with prolix words and expansile meanings, hence he is a poetaster with strident and shrilly words vaagaaDambaram; poet Sharana is praiseworthy for his unpronounceable speedy wordplay, hence he is unintelligible and unexplainable; none is an antagonist to the scholarly poet Govardhana, for he prioritises romance alone, and when he is bereft of other aesthetics he is unfit to be called as a pedagogic scholar, namely aachaarya, for his treatise on alankaara shaastra named aaryaa sapta shati; poet Dhoyii, a self styled king of poets, is renowned for his parroted poetry, thus he is hardly a poet; but poet Jayadeva alone knows the situational properness of words and wordplay, hence he alone is the poet of the day...

 The second meaning is not a ridicule thrown at other poets, but it is like 'throwing hat in the ring...' and avowed declaration that he alone is good at poetry. It was a practice to say one or two verses in praise of good poets and in scorn at bad poets su kavi prashamsa, ku kavi ninda. This is in samuccaya alnkaara; shaarduula vikriiDitam is its metre.

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अष्ट पदि १-दशावतार कीर्ति धवलम्

aSTa padi 1-dasha avataara kiirti dhavalam

From here on the aSTa padi-s will be coming. These will be in eight footed stanzas, with a repeatable stanza at their end. Though all the stanzas are a single verse, they will be divided into separate units for the sake of easy reading and for easy incorporation of comment section. These aSThapadi-s will not be given a ruuning number, but they are numbered separately. Here they are given numbers like a pa1-1-, a pa 2, where a pa represents aSTa padi, eight footed verse, 1, and 1, 2, 3 are  its units.


प्रलयपयोधिजले धृतवानसि वेदम् । विहितवहित्रचरित्रमखेदम्॥
केशवाधृतमीनशरीर जयजगदीशहरे॥ अ प १-१

पदच्छेद : प्रलय पयोधि जले धृतवान् असि वेदम् विहित वहित्र
चरित्रम् अखेदम् केशव धृत मीन शरीर जय जगत् ईश हरे

a pa 1-1. dhR^ita miina shariira= on donning, fish's, body; keshava= oh, Keshava; pra laya= completely, commingled [deluged]; payodhi= oceans' [all common nouns, jaati eka vacana]; jale= in waters; vihita= make do [improvising]; vahitra= [like a] ship; charitram= legendary; vedam= Veda s;

Or, vihita vahitra charitram vedam vihita = those that are preordained to be; vahitra charitram= ships’, history – on the analogy of ships; vedam= Vedas; Vedas that are preordained to be analogous to ships in transporting souls to other side of life’s seashore;

a+khedam= without, weariness [indefatigably]; dhR^itavaan asi= upheld, you are; jagat iisha= worlds, the Almighty of; hare= oh, Hari; jaya= hail to thee.

When all the waters of all seven seas deluged the earth, oh, keshava, donning the body of a fish you indefatigably upheld all the four Veda s, which by themselves are foreordained to be analogous to ships in transporting souls to the other shore of life, thereby oh, Hari, you are the Almighty of all the worlds,  hail to thee... [a pa 1-1]

 The word Keshava is a formation of ka iisha va where kaH is Brahma; iisha is Shiva; va born from Vishnu; ka iti brahmaNo nAma eSo aham sarva dehinaam avaam ta ange sambhuutau tasmaat keshavo naamavaan nirukta bhaaSyam. Thus Brahma and Shiva are born from the body of Vishnu. jagadiisha 'you are the controller of all worlds and when they have become uncontrollable you set them in order... that too indefatigably, hence we are reassured of your presence...' Hari 'he who steals away the troubles of his adherents...' sthaayii bhaava utsaaha; rasa viira; naayaka lakShaNa dhiira lalita; alankaara upama; atishayokti; riiti artha maagadhi  Next, the incarnation of tortoise is taken up, sequentially. Now let us see some of the dance gestures for this stanza from nritya lakShaNa samhita:

प्रलय पताक उपरि परि मर्दित पताकेन गगन दृष्ट्या च। पयोधि जले अधः स्वस्तिकी कृत विच्युत ऊर्ध्व तल पताकाभ्याम्। धृतवान् असि अधो देशात् उद्धृत मुष्टिना। वेदम् पुरस्थल निकुंचकेन। विहित शनैः अधर तली कृत मुष्टिकेन। वहित्र चलित अंगुष्ट कर प्रसारित पुष्प वृष्टेन। चरित्रम् प्रसारित ऊर्ध्व तल पताकेन। अखेदम् हृद् गत पताकेन मुकुलया दृष्ट्या च। केशव केशव बन्धेन। धृत आवर्‌तनेन कृत मुष्टिना। मीन शरीर मकर हस्तकेन। जय उद्‌ द्धृत्त हस्तकेन। जगदीश ललाट स्थान अंजलिना। हरे विष्णव स्थानकेन इति नृत्य लक्षण संहित


क्षितिरतिविपुलतरे तवतिष्ठतिपृष्ठे।धरणिधरणकिणचक्रगरिष्ठे

केशव धृतकच्छपरूप जयजगदीशहरे॥ अ प १-२

पदच्छेद : क्षितिः अति विपुल तरे तव तिष्ठति पृष्ठे धरणि धरण
किण चक्र गरिष्ठे केशव धृत कच्छप रूप जय जगदीश हरे

a pa 1-2. dhR^ita kacChapa ruupa= assuming, tortoise, form; ati vipula tare= very, wide, much in degree [widest, or massive]; dharaNi= one that is sustained by earth – mountain; dharaNa= by bearing the weight of such a Mt. Manthara when Milky Ocean was churned; kiNa= crustaceous [back], shell became crustaceous with hexagonal crusts by the friction of Mt. manthara; chakra gariShThe = circular, on carapace shell of tortoise; tava pR^iShThe= on your, back; kShitiH tiShThati = earth, is abiding; keshava jagadiisha hare = as above; jaya= as above.

Assuming the form of a tortoise, oh, Keshava, you positioned earth on your tortoiseshell that has already became crustaceous when Mt. manthara rasped it during the churning of Milky Ocean, whereby the earth is unsinkably abiding on your back, even today... thereby, oh, Hari, you are the Almighty of worlds,  hail to thee... [a pa 1-2]

 This tortoise lifted Mt. manthara once, and later the earth from sinkage into waters. The word tiSThati is in the tense of vartamaana nirdesha 'present continuous' so the earth is on the back of that tortoise, even today.


वसति दशनशिखरे धरणीतवलग्ना ।शशिनि कलङ्ककलेव निमग्ना॥
केशव धृतसूकररूप जयजगदीशहरे॥ अ प १-३

पदच्छेद : केशव धृत सूकर रूप वसति दशन शिखरे धरणी तव लग्ना
शशिनि कलंक कल इव निमग्ना केशव धृत सूकर रूप जय जगदीश हरे

a pa 1-3. dhR^ita suukara ruupa= on assuming, wild boar's, form; keshava= o, keshava; tava dashana shikhare= on your, fang's, edge; lagnaa dharaNii= became stuck, earth; shashini nimagnaa = in moon, embedded; kalaN^ka kala iva= blemish's, streak, like; vasati= is lodged; jagadiisha hare jaya = as above.

Assuming the form of a wild boar, Oh, Keshava, you lifted up the sinking earth with your snout, but stuck and lodged on the edge of your otherwise blemishless fangs, she looked more like the blemish embedded on the otherwise blemishless moon, yet you, as an eternal sustainer of earth, allowed her to abide and spin there, whereof oh, Hari, you are the Almighty of worlds, hail to thee... [a pa 1-3]

 Krishna, earth, and wild boar are black; while boar's fang and crescentic moon like fang are white. While the earth is spinning on the tip of fang, its blackness is appearing as the deer mark in the moon. The earth is, in a way, a blemish to god for he created it, but it separated itself from him, and its inmates always do certain deeds that bring more blemishes to him.

The gods do not come into physical contact with earth and earthlings. If gods have an errand on earth they have to transmogrify their forms to dwell on earth. If any earthling goes into the realm of gods, it is a blemish on the gods who entertained them. Here, blemish or otherwise Hari is bearing earth on his fang.


तव करकमलवरे नखमद्भुतशृङ्गम् । दलितहिरण्यकशिपुतनुभृङ्गम्॥
केशव धृतनरहरिरूप जयजगदीशहरे॥ अ प १-४

पदच्छेद : तव कर कमल वरे नखम् अद्भुत शृंगम् दलित
हिरण्यकशिपु  तनु भृंगम् केशव धृत नर हरि रूप जय जगदीश हरे

a pa 1-4. dhR^ita nara hari ruupa= on assuming, man, lion, form; keshava= hè kashava; tava kara kamala vare= on your, hand, [called] lotus, the best; adbhuta shR^iN^gam = wondrous, tip – fingers that have a wondrous nails; dalita hiraNya kashipu = that have lacerated, hiraNyakashyapa's; tanu bhR^iN^gam= body, [called a] honeybee; nakham [bhaati]= such nails,[shine forth]; jagadiisha hare= as above; jaya= hail to thee.

Assuming the form of man lion, oh, Keshava, you with your lotusy palms that have wondrous nails tore the stony bodied demon hiraNyakashyapa, as wondrous as a petaline tine rending hard bodied honeybee, thus those fingernails ever shine forth for their elimination of vice on earth, whereby oh, Hari, you are the Almighty of worlds,  hail to thee... [a pa 1-4]

The petalum in Late Latin means ‘metal plate’. It is usual for a honeybee to sting and lacerate delicate lotuses for nectar. But lotus lacerating thick skinned honeybee is unusual. Though the palms of god are like delicate petals of lotus, they have very sharp and slashing tips of fingernails, like the claws of lion, only to bisect thick skinned vice, called monstrosity. Hence those tips of fingernails ever shine forth as a warning for evil. alankaara ruupaka.

छलयसि विक्रमणे बलिमद्भुतवामन । पदनखनीरजनितजनपावन॥

केशव धृतवामनरूप जयजगदीशहरे॥ अ प १-५

पदच्छेद : छलयसि विक्रमणे बलिम् अद्भुत वामन पद
नख नीर जनित जन पावन केशव धृत वामन रूप जय जगदीश हरे

a pa 1-5. adbhuta= oh, astounding one; vaamana= oh, demon eliminator; pada nakha niira janita jana paavana pada nakha= from foot's, toenail; niira janita= with water, that emerged; jana paavana= people, oh, sanctifier of; dhR^ita vaamana ruupa= when assumed, dwarf's, mien; vikramaNe= while treading [three worlds]; balim chhalayasi= Emperor Bali, is being deluded; jagadiisha hare= as above; jaya= hail to thee.

Oh, astounding one, oh, eliminator of demons, oh, sanctifier of people with the water that has emerge from your toenail, namely River ganga, oh, deluder of antagonists like Emperor Bali when you incarnated as a dwarf boy, whereby oh, Hari, you are the Almighty of worlds,  hail to thee... [a pa 1-5]

When Vishnu took incarnation of dwarf boy he seeks donation of a three foot space from Emperor Bali, and Bali being a no naysayer, accords it. Then the dwarf covers entire earth with one foot, entire heaven with the second, and asks Bali where to keep the third. Bali shows his head and the boy places his third foot on the head of Bali, subduing Bali to netherworlds. In doing so, when that dwarf boy raises his foot to cover heavens, his toe goes straight to the presence of Brahma. Observing that toe as his father Vishnu's toe, Brahma anoints it with sacred waters. When that dwarf boy withdraws his foot from heaven to place it on Bali's head, then the sacred water poured on that toenail by Brahma, rushed onto earth as River Ganga. Here the poet is saying that Bali is being deluded each time in each cycle of eras, as a present continuous action.

क्षत्रियरुधिरमये जगदपगतपापम् । स्नपयसि पयसि शमितभवतापम्।
केशव धृतभृघुपतिरूप जयजगदीशहरे॥ अ प १-६

पदच्छेद : क्षत्रिय रुधिरमये जगत् अपगत पापम् स्नपयसि पयसि
शमित भव तापम् केशव धृत भृघु पति रूप जय जगदीश हरे

a pa 1-6. dhR^ita bhR^ighu pati ruupa= on assuming, sage Bhrigu's legatee [Parashu Rama,] saviour's, mien; keshava= o, keshava; kShatriya rudhira maye= Kshatriya, blood, filled up with; payasi= in such waters [pools of blood]; apagata paapam= swerved off, sin; shamita bhava taapam= ceased, worldly, torridity; jagat= world [people]; snapayasi= you make them to bathe [in pools of blood of kings]; jagadiisha hare= as above; jaya= hail to thee.

Assuming the mien of Parashu Rama, the saviour of the world, Oh, keshava, you filled five pools called shamanta pancaka with the blood of atrocious Kshatriya kings, and making the world to bathe in it, thus ceased is the worldly torridity of people and swerved are their sins, whereby oh, Hari, you are the Almighty of worlds, hail to thee... [a pa 1-6]

 In this rasa bhiibhasta; naayaka dhiiroddhata; alankaara svabhaavokti are its aesthetics.

वितरसि दिक्षु रणे दिक्पतिकमनीयम् । दशमुखमौलिबलिम् रमणीयम्॥
केशव धृतरामशरीर जयजगदीशहरे॥ अ प १-७

पदच्छेद : वितरसि दिक्षु रणे दिक् पति कमनीयम् दश मुख
मौलि बलिम् रमणीयम् केशव धृत राम शरीर जय जगदीश हरे

a pa 1-7. dhR^ita raama shariira [or, raghupati ruupa] = on assuming, Rama's, body; keshava= o, keshava; dikShu= in all directions, dik pati kamaniiyam = directions, presiding deity namely indra, or the presiding deities of directions, as desired by [him, or them]; ramaNiiyam= heart pleasing, much wanted act; dasha mukha mauli = ten, faced demon, [octahedron Ravana's], heads; balim raNe vitarasi= as offertories, in war, you are generously giving; jagadiisha hare= as above; jaya= hail to thee.

Assuming the form of Rama, O, keshava, you are generously offering the ten heads of Ravana as offertories in a ritual called war, which is a much sought after act by the lord and every presiding deity of all ten directions of compass, whereby oh, Hari, as an eliminator of evil ever and anon, you are the Almighty of worlds, hail to thee... [a pa 1-7]

 The act is heart pleasing because there are ten presiding deities of quarters and Ravana has ten heads, and the sacrifice is symmetrical; hence, heart pleasing to us, and even to those ten deities like Air god, Fire god, and Rain god et al. Ravana was a terror to these ten gods. When Ravana comes out, airgod fears to be gusty, firegod become coolant, not a drop of rain falls on his body so says Ramayana. naayaka dhirodaata; alankara – jaatyalankaara.

Next, though the incarnation of Krishna is to be eulogised as per rule raamo raamaH ca kR^iSNaH ca, but bala rama's incarnation is also taken up, according to another flex of this rule vanjau vanjau kharvaH tri raamii sa tapo.atapaH And even non Vedic Buddha is also narrated in here. Thus, the devotional scripts do not care for isms.

वहसि वपुषिविशदेवसनम् जलदाभम् । हलहतिभीतिमिलितयमुनाभम्॥
केशव धृतहलधररूप जयजगदीशहरे॥ अ प १-८

पदच्छेद : वहसि वपुषि विशदे वसनम् जलद अभम् हल हति भीति
मिलित यमुन आभम् केशव धृत हल धर रूप जय जगदीश हरे

a pa 1-8. dhR^ita hala dhara ruupa = on assuming, plough, wielder, form of; keshava= o, keshava; vishade vapuShi= on whitish, body; jala da aabham= water, giver [cloud,] in shine with; hala hati bhiiti milita= by plough, hit, fear blent with; yamuna aabham = like River Yamuna, in shine; vasanam vahasi= raiment, you bear [you are clad in]; jagadiisha hare= as above; jaya= hail to thee.

Assuming the form of plough wielding bala raama, Oh, Keshava, you are clad in blackish raiment on your whitish body, which robe resembles the black rain giving cloud and rippling black waters of River Yamuna, for she always ripples afraid of a smite from your plough, whereby oh, Hari, as a controller of natural resources, you are the Almighty of worlds, hail to thee...  [a pa 1-8]

 Once bala raama laid hold of River Yamuna to gratify his desire and when she did not yield he beleaguers her. This is according to mythology. According to water management, he changed the course of her flow by digging a mammoth tunnel with his forceful plough for irrigation purposes. Thus, Yamuna is always fearful of bala raama, as she is unaware as to how many more tunnels he is going to dig and alter her course.

निन्दति यज्ञविधेरहह श्रुतिजातम् । सदयहृदयदर्शितपशुघातम्॥
केशव धृतबुद्धशरीर जयजगदीशहरे॥ अ प १-९

पदच्छेद : निन्दति यज्ञ विधेः अ ह ह श्रुति जातम् सदय हृदय
दर्शित पशु  घातम् केशव धृत बुद्ध शरीर जय जगदीश हरे

a. pa. 1-9. dhR^ita buddha shariira= on assuming, Buddha's, body; sa daya hR^idaya= with, kindness, in heart; o, keshava; shruti jaatam= scriptural words, collection of; yaj~na vidheH= in Vedic rituals, methods of; darshita= shown [taught by scriptures]; pashu ghaatam= animal, killing; nindati= fault finding; a ha ha= aha, aha, aha [expression of surprise]; jagadiisha hare= as above; jaya= hail to thee.

Assuming the body of kind hearted Buddha, O, keshava, you find fault with the animal sacrifices in the methods of Vedic rituals taught by scriptures, and even with the collection of those scriptural words themselves, what a revamp in religious methods... aha, aha, aha, whereby oh, Hari, as a modifier of system you are the Almighty of worlds, hail to thee...  [a pa 1-9]

म्लेच्छनिवहनिधने कलयसिकरवालम् । धूमकेतुमिव किमपिकरालम्॥
केशव धृतकल्किशरीर जयजगदीशहरे॥ अ प १-१०

पदच्छेद : म्लेच्छ निवह निधने कलयसि करवालम् धूम केतुम् इव
किम् अपि करालम् केशव धृत कल्कि शरीर जय जगदीश हरे

a pa 1-10. dhR^ita kalki shariira= on assuming, Kalki, body of; o, keshava; mlecCha nivaha nidhane= fractious, groups of race, in eliminating; karaalam = a dreadful one sword; dhuumaketum iva= a comet with smoky tail, as with [or, dhuuma ketu= smoke, as symbol]; Kalki wields a sword whose golden handle is compared to burning fire, and bloodstained blade with red smoke]; karavaalam= sword,;  kalayasi= you are brandishing; kim api= why, even [what to tell further, unimaginable to detail them];

Aassuming the form of Kalki at the end of Kali yuga, O, keshava, you will be brandishing a comet like sword to eliminate the groups of fractious races, and unimaginable are your horrendous deeds to detail, hence oh, Hari, you are the Almighty of worlds, thus hail to thee... [a pa 1-10]

 The appearance of a comet in the sky is a bad omen and when that comet hits the earth it is still worse. And when Kalki brandishes his sword as gods brandish comets, it is unimaginable and that suggests the end of that era. naayaka dhiirodaatta; rasa bhayaanaka.

Next, the poet is mingling all of these incarnations into Krishna's incarnation, along with an appeal to listen to his poetry in his glory.

श्रीजयदेवकवेरिदमुदितमुदारम् । शृणु सुखदम् शुभदम् भवसारम्।
केशव धृतदशविधरूप जयजगदीशहरे॥ अ प १-११

पदच्छेद : श्री जयदेव कवेः इदम् उदितम् उदारम् शृणु सुख दम्
शुभ दम् भव सारम् केशव धृत दश विध रूप जय जगदीश हरे

a pa 1-11-. jagadiisha hare= as above; dhR^ita dasha vidha ruupa= one who can assume, ten, kinds, of forms; o, keshava; udaaram = excellent one; sukha dam= comfort, giver [blithesome]; shubha dam= wellbeing, giver [blissful]; bhava saaram= worldly life, having pith [to get release from it]; jayadeva kaveH= Jayadeva, by poet; uditam= articulated by; idam= this; shrii= shrii suukti= auspicious saying; shR^iNu= you listen; jaya= hail to thee.

Oh, Keshava, O, Hari, the Almighty of worlds who assumed ten kinds of forms for the sake of humanity, pray, listen to this auspicious articulation of poet Jayadeva, which has an excellent pith and kernel of worldly living, and will be an aid for blissful and blithesome release from this world, hail to thee... [a pa 1-11]

With this stanza the poet is dedicating his work in his god and asking him to bear testimony for his work. And if Krishna endorses his work, this will be as good as canonised by him, so that this work will become a valid devotional song. rasa shaanta; alankaara paryaayokti. The poet is summarising all these incarnations that are so far said separately. This can be sung in maalava raaga; ruupaka taala.

Verse Locator

वेदानुद्धरते जगन्निवहते भूगोलमुद्बिभ्रते
दैत्यम् दारयते बलिम् छलयते क्षत्रक्षयम् कुर्‌वते।
पौलस्त्यम् जयते हलम् कलयते कारुण्यमातन्वते
म्लेच्छान्मूर्च्छयते दशाकृतिकृते कृष्णाय तुभ्यम् नमः॥ १-५

पदच्छेद : वेदान् उद्धरते जगत् निवहते भू गोलम् उद् बिभ्रते
दैत्यम् दारयते बलिम् च्छलयते क्षत्र क्षयम् कुर्‌वते
पौलस्त्यम् जयते हलम् कलयते कारुण्यम् आतन्वते
म्लेच्छान् मूर्च्छयते दश अकृति कृते कृष्णाय  तुभ्यम् नमः

1-5. vedaan uddharate= Veda s, one who revives; jagat nivahate= world, one who bears up; bhuu golam ut bibhrate= earth, globe of, up, lifted to support; daityam daarayate= demon [Hiranyakashyapa,] one who slashed; balim cChalayate= Bali, one who deluded; kShatra kShayam kurvate= Kshatriya s, annihilation, one who does; paulastyam jayate= Pulasya's legatee, namely Ravana, one who conquers; halam kalayate= plough, one who wields; kaaruNyam aatanvate= pity [non violence,] one who fosters; mlecChaan muurcChayate= fractious races, one makes them to swoon [mangler of]; dasha akR^iti kR^ite= ten, semblances, one who puts on; kR^iShNaaya tubhyam namaH= [such as he is] Krishna, for you, my reverence.

As a reviver of Veda s as a fish, bearer of this earth as tortoise, uplifter and supporter of earth as wild boar, slasher of Hiranyakashyapa as lion man, deluder of Bali as dwarf boy, annihilator of Kshatriya s as Parashu Rama, conqueror of Ravana, the legatee of Paulastya, as Rama, wielder of plough as bala raama, fosterer of non violence as Buddha, mangler of fractious races as Kalki, you alone can put on ten semblances, thus oh, Krishna, my reverences are unto you... [1-5]

In all the incarnations Vishnu has not taken a selfsame physique excepting in Krishna incarnation. Vishnu will be in his milky abode and Krishna is brought up in a milky environ. Vishnu comfortably reclines on Thousand hooded serpent, while Krishna has never been in any uncomfortable position like Rama, Parashu Rama, and Vishnu has three wives whereas Krishna is having eight of them, so on and so forth. Hence, the poet is focussing his attention on Krishna alone. alankaara diipaka; cChandam kiiti dhavala; shaarduula vikriiDitam is its metre. With this, the auspicious beginning of the poetic work is over and he is entering into the subject matter of this work. In the next verse, the poet is extolling his lead character Krishna and his attributes and endowments.

Verse Locator

अष्ट पदि २ हरि विजय मंगलाचरण

aSTa padi 2 hari vijaya mangalaa caraNa


श्रितकमलाकुचमण्डल धृतकुण्डल ए ।
कलितललितवनमाल जय जय देव हरे॥ अ प २ १-

पदच्छेद : श्रित कमला कुच मण्डल धृत कुण्डल ए कलित ललित वनमाल जय जय देव हरे

a pa 2 1-. jaya= hail; shrita= sheltered [whorled, embraced]; kamalaa= by Goddess lakSmii’s [where kamalam is lotus, she who abides in lotus]; kucha maNDala= bosomy, roundlets bust; dhR^ita= bedecked; kuNDala= ear knobs; e= this is aalaapana and can be taken as a an addressing, or as ye = he who is wearing; [this is musicians delight and dropped in dance treatises]; kalita= adorned with; lalita= exquisite; vanamaala = garland knotted with Tulasi, Ocimum sanctum, basil, leaves and other flowers; deva= one who accords felicity, one who manifests by his self luminosity; hare= Hari, viz., one who steals sins of adherers, here, Krishna; jaya= hail to thee.

Hail thee… for thine chest is ever whorled in the embrace of Goddess lakSmii with her bosomy bust; which chest is ever adorned with an unfading garland of basil leaves and flowers that dangles unto thy knee; thine ears ever bedecked with golden knobby ear hangings studded with nine jewels; thus to thee, the felicitous sin removing self luminosity called Krishna, hail to thee… [a pa 2 1]

At the very start of extolling his hero of his poetic work, the poet has gone straight to the bosomy busts of hero’s consort, and to hear this, it primarily appears to be an erotic word, and if the hearer happens to be an Oedipus, he will be excited even by his mother’s mammaries. But here Goddess lakSmii is the Supreme Mother and she has Divine mammae, and let millions and millions take birth, she can feed them, indefatigably. Similar is the word used for lalita in lalita sahasra naamaavali kaThina sthana maNDalaa… as one among many of her motherly attributes.

Here lakSmii, the personified fortune, is abiding in the lotus like heart of Vishnu, say Krishna, thus undifferentiated are the chests, either as that of a male or as the bust of a female. She is said to be shrita whorled around him like a climbing plant onto a tree. So, the poet attempts to distinguish which is which, and says that he is wearing a garland of basil leaves and flowers, which he alone wears, hence recognise him as Krishna. Because he is so tightly embraced by the personified fortune, he never becomes a pauper and he ever endows shelter under that absolute fortune to his devotees, called aashraya Niiyatvam. So, anyone can seek for his shelter, as such he is called shrayaH patiH Omni shelterer, of course, under the aegis of Goddess lakSmii. Without her he is nothing. And vanamaala indicates hale and healthiness, thus ready to spring to his feet in the period of crisis, i.e., Omnipotent. Ear knobs indicate learnedness, for they were accorded according to one’s own scholarliness, called makara kuNDala, candra kuNDala, like the present day graduate / post graduate gowns and headgears. Hence, this is indicative of his Omniscience.

Envisioning Krishna from top to toe indicates his supreme and auspicious physique divya mangala vigraham besides deified fortune is in his heart. Hence he alone is adorable.

दिनमणीमण्दलमण्डन भवखण्डन ए ।
मुनिजनमानसहंस जय जयदेव हरे॥ अ प २ २

पदच्छेद : दिन मणि मण्दल मण्डन भव खण्डन मुनि जन मानस हन्स जय जय देव हरे

a pa 2 2. jaya= hail; dina maNi = day’s, jewel, namely sun; maNdala= his sphere like [self glowing solar system like]; maNDana= an embellisher, one having such form Krishna; bhava khaNDana= present world [karmic cycle,] one who whittles; muni jana= for saintly, people; maanasa= mind [called, maanasa sarovar]; hansa= a swan; jaya deva hare= as above.

Hail thee… though yond and yonder, thou art functional from within the solar system, where that sun is just a gem of solar system, while thou art an embellisher of that system in its entirety; as a swan swims in maanasa sarovar, a blissful lake in Himalayas, thou swimmest in the minds of saintly people; thus whittle, whittle the karmic cycles of thy saintly devotees; thus to thee, the felicitous sin remover called Krishna, hail to thee… [a pa 2 2]

 It is easy to say that 'thou hast the semblance of sun... thine form is brilliant like sun...' But it is reverse. Sun is brilliant like you because you are the embellisher of solar system... Thou, from whom the day star derived his effulgence... as SWJ hast put it, would be nearest, because maNDana is the embellisher of dina maNi maNDala.

This connotes Vedic import in saying that Supreme Person, who is far beyond the solar orbit, but functional through solar system. In iishaavaasyopanishad, at hymn 1-5, we hear the following mantra, hymn.

ॐ हिरण्म्यये पात्रस्यापिहित मुखम् । तत् त्वम् पूषन् अपांवृणु सत्य धर्माय दृष्टये॥

hiraNmayeNa paatreNa= by golden, disc like lid; satyasya= of truth; mukham= face; apihitam= covered; tat tvat= that, yours; apaavR^iNu= slide aside; satya dharmaaya= I as truthful, righteous one; dR^iSTaye= to visualise, [that which is beyond you.]

On looking at the rising red sun, the devotee is asking "Oh! Pooshan! God Sun, nourisher of the universe, the trueness of the Supreme Person is covered by your golden disk like lid, i.e., your solar disk, slide it aside, for as a truthful and righteous devotee, I aspire to visualise that which is beyond your golden solar disc…

 The jewel of the day etc., indicate while sun is a friendly entity to humans, Krishna is far more friendlier to them, as he has sthira sakhitvam ever friendly like sun; saamarthyam capability to alleviate from the troubles of karmic cycles; sat sahavaasam amiable fraternity.

Extolling him in this way indicates that he alone has accorded release to many a saintly soul. Hence, he alone is to be venerated for he not only accords deliverance, but also becomes a blissful partner during lifetime.

कालियविषधरगञ्जन जनरञ्जन ए ।
यदुकुलनलिनदिनेश जय जय देव हरे॥ अ प २ ३

पदच्छेद : कालिय विष धर गंजन जन रंजन यदु कुल नलिन दिन ईश जय जय देव हरे

a pa 2 3. jaya= hail; kaaliya= one called Kaaliiya, multi hooded serpent; viSha dhara= venom, bearer of; ganjana = abominator of; jana ranjana= people, fascinator of; yadu kula= yadu, lineage; nalina= [called] lotus; dina iisha= day, ruler of sun; jaya deva hare= as above.

Hail thee… for thou art the abominator of venomous multi hooded serpent called Kaaliiya, thus thou hast become the fascinator of people; as the sun makest a lotus abloom, thou art the sun for the bloom of  lotus called yadu’s lineage, O, Krishna, hail to thee… [a pa 2 3]

 His capability in abominating and eradicating enemies, thereby his gladdening the panicked friends, his impeccable lineage are extolled, making the poetic attributes of hero sublime, called uttama naayaka lakShaNa.

He incarnates himself on earth to save people from the torture imposed by certain negative forces. Therefore he alone is worship worthy, for he incarnates himself. So, let us hail him.

मधुमुरनरकविनाशन गरुडासन ए ।
सुरकुलकेलिनिदान जय जय देव हरे॥ अ प २ ४

पदच्छेद : मधु मुर नरक विनाशन गरुड आसन सुर कुल केलि निदान जय जय देव हरे

a pa 2 4. jaya= hail; madhu mura naraka= Madhu, Mura, Naraka demons; vinaashana = annihilator of; garuDa aasana= Garuda, the Divine Eagle, as your seat [as vehicle]; sura kula= gods, stock of; keli= for their disporting; nidaana= prime cause; jaya jayadeva hare= as above.

Hail thee… for thou art the annihilator of endangering demons like Madhu, Mura, and Naraka; sitting on thine fleetly Divine Eagle Garuda thou art fleetest in attending devotees' straits; thus to thee, the prime causer of unhindered disporting for the stock of devout divinities, O, Krishna, hail to thee… [a pa 2 4]

The basic function of gods is to attend to the problems of ordinary, in time; eliminate evildoers like these demons, any time, and to enjoy living, every time.

अमलकमलदललोचन भवमोचन् ए ।
त्रिभुवनभवननिधान जय जय देव हरे॥ अ प २ ५

पदच्छेद : अमल कमल दल लोचन भव मोचन त्रि भुवन भवन निधान जय जय देव हरे

a pa 2 5. jaya= hail; a+mala= not, blemished [dispassionate, unbigoted not pure, clean etc]; kamala dala= white lotus, petal [like]; lochana= eyed one; bhava mochan= mundane life, releaser; tri bhuvana = triad, of worlds; bhavana= becoming, [manifestation]; nidhaana= prime cause [or, as in other mms: tri bhuvana = triad of worlds]; bhavana= called a housing; nidhaana= in dweller, or a treasure trove; jaya deva hare= as above.

Hail thee… for thou art the prime cause for the manifestation of a residence for the triad of worlds; thou art the releaser of devotees from mundane existence with thine lotus petaline eyes that are unbigoted, O, Krishna, hail to thee… [a pa 2 5]

 Because the hero is said to be the releaser or saviour his attribute is parama aananda lakShaNa, everlasting blissfulness.

जनकसुताकृतभूषण जितदूषण ए ।
समरशमितदशखण्ठ जय जय देव हरे॥ अ प २ ६

पदच्छेद : जनक सुता कृत भूषण जित दूषण समर शमित दश खण्ठ जय जय देव हरे

a pa 2 6. jaya= hail; janaka sutaa= Janaka’s, daughter, Seetha; kR^ita bhuuShaNa= made you, as her ornament; jita duuShANa= conquered [mitigated,] demon Dushana is; samara shamita = in war, mollified; dasha khaNTha= ten, throated one, octahedron Ravana; jaya jayadeva hare= as above.

Hail thee… for Janaka’s  daughter Seetha made thee as her pendant ornament, for thou repose on her bust, thus to thee, the mitigator of demon Dushana and the mollifier of octahedral Ravana in a given war, hail to thee… [a pa 2 6]

  There is another shade for ‘an ornament to Seetha'. Rama decorates and paints foliate designs on the body of Seetha, with an erasable tattooing. Thus, it means that no less than Rama made decorations on Seetha. Secondly, when Seetha was ill at ease to wear sari of an anchoress, when given by Kaikeyi while going to forests, Rama demonstrates the folding, tying, and wearing of that dress. Thus by these two, the hero is qualified not only as a romantic hero, but a knower of all arts sarva kalaa vishaarada. As a brave and bold enemy subjugator, Rama is depicted as releaser from mortality, by releasing demon Dushana from mortality which is kaaruNya bhaava; by mollifying the self conceit of Ravana, his taaruNya bhaava are indicated.

अभिनवजलधरसुन्दर धृतमन्दर ए ।
श्रीमुखचन्द्रचकोर जय जय देव हरे॥ अ प २ ७

पदच्छेद : अभिनव जल धर सुन्दर धृत मन्दर श्री मुख चन्द्र चकोर जय जय देव हरे

a pa 2 7. jaya= hail; abhinava= freshly new; jala dhara= water, bearer [black cloud]; sundara= handsome like that cloud; dhR^ita mandara= sustainer, of Mt. mandara, or Manthara; shrii mukha chandra = who for Goddess lakSmii’s, face, moon for moonlike face of shrii; chakora= chakora bird; jaya deva hare= as above.

Hail thee… for thou art handsome like a fresh and vapoury blue black raincloud, yet thou sustained voluminous Mt. mandara when Milky Ocean was churned; yet thou, like a tenuous chakora bird that gazes at the moon to swill moonshine, art gazing at the moonlike face of Goddess lakSmii to swill her sheen, hail to thee… a pa [2 7]

 So far the personality of Supreme Person is portrayed with his attributes and endowments svaruupa ruupa guNa vibhuuti and now the poet is appealing on his own, and on behalf of fellow devotees to bestow beneficence.

तवचरणे प्रणतावयमिति भावय ए ।
कुरुकुशलम् प्रणतेषु जय जय देव हरे॥ अ प २ ८

पदच्छेद : तव चरणे प्रणता वयम् इति भावय कुरु कुशलम् प्रणतेषु जय जय देव हरे

a pa 2 8. jaya= hail; hare= oh, Krishna; tava caraNe praNataa= at your, feet, adoring; vayam= we are; iti bhaavaya= thus, you deem; kuru kushalam= make happen, blessing; praNateShu= among adorers; jaya deva= as above.

Hail to thee, oh, Krishna, deem that we adore your own feet and nothing else, thus let your adorers be blest by your blessing, and thus, oh, felicitous sin remover, hail to thee… [a pa 2 8]

 This verse may not be found in other mms. Next the poet is taking up the closing verse of this eight foot verse aSTa padi.

श्रीजयदेवकवेरिदम् कुरुते मुदम् ए ।
मङ्गलमुज्ज्वलगीतम् जय जय देव हरे॥ अ प २ ९

पदच्छेद : श्री जयदेव कवेः इदम् कुरुते मुदम् मंगलम् उज्ज्वल गीतम् जय जय देव हरे

a pa 2 9. shrii hare= oh, Shri Krishna; ujjvala= brilliant; giitam [or, giiti]= song; idam jayadeva kaveH= this one, by Jayadeva, poet; maN^galam= auspicious [te= to you]; mudam kurute= rejoice, making; jaya jaya deva= hail, hail, oh, god. Or, idam mangalm giitam= this, auspicious, song; jayadeva kaveH mudam kurute= to Jayadeva, poet, rejoice, causing; Or te mangala giitam= on you, auspicious, song; jayadeva kaveH= of Jayadeva, poet; mangalam kurute = auspiciousness, causing [to singers and listeners]

Oh, Shri Krishna, let this brilliant song on you rendered by poet Jayadeva, be auspicious and rejoicing to you, hail, hail to thee, oh, god…

 Oh, Shri Krishna, this brilliant and auspicious song rendered on you, is rejoicing the poet Jayadeva, hail, hail to thee, oh, god…

Oh, Shri Krishna, let this brilliant and auspicious song on you rendered by poet Jayadeva, be auspicious and rejoicing to the singers and listeners as well, hail, hail to thee, oh, god… [a pa 2 9]

 This is sung in bhairavi raaga tripuTa taala; chandas mangala; naayaka lakShaNa dhiira lalita, shR^ingaari; taala lalita; aalaapana is available at the end of each foot.

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पद्मापयोधरतटीपरिरम्भलग्न काश्मीरमुद्रितमुरो मधुसूदनस्य ।
व्यक्तानुरागमिव खेलदनङ्गखेद स्वेदांबुपूरमनुपूरयतु प्रियम् वः॥ १-६

पदच्छेद : पद्मा पयो धर तटी परि रंभ लग्न काश्मीर मुद्रितम् उरः मधु सूदनस्य व्यक्त
अनुरागम् इव खेलत् अनंग खेद स्वेद अंबु पूरम् अनुपूरयतु प्रियम् वः

1-6. padmaa= Goddess lakSmii's; payaH dhara= milk, bearers bosoms; taTii= perimeter; parirambha= on embracing [pari= in overarching manner; rabh= embracing;] lagna = touched [speckled]; kaashmiira= saffron [vermilion mark on forehead]; mudritam= imprinted; vyakta anuraagam iva= manifest, fondness, like [heartily fondness]; khelat= pulsating [twinkling]; ananga kheda= by plays of passion, strained; sveda ambu puuram = sweat, water [drops,] filled with [pouring forth]; hR^idaya anuraagam iva= heartily fondness like]; madhu suudanasya= demon Madhu, eliminator of [Krishna's]; uraH= chest; vaH= you all [naH= us also]; anupuurayatu= will accord fulfilment; priyam [ a+priyam]= likes [and dislikes.]

On tightly embracing the perimeter of lakSmii's bosom, speckled is her forehead's vermilion mark on his chest that is pouring forth sweat since it is strained in the plays of passion with her, whereon that vermilion mark is twinkling like an imprint for his heartily fondness that is about to manifest, and effusion on his chest as his heartily fondness in egress, for her and for all us, hence let that chest of Krishna accord fulfilment to our likes and dislikes... [1-6]

That vermilion mark on his chest appears as a seal lakSmii has put, because there is no too generous accord of fortune. It is sealed in certain cases. If this god is going on according, where is an end for it?

Why his heart should bless us when he has four hands, of which one is said to be a blessing hand? There will be three items of annihilation, namely disc, mace, and conch in his three hands and the fourth one is said to be abhaya hasta, a blessing hand. Is it withdrawn now or what? Not so, that blessing hand is symbolic one when he alone functions. Here his chest is now under the auspices of lakSmii, and thus both of them are blessing a heartily double blessing.

As a consort she knows that his heart feels fondness for anyone, but she is unbothered if that fondness is for some devotee. It will be bothersome if this god brings in another ladylove, apart from the host that is already available. So, a seal is sealed, mudritam on his heart with her vermilion mark, kumkuma, tilaka, as a signal to prospective ladyloves, of course, in vain. By her doubting, we must infer that he has 'such a fondness' for not only for Rukmini and Satyabhama and the like, but even more for Rādha.

This is for establishing the poetics about the hero. naayika mugdha; naayaka kushala; rasa sringaara; alankaara utprekSha, aashiis, anupraasa; vasanta tilaka is its metre. Next, Rādha's disposition is being narrated according to poetics, as she is the leading lady of this work.

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वसन्ते वासन्तीकुसुमसुकुमारैरवयवैः
भ्रमन्तीम् कान्तारे बहुविहितकृष्णानुसरणाम् ।
अमन्दम् कन्दर्पज्वरजनितचिन्ताकुलतया
वलद्बाधाम् राधाम् सरसमिदमुचे सहचरी॥ १-७

पदच्छेद : वसन्ते वासन्ती कुसुम सुकुमारैः अवयवैः भ्रमन्तीम् कान्तारे बहु विहित कृष्ण अनुसरणाम्
अमन्दम् कन्दर्प ज्वर जनित चिन्त आकुलतया वलद् बाधाम् राधाम् स रसम् इदम् उचे सह चरी

1-7. vasante= in spring season [spring causing spring fever]; kandarpa jvara janita= by Love god's, [love] fever, caused by; chinta aakulatayaa= by anguish, disquieted; valat [calat] baadhaam = recurrently, distraught [Rādha]; vaasantii kusuma= [delicate] vernal, flower [like]; sukumaaraiH avayavaiH= with dainty, limbed [physique]; bhramantiim kaantaare= meandering, in woodlands; bahu vihita= in many [ways,] make happen [the search]; kR^iShaNa anu saraNaam = Krishna's, one who is following [searching]; raadhaa.m= to Rādha; saha charii= a girlfriend; sa rasam = with, romanticism [romantically]; a+mandam= not, slowly [hastily]; idam uuche= this, said.

In spring season Krishna playing truant, Lovegod igniting love fever, Rādha is disquietedly anguished; distraught recurrently that daintily limbed girl similar to a delicate reddish vernal flower meandered in woodlands, unavailingly searching for Krishna in many a way; to such a disgruntled Rādha, her girlfriend said this hastily, yet romantically... [1-7]

Because the hero has not come to her, in spite of her earnest longing, the heroine is viraha utkaNThita. A hero having uniform interest in all of his women is dakShiNa naayaka; sringaaram vipralambha; riiti vaidarbhi; alankaara vR^itti anupraasa lupta upama; vR^ittam sikhiriNi is the metre of this verse.

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aSTa padi 3 maadhava utsava kamalaakaram

अष्ट पदि ३ माधव उत्सव कमलाकरम्


ललितलवङ्गलतापरिशीलनकोमलमलयसमीरे ।
मधुकरनिकरकरम्बितकोकिलकूजितकुञ्जकुटीरे ।
विहरति हरिरिह सरसवसन्ते ।
नृत्यति युवतिजनेन समम् सखि विरहिजनस्य दुरन्ते धृवम्॥ अ प ३-१

पदच्छेद : ललित लवंग लता परिशीलन कोमल मलय समीरे मधुकर निकर
करम्बित कोकिल कूजित कुंज कुटीरे विहरति हरिः इह स रस वसन्ते
नृत्यति युवती जनेन समम् सखि विरहि जनस्य दुरन्ते

a pa 3-1-. lalita lavanga lataa= slimly, clove gillyflower plants, tendrils of; parishiilana= [lexically] on examining, [breeze on going over those flowers, interwoven with their fragrance]; komala= gentle; malaya samiire= Mt. malaya [with sandalwood trees] breezes; madhu kara nikara= honey, makers [honey bees] swarms of; karambita= intermingled with; kokila kuujita= by kokila [black singing bird] crooned; kunja kuTiire= in bowery, cabins;

vi rahi= without, having [their lovers at their side, estranged couples]; janasya= of such people; dur ante = non, stop endless, incessant [unrequited]; [ellipted] vasante= in such a springtime hat has all this paraphernalia; unrequited are lovelorn people in vernal season;

or, dur ante vasante= for adverse, end, to spring fever = terminable is spring fever; in spring alone the unrequitedness of lovelorn people is terminable; lovelorn people are unrequited, otherwise; hariH iha 1-sa ra 2 sa vasante

saH= he, [for whom you are searching; where the second sa became saH; [saH vasante viharati nR^ityati ca]; hariH= Hari, Krishna; vasante= in spring season; yuvatii janena= with girls of age, folks; samam= even as [at the very moment]; viharati nR^ityati= frolicking, dancing; sakhi = oh, dear; sara= come on [when the first sa with ra became sara = move on, come on]

sa mam= with, glory [gloriously]; yuvati jane nR^ityati= with girls of age, folks of, dances; sa rasa vante [vasante] = with sapful bliss, inclusive of [spring season that which contains the sapful bliss]; na= isn't he [phatic expression minus ? mark]; virahati= frolicking.

In this springtime gentle vernal breezes from Mt. malaya, the abode of sandalwood trees, that swivel round the slimly tendrils of clove gillyflower plants breeze gently, interwoven with both the fragrances... in this springtime that has bowery cabins made lively with the intermingled buzzes of honeybees swarms and croons of Kokila throngs... he whom you are seeking that Krishna is gloriously frolicking and dancing with folks of girls of age in Brindavan right at this moment, for this is spring, isn't it... oh, dear, therefore, come on... let's go... lovelorn people are unrequited, otherwise... [a pa 3-1]

Here the heroine compared to clove plant and hero to breeze, hence uddipana vibhaava an idea escalated.

उन्मदमदनमनोरथपथिकवधूजनजनितविलापे ।
अलिकुलसंकुलकुसुमसमूहनिराकुलबकुलकलापे  ॥ अ प ३-२

पदच्छेद : उत् मद मदन मनोरथ पथिक वधू जन जनित विलापे
अलि कुल संकुल कुसुम समूह निराकुल बकुल कलापे

3-2. ut mada= heightened, rejoice; madana manoratha= lust, longings [lustfulness]; pathika vadhuu jana = [lexically] of itinerants, women, folks of loverless ladyloves; janita vilaape= caused, ruefulness; ali kula= by honeybee, stock of [swarms of]; sankula= hurley burley; kusuma samuuha= flowers, groups of [bunches of]; niraakula= full of; vakula= Mimusops elengi, any of various acacia plants with showy yellow flowers; kalaape= in thickets; annexable hariH iha viharati... durante.

In this springtime that has thickets full with bunches of showy yellow flowers, on which swarms of honeybees are hurley burley... the season that heightens the joys and longings of womenfolk distanced from their lovers, only to land them in ruefulness and lovesickness, that Krishna is gloriously frolicking and dancing &c... [a pa 3-]

मृगमदसौरभरभसवशंवदनवदलमालतमाले ।
युवजनहृदयविदारणमनसिजनखरुचिकिंशुकजाले॥ अ प ३-३

पदच्छेद : मृग मद सौरभ रभस वशंवद नव दल माल तमाले
युव जन हृदय विदारण मनसिज नख रुचि किंशुक जाले

a pa 3-3. mR^iga= deer; mada= fat [musk]; saurabha= of fragrance; rabhasa= speediness [instantaneous]; vashanvada= self surrendered [one's own]; nava dala= having new, tender leaves; maala= enwreathing [the environ]; tamaale= having tamaala trees; yuva jana= young, people's; hR^idaya vidaaraNa= heart, rending; manasi ja= of mind, born one, [Love god, for he takes birth in one's own mind]; nakha= of nails; ruchi= in shine with; kinshuka= Butea frondosa, with blood red flowers; jaale= bunches of; annexable hariH iha viharati...durante.

In this season that has black tamaala trees enwreathing the environs with their new tender leaves that have their own fragrance akin to the instantaneous fragrance of deer's musk, and bunches of reddish flowers that analogous to the tender and roseate nails of Love god ready to rend the hearts of youngsters of age... in such a spring Krishna is frolicking and dancing &c... [a pa 3-3]

मदनमहीपतिकनकदण्डरुचिकेसरकुसुमविकासे ।
मिलितशिलीमुखपाटलिपटलकृतस्मरतूणविलासे॥ अ प ३-४

पदच्छेद : मदन मही पति कनक दण्ड रुचि केसर कुसुम विकासे
मिलित शिली मुख पाटलि पटल कृत स्मर तूण विलासे

a pa 3-4. madana= Love god; mahii pati= land, lord [king]; kanaka daNDa= golden, sceptre; ruchi= in shine with; keshara kusuma= Kesara [Mimisops elangi] flowers; vikaase= bloomed; milita = commingled; shilii mukha= iron, faced = arrow / honeybee [bees are metaphorical to the arrows of Love god, shliSTa ruupaka]; paaTali paTala= cup like daffodil flowers, bunches of; kR^ita= made as [rendered as]; smara = Love god's; tuuNa vilaase= quiver, in fashion of.

Now the bloomed golden flowers of kesara are in shine with the sheen of the golden sceptre of kingly Love god, the ruler of spring; bunches of cup like daffodils are in the fashion with his quivers; bees swarming on those flowers are rendered as his arrows ready to bolt on unrequited love pairs; in such a spring Krishna is frolicking and dancing &c... [a pa 3-4]

 The Love god, Manmatha, has only one quiver and one bow, and only five flower arrows aravindam, ashokam, cuutam, nava mallika, niilotpala but here they get multiplied as the love pairs are many.

विगलितलज्जितजगदवलोकनतरुणकरुणकृतहासे ।
विरहिनिकृन्तनकुन्तमुखाकृतिकेतकदन्तुरिताशे॥ अ प ३-५

पदच्छ्जेद विगलित लज्जित जगत् अवलोकन तरुण करुण कृत हासे
विरहि निकृन्तन कुन्त मुख आकृति केतक दन्तुरित अशे

a pa 3-5. virahi= lovelorn ones; vi galita= completely, tumbled [utterly bereft of]; lajjita= having prudishness; jagat= world [lovelorn people]; avalokana= on espying; taruNa karuNa= tender, whitish karuna flowers; kR^ita haase= made, laugh at; [or, jagat vigalita lajjita = at people, who are utterly bereft of prudishness; avalokana= on espying; taruNa= youngsters of age who are with their ladyloves]; karuNa= piteously; kR^ita haase= making, saddish grins = [youngsters who are with their ladyloves are grinning sadly at those that are behaving oddly as they are devoid of their prudishness]; virahi= lovelorn ones; nikR^intana= [as though] to lunge, tear asunder; kunta mukha akR^iti= spear, faced, in shape; ketaka= ketaka, mogra flowers; danturita ashe= full with, directions of compass.

Now the fully bloomed tender whitish flowers of karuna, espying lovelorn people, appear to be laughing at them for they are utterly devoid of their prudishness in lovesick behaviour...  while the long and lance like mogra flowers are also in full bloom in all directions, as though ready to lunge and tear asunder the hearts of lovelorn people... in such a spring Krishna is frolicking and dancing &c... [a pa 3-5]

माधविकापरिमलललिते नवमालिकजातिसुगन्धौ ।
मुनिमनसामपि मोहनकारिणि तरुणाकारणबन्धौ॥ अ प ३-६

पदच्छेद : माधविका परिमल ललिते नव मालिक जाति सुगन्धौ
मुनि मनसाम् अपि मोहन कारिणि तरुण अ कारण बन्धौ

a pa 3-6. maadhavikaa= of maadhavi flower plant Gaertnera racemosa; parimala= fragrance; lalite= in gentleness; nava maalika= double jasmine; jaati= jasmines, Jasminum grandiflorum; sugandhau= with pleasant fragrances; [or, as in other mms: nava maalika jaati sugandhau= double jasmines, jasmines', with the fragrances of ]; muni manasaam api= saints, hearts, even; mohana kaariNi = baffle, causers of [bafflers of]; taruNa= for youngsters of age;  a+ kaaraNa bandhau [iva] = without, reason [unexpected,] kinsman, [like.]

This springtime fragrant with the gentle fragrance of maadhavi flowers, doubled with the pleasant fragrance of double jasmine and jasmines can cause bafflement even to the hearts of saintly saints, not to say of youngsters, as such season is becoming an unseasonable guest for those youngsters, in such a season Krishna is frolicking and dancing &c... [a pa 3-6]

स्फुरदतिमुक्तलतापरिरम्भणमुकुलितपुलकितचूते ।
बृन्दावनविपिने परिसरपरिगतयमुनाजलपूते॥ अ प ३-७

पदच्छेद : स्फुरत् अतिमुक्त लता परि रंभण मुकुलित पुलकित चूते
बृंदावन विपिने परि सर परि गत यमुना जल पूते

a pa 3-7. [vasante= in spring season]; sphurat= vibrate, titillating; ati mukta lataa= maadhavi, tendrils; pari rambhaNa= by overarched, whorled; mukulita= having buds; pulakita = ticklish; chuute= mango trees; pari sara= around, surging; pari gata= around, going [flowing in an enwreathing and surging manner]; yamunaa jala puute= by River Yamuna, waters, sanctified; bR^indaavana vipine= in Brindavana, woodlands;


bR^inda= group of yearners, yearning for love of god; avane= that which can alleviate, accord release, mokSha; vipine= ilderness, solitude.

In this spring season, where the titillating tendrils of maadhavi climbers whorl around budding mango trees in an overarching manner tickling those mango trees... where River yamuna is surging, enwreathing and sanctifying that place with her waters, where a group of yearners are yearning for the love of Krishna for final release, mokSha, is obtainable there... in such a secluded place called Brindavana, Krishna is frolicking and dancing &c... [a pa 3-7]

The climber plants are feminine and the mango trees are masculine. According to the saying vanita, kavita, lata, na aashrayam vinaa shobhate a maid, poetry, or a tendril cannot possibly outshine themselves, with not a leg to stand on. Thus, when sessile beings are thrilling and tickling in spring, how about other living beings.

श्रीजयदेवभणितमिदमुदयति हरिचरणस्मृतिसारम् ।
सरसवसन्तसमयवनवर्णनमनुगतमदनविकारम्॥ अ प ३-८
पदच्छेद : श्री जयदेव भणितम् इदम् उदयति हरि चरण स्मृति सारम्
सरस वसन्त समय वन वर्णनम् अनु गत मदन विकारम्

a pa 3-8. shrii hari= Shri Krishna's; charaNa= feet; smR^iti= remembrancer of; saaram= having sapful bliss, [or, smR^iti saaram= for meditating; saaram= the best; sa rasa= plays of passion, sapful bliss, one having such ingredients;


 sarasa= congenial poetry]; vasanta samaya= spring, time; vana= woodlands [or, about gregariously reclusive Brindavana]; varNanam= having depictation; anugata= ingoing, imbibed; madana vikaaram= with passional, immoderations; idam jayadeva bhaNitam= this, Jayadeva, uttered by [poetry]; udayati= dawning, emerging, coming up.

This poem can be a remembrancer of Krishna's feet, for it has all the ingredients to obtain a sapful bliss from them; this is even a best and congenial poem to meditate upon those feet as this has a sapid depictation about the gregariously reclusive Brindavan and its springtime woodlands; even imbibed are the passional immoderations of springtime love fevers; such a poem is now coming up, as uttered by Jayadeva, on the feet of Shri Krishna... [a pa 3-8]

In this aSTa padi: alankaara jaati; naayika madhya; naayaka dakShiNa; rasa vipra lambha sringaara; chanda laya; raaga vasanta; taala jhampa. Thus, this aSTa padi named maadhavotsava kamalaakaram concludes here.

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दरविदलितमल्लीवल्लिचञ्चत्पराग प्रकटितपटवासैर्वासयन् काननानि।
इह हि दहति चेतः केतकीगन्धबन्धुः प्रसरदसमबाणप्राणवद्गन्धवाहः॥ १-८

पदच्छेद : दर विदलित मल्ली वल्लि चंचत् पराग प्रकटित पटवासैः वासयन् काननानि
इह हि दहति चेतः केतकी गन्ध बन्धुः प्रसरत् असम बाण प्राण वत् गन्ध वाहः

1-8. dara= a little, just; vi dalita= unfolded, blooming; mallii valli= jasmine, intertwines of tendrils; chanchat= on jiggling; paraaga= by pollen; prakaTita= made known, disseminating; paTa vaasaiH= with perfumed powder sprays [as in playing holi festival]; kaananaani vaasayan= woodlands, on making fragrant; ketakii gandha bandhuH= of ketaki flowers, fragrance of, a relative like [in league with]; prasarat = rambling; a+sama= an unequalled one [Love god's]; baaNa= bow, [Love god's bow]; praaNa vat= his lives, as if [or, forcefully by Love god]; gandha vaahaH= perfume, carrier breeze; iha= now; chetaH dahati hi= hearts, burning, indeed.

Jiggling on the intertwines of jasmine tendrils full with just bloomed jasmines, the springtime breeze is disseminating their pollen, like the sprays of perfumed powder sprinkled in springtime colourful plays called holika mahotsavam, say holi; while rambling so, it is even disseminating the fragrance of ketaki flowers, in league with that of jasmines, rendering whole woodlands fragrant; moreover this breeze, though a coolant fragrance carrier, it has become as if the life breath of Love god, and now it is forcefully burning the hearts of estranged couples, indeed... [1-8]

 This verse has: alankaara samaasokti, vrittyanupraasa, upama; sringaara vipralambha; riiti paancaali; metre maalini.

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नीयन्ते पथिकैः कथंकथमपि ध्यानानुधानक्षण
प्राप्तप्राणसमासमागमरसोल्लासैरमी वासराः॥ १-९

पदच्छेद : उन्मीलत् मधु गन्ध लुब्ध मधुप व्याधूत चूत अंकुर क्रीडत् कोकिल काकली
कल कलैः उद्गीर्ण कर्ण ज्वराः नीयन्ते पथिकैः कथम् कथम् अपि
ध्यान अनुधान अवधान क्षण प्राप्त प्राण समा समागम रस उल्लासैः अमी वासराः

1-9. madhu gandha lubdha= honey, fragrance, greedy of; madhupa= by honeybees; vyaadhuuta [vi aa dhuuta]= up heaved; unmiilat= unfolding, just sprouted [tender leaves]; chuuta ankura kriiDat= in mango, tender leaves, playing; kokila= Kokila, singing birds; kaakalii= pleasant; kala kalaiH= with singsong coo cooing [kila, kila s onomatopoeic words]; udgiirNa karNa jvaraaH= heightened, ear, fever [frenzy]; amii vaasaraaH= these, days; dhyaana= rumination; anudhaana [avadhaana]= interested in [daydreaming]; kShaNa= for a moment; praaNa samaa= lives, coequal [alter ego]; praapta samaagama= bechanced [came to mind,] togetherness; rasa ullaasaiH= in mouth watering [in ravishing,] felicity; katham katham api= somehow, somehow, even so; pathikaiH = by itinerants; niiyante= led away.

Honeybees greedy for the fragrant nectar of mango flowers are upheaving the just sprouted leaflets of mango trees; singing kokila birds flitting in those leaves, equally greedy to nibble the new leaflets of mangos, are suddenly disturbed when bees swarmed mango flowers and they are taking to their wings with their pleasant sing song coo cooing; listening these clarion calls of Kokila s heightened is the frenzy of ears of itinerants, for their alter egos like ladyloves came to their mind for a moment, but unavailingly; thus they are somehow spending springtime by dreamy rumination on their dreamy ravishing felicity together with their ladyloves, as in daydreaming. [1-9]

This springtime is more bothersome than the bother of separation from their ladyloves, and hence time has predominance on earthlings, may it be humans or others. But humans can quench their desires in dreams, and when they can dream about embracing their ladyloves, they can even dream about the all embracing Krishna. Here Rādha is not advised to be dreamy, but to quickly reach her goal, namely Krishna. Spring is the only season for pastoral poetry and hence it is extolled thus far. alankaara kaavya linga; riiti gauDi; shringaara vipralambha; metre shaarduula vikrriDitam.

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अनेकनारीपरिरम्भसम्भ्रम स्फुरन्मनोहारिविलासलालसम् ।
रारिमारादुपदर्शयन्त्यसौ सखी समक्षम् पुनराह राधिकाम्॥ १-१-०

पदच्छेद : अनेक नारी परि रंभ संभ्रम स्फुरत् मनोहारि विलास लालसम्
मुर अरिम् आरात् उप दर्शयन्ति असौ सखी समक्षम् पुनः आह राधिकाम्

1-10. asau sakhii= this, girlfriend [of Rādha]; aneka naarii= not one [many,] women of age; pari rambha = in embracing; sambhrama= anxious of; sphurat= erratic [scintillating one]; manaH haari= heart stealing one; vilaasa laalasam= in frolicking, interested; mura arim= demon Mura's, enemy; aaraat= in vicinity; samakSham= within eyeshot; upadarshayanti = she is showing him; raadhikaam punaH aaha= to Rādha, again, telling.

This girlfriend of Rādha is telling her again by showing him who is in the vicinity and within eyeshot, who is scintillatingly anxious to embrace not one, but many women, one who is a heart stealer and an interested one in frolicking, more so an enemy of Mura, namely Krishna. [1-10]

 This verse has sringaara sambhoga; naayaka dakShiNa; alankaara anupraas; metre vamshastha.

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अष्ट पदि ४ सामोद दामोदर भ्रमर पदम्

aSTA padi 4 saamoda daamodara bhramara padam


चन्दनचर्चितनीलकलेवरपीतवसनवनमाली ।
केलिचलन्मणिकुण्डलमण्डितगण्डयुगस्मितशाली ।
हरिरिहमुग्धवधूनिकरे विलासिनि विलसति केलिपरे ।धृवम्। अ प ४-१

पदच्छेद : चन्दन चर्चित नील कलेवर पीत वसन वनमाली केलि चलत् मणि कुण्डल
मण्डित गण्ड युग स्मित शाली हरिः इह मुग्ध वधू निकरे विलासिनि विलसति केलि परे

a pa 4-1. Showing him whose get up is: chandana= with sandal paste; charchita= bedaubed; niila kalevara= on bluish, body; piita= [pale brownish yellow] ochry; vasana= silk cloths [clad in]; vanamaalii= one who wears a garland of basil leaves and flowers; keli chalat= while playing [while romping,] moving [swaying]; maNi kuNDala= gems [gem studded,] knobby ear hangings; maNDita= by [ear knobs] embellished; gaNDa yuga= cheeks, pair; smita shaalii= a smiler with such disposition a gleeful one; hariH iha= Krishna, now; vilaasini= ravishing [damsels]; mugdha= coyly; vadhuu nikare= damsels, in group [amidst coterie]; vilasati= frolicking; keli pare= in game [here in ronde; Fr. ronde = n. a dance in which the dancers move in a circle, raasa liila, raasa kriiDa] rapturous [game.]

His Sapphirine body bedaubed with sandal paste, clad in ochry silks, garlanded with a garland of basil leaves and flowers, cheeks embellished with flapping gem studded knobby ear hangings while he is romping... see that gleeful Krishna now amidst a coterie of ravishing and coyly damsels, in a rapturous ronde… [a pa 4-1]

 All these stanzas are girlfriend’s dialogue with Rādha, but the addressing ‘oh, Rādha…’ is omitted. With this she has also said, ‘when you are here, an expert in romantic amusement, leaving you Krishna’s frolicking with coyly, simplistic and naïve girls is unbefitting for him… hence, you go at once…’ naayika utkaNThita.

Many take the word niila kalevara as an absolute black colour of body, while it is sky blue black, on par with ‘sky blue pink’ n. & adj. n. an imaginary colour, or somewhat semi sapphirine blue and similes with the sky itself, as sky is the Absolute kham brahma. Hence, some hex value is to be derived for this hue of sky blue black at least now, or said as somewhat sapphirine bluish colour. And piita ambara and vanmaala are not just rustling ochry silks and garland of wild leaves, but those basil leaves and silken garments are also the removers of sins.

पीनपयोधरभारभरेण हरिम् परिरम्य सरागम् ।
गोपवधूरनुगायति काचिदुदञ्चितपञ्चमरागम्।
हरिरिह केलिपरे ॥ अ प ४-२

पदच्छेद : पीन पयोधर भार भरेण हरिम् परि रभ्य रम्य
सरागम् गोप वधूःअनु गायति काचित् उदंचित पंचम रागम्

a pa 4-2. kaachit= someone; gopa vadhuuH= milker’s, damsel [milkmaid, vadhuu need not be a bride / wife always]; piina payo dhara= with bosomy, bust; bhaara bhareNa= weight, carrying [by their weightiness]; sa raagam= with, longing; harim= at Krishna; pari rabhya [ramya]= in over [arching manner,] hugging [cleaving to]; udanchita = in a heightened; panchama= fifth [note, octave]; raagam= melodiously; anu= in tune with his fluting]; gaayati= singing; annex: haririha…kelipare = as above.

Someone, a milkmaid, eager to ease the weightiness of her bosomy bust is cleaving to Krishna in a overarching manner, and then in a heightened octave she is singing melodiously in tune with his fluting; hence, he that gleeful Krishna &c… [a pa 4-2]

 The damsel is hugging even before the hero tries to embrace her; hence, she is in eagerness as her naayika lakShaNa is mugdha, a meekish heroine. Some scholars translate this word mugdha as a foolish girl. This translates as innocent, ignorant, artless rhetorical naayika, artless insofar as romantic advances are concerned. If this black boy and white girl combination is set aside for a while, it is the twosome of devotee god, trying to achieve oneness, in which the devotee has to make his/her first move to embrace the god, as in markaTa nyaaya mother monkey and child monkey syndrome, that contrasts with maarjaala nyaaya cat kitten syndrome. Swelling bosoms suggests swelling milky devotion, where both emerge from bosom alone, contrary to a lip service.

कापि विलासविलोलविलोचनखेलनजनितमनोजम् ।
ध्यायति मुग्धवधूरधिकम् मधुसूदनवदनसरोजम् ।
हरिरिह केलिपरे ॥ अ प ४-३

पदच्छेद : का अपि विलास विलोल विलोचन खेलन जनित मनोजम्
ध्यायति मुग्ध वधूः अधिकम् मधु सूदन वदन सरोजम्

a pa 4-3. kaa api= someone, even; mugdha vadhuuH= meekish, damsel [one who is an inexpert in romancing, sringaara ceSTaaH abhaava ]; vilaasa= by romantic gesticulations [of eyes] [haava bhaava ceSTaaH shuunyata of Krishna, or of that milkmaid]; vi lola= verily, flustered; vi lochana= wide, eyes; khelana= by their play [of eyes, slanting, siding glances]; janita= caused; manaH jam= mind, causer of [one who can give rise to Love god, Krishna, personified passion]; madhu suudana= demon Madhu’s, eliminator [Krishna’s]; vadana= face; saraH jam = lake, born [lotus, beautiful lotus like beautiful face]; adhikam dhyaayati= highly [fixatedly,] contemplating.

Some meekish damsel helplessly remaining on the sidelines came into the sight of sidelong glances with romantic gesticulations of fluttery wide eyes of Krishna, and passion is enkindled in her; but that girl, inexpert in romance, at once started gazing at the beautiful lotusy face of the eliminator of demon madhu, namely Krishna, and fixatedly contemplated on it... thus, that gleeful Krishna &c… [a pa 4-3]


Some meekish damsel is also impassioned for she is there with him; in her inexpert gesticulations of romance, like tactless sidelong glances with her flustered wide eyes, she caught a sight of the beautiful lotusy face of Krishna; from then on she fixatedly contemplated on that face, for she is an expert in contemplation; thus, that gleeful Krishna &c… [a pa 4-3]

 All may not be expert danseuses or songsters, but lovingness is common in all. Some girl came there, but she became a third row ballerina, or fourth row chorus girl, even then that environ enkindles a kind of belongingness in her, and she longed for him in her way prekSya prekSaka riiti. Usually contemplations come in when the object to contemplate is not before the eyes. But he is very much there, even then, she is contemplating. Again, she is mugdha, somewhat artless, meekish heroine. Reaching him is the goal, whether it is a bodily reaching, or reaching through contemplation. Some derive the word madhu suudana vadana sarojam basing on the root Suuda kSharaNe as madhu = honey, nectar; suudana = spilling; that lotus like face is pouring forth potable nectar of grace.

कापि कपोलतले मिलिता लपितुम् किमपि श्रुतिमूले ।
चारु चुचुंब नितंबवती दयितम् पुलकैरनुकूले ।
हरिरिह केलिपरे ॥ अ प ४-४

पदच्छेद : का अपि कपोल तले मिलिता लपितुम् किम् अपि
श्रुति मूले चारु चुचुंब नितंबवती दयितम् पुलकैः अनुकूले

a pa 4-4. kaa api= someone, even; nitambavatii= one with big buttocks; shruti muule= ear, base of [at hole on earlobe]; kim api= something, even; lapitum= to say; militaa = on reaching his bent ear that is now; pulakaiH anukuule= by tickles, made convenient [when Krishna’s face is tickly, his cheek is bent for her convenience to kiss it]; kapola tale= on cheek’s, surface; dayitam= him that lover [Krishna]; chaaru chuchumba= goodly [amusingly,] kissed.

Some fat bummed girl neared him feigning to say something in his ear; reaching her lover Krishna whose tickly face is now conveniently turned sideways in all ears for her; but she amusingly kissed his cheek in a trice in preference to a whisper; thus that gleeful Krishna &c... [a pa 4-4]

pulakita tickly, when ladylove touched his ears, his body became tickly and thus he had to move his cheeks sideways, which she thought a gesture to listen to her whisper; nitambavati because her buttocks are heavy she could not run a race with Krishna, hence she paused him in his dance saying ‘listen this…’ and then carried off her wish; naayika prauDha [somewhat artful one]; naayaka anukuula [acquiescent one.]

केलिकलाकुतुकेन च काचिदमुम् यमुनाजलकूले ।
मञ्जुलवञ्जुलकुञ्जगतम् विचकर्ष करेण दुकूले ।
हरिरिह केलिपरे ॥ अ प ४-५

पदच्छेद : केलि कला कुतुकेन च काचित् अमुम् यमुना जल
कूले मंजुल वंजुल कुंज गतम् विचकर्ष करेण दुकूले

a pa 4-5. kaachit= someone; keli = [manmatha keli] plays of passions; kalaa= artistry; kutukena ca= with enthusiasm, also; [parihaasena ca= with glee, also]; yamunaa jala kuule = River Yamuna, waters, on its bank; manjula= beautiful; vanjula kunja= ashoka tree, bower; gatam = one who has gone there, frolicking in there; amum= him; dukuule= by his dress; kareNa= with her hand; vichakarSa= lugging along.

Another milkmaid enthusiastic in the artistry of plays of passion, and passionate to play in the waters of river Yamuna along with Krishna, found him frolicking in a beautiful bower at that ashoka tree, and seizing his garment she is gleefully drawing him towards water, thus that gleeful Krishna &c... [a pa 4-5]

 Krishna is otherwise busy anyaasakta so she had to lug him along by catching his silk upper cloth. naayika adhiira. The expression yamunaa kuule would have been sufficient for Yamuna riverbank. But it is said a river called Yamuna that contains water and banks. A river naturally contains water and banks, then why that redundant usage of water plus banks? It has two purposes she is interested in sporting in water with Krishna, and the other is to indicate that water’s cooling effect and sanctification shaityatva, paavanatva and hence the word waters is used emphatically.

करतलतालतरलवलयावलिकलितकलस्वंअवंशे ।
रासरसे सहनृत्यपरा हरिणा युवतिः प्रशशंसे ।
हरिरिह केलिपरे ॥ अ प ४-६

पदच्छेद : कर तल ताल तरल वलय आवलि कलित कल स्वन
वंशे रास रसे सह नृत्य परा हरिणा युवतिः प्रशशंसे

a pa 4-6. yuvatiH= a maiden; kara tala= hand, surface with palms; taala= by clapping rhythmically; tarala= moving; valaya= [valaya angada]= heavy wrist metal roundlets; avali= a group of, a set of such bracelets; kalita= intermingling [touching one to one, clanking, clanks mingling with fluting]; kala svana= avyakta madura svana = undefinable dulcet clanks; vamshe= one who has a flute va.msha = bamboo mohana vamshii = name of Krishna’s bamboo flute; raasa= raasa kriiDa = in plays of passion, in ronde; rase= zealous [Krishna]; saha= along with; nR^itya paraa= in dancing, engrossed; hariNaa= by Hari, Krishna; prashashanse= [that maiden is] commended.

While a maiden is engrossed in ronde dancing along with zealously dancing Krishna, she is clapping her palms in rhythm to his fluting, while doing so sets of her heavy bracelets are clanking in undefinable dulcet clanks, intermingling with that fluting, thus that flautist of mohana vamshi, the Divine Flute, namely Krishna, is fluting the praises unto her... thus, that gleeful Krishna &c...[a pa 4-6]

 By employing the word rasa raase it is said, though this girl is an inexpert in superfine singing and dancing, she is expert in her rustic, moorish, and boorish dances, hence she is aware of beat and rhythm laya taala j~naana , thereby she is praiseworthy.

श्लिष्यति कामपि चुम्बति कामपि कामपि रमयति रामाम् ।
पश्यति सस्मितचारुपरामपरामनुगच्छति वामाम् ।
हरिरिह केलिपरे ॥ अ प ४-७

पदच्छेद : श्लिष्यति काम् अपि चुंबति काम् अपि काम् अपि रमयति
रामाम् पश्यति सः स्मित चारु तराम् अपराम् अनु गच्छति वामाम्

a pa 4-7. saH= such as he is, he that Krishna; kaam api= someone, even; shliSyati= cleaves to; kaam api chumbati= someone, even, kisses; kaam api= someone, even; raamaam = delightful damsel; ramayati= he delights [her]; smita= beaming; caaru taraam= beauty, in high degree [most beautiful lass]; aparaam= another one; pashyati= sees to her, pay attention to; vaamaam= leftist, a flighty girl; anu= in tow; gacChati= goes after.

Such frolicsome Krishna is even cleaving to someone; kissing someone; delighting someone who is a delightful damsel; paying attention to another most beautiful damsel with beaming smiles; following a flighty girl with slanting glances, thus, that gleeful Krishna &c… [a pa 4-7]

 Here the word raamaam is generative from root ramu ramu kriiDaayaam one who gives and takes delight in which she is delighted. This word is on the analogy of the name of Rama in Ramayana. When the syllable ‘a’ is prolonged to ‘aa’ ‘raa maa’ it becomes feminine delighter and the delighted. And smita caaru taraam or, smita caaru paraam ‘beamingly smiling’ indicates her readiness for intimacy, expressed in a smile itself. Hence, this piece of poem is floridly smiley. The word vaamaam is displeased, irritated, peeved, vexed, querulous girl. Even if she were to be so, he can tame her shrewdness and bring her round by going after her. nayaka catura [artful.]

All these acts are performed sequentially or at a time? At a time only is the answer. How can one Krishna become many at a time, is its sequel. That is what raasa kriida or raasa liila is, and unimaginable are his acts, deeds, or plays of passion. Thus this poetry, though expressed in mundane parlance, attains a supramundane eros [aspiration toward value] a divine lusting. The poet says in the next foot ‘that is why this is an amazing act of Krishna adbhutam.

श्रीजयदेवभणितमिदमद्भुतकेशवकेलिरहस्यम् ।
वृन्दावनविपिने ललितम् वितनोतु शुभानि यशस्यम् ।
हरिरिह केलिपरे ॥ अ प ४-८

पदच्छेद : श्री जयदेव भणितम् इदम् अद्भुत केशव केलि रहस्यम्
वृन्दावन विपिने ललितम् वितनोतु शुभानि यशस्यम्

a pa 4-8. vR^indaavana vipine= in Brindavana, woodlands; charita=  what that happens; yashasyam= endowing gloriousness [if sung or danced to its tunes]; keshava keli rahasyam = Krishna’s, plays of passion, arcaneness of; jayadeva bhaNitam idam= by Jayadeva, articulated, this; adbhutam = an admirable poem; lalitam= exquisite [pleasure giver]; libretto, [with double entendre = n. a word or phrase open to two interpretations, one usu. risqué or indecent, here the whole poem]; shrii shrii suukti = felicitous, saying, poem; shubhaani vitanotu= prosperities, let it radiate [ tr. transmit or demonstrate life, love, joy, etc. ‘radiates happiness’].

Parsing In another way:

yashasyam= endowing gloriousness [if sung or danced to its tunes]; vR^indaavana vipine= in Brindavana, woodlands [what that happens]; lalitam= exquisite [pleasure giver]; adbhuta = admirable; keshava= Krishna’s; keli rahasyam= plays of passion, arcaneness of; idam= this; jayadeva bhaNitam= by Jayadeva, articulated; shrii shrii suukti = felicitous, saying, lyric, libretto, [with double entendre = n. a word or phrase open to two interpretations, one usu. risqué or indecent, here the whole poem]; shubhaani vitanotu= prosperities, let it radiate [ tr. transmit or demonstrate life, love, joy, etc. ‘radiates happiness’.]

This song, which endows gloriousness to the devotees of Krishna, if sung or danced to its tunes, and which contains the arcaneness about the exquisite plays of passion of Krishna in equally arcanus Brindavana, is articulated by Jayadeva, thus let it radiate prosperities to one and all… [a pa 4-8]

 With this the poet concludes this lyric. Here Krishna himself is an adbhutam, because he is manifest separately to each of the milkmaid in a trice, though remaining himself as one entity. In this lyric the words keli rahasyam are usually translated as secrets sports, or secret love games etc., taking them to be rahasya keli kalaapam , but the word rahasyam qualifies the word keli. Then they are the secrets about those plays, of which the poet wishes to tell, but not how secretly the plays are played, and Krishna is no covert player, either in these dance dramas of Bhaagavata or in the politics of Maha Bhaarata. chandas laya.

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विश्वेषामनुरंजनेन जनयन्नानानंदमिन्दीवर
श्रेणीश्यामलकोमलैरुपनयन्नङ्गैरनङ्गोत्सवम् ।
स्वच्छंदम् व्रजसुन्दरीभिरभितः प्रत्यङ्गमालिङ्गितः
शृङ्गारः सखि मूर्तिमानिव मधौ मुग्धो हरिः क्रीडति॥ १-११

पदच्छेद : विश्वेषाम् अनुरंजनेन जनयन् आनानंदम् इन्दीवर श्रेणी
श्यामल कोमलैः उपनयन् अन्गैः अनंग उत्सवम् स्वच्छंदम् व्रज
सुन्दरीभिः अभितः प्रति अंगम् आलिंगितः शृंगारः सखि मूर्तिमान् इव मधौ मुग्धो हरिः क्रीडति

1-11-. sakhi= oh, friend, Rādha; mugdhaH= charming [not meekish]; hariH= Krishna; vishveShaam = for all in the world; anuranjanena= to cause mutual intimacy; aanaanandam janayan= happiness, to cause; indiivara= blue black lotuses; shreNii= rows of; shyaamala= blue blackish; komalaiH= daintily; angaiH= with limbs; ana.nga utsavam= Love god's, festival [vasanta utsavam, carnivalesque excitation]; upa nayan= to near, draw [to draw nigh]; abhitaH= by all [external limbs and internal heartfelt feelings]; svacChandam= unreservedly; prati a.ngam= each, limb; vraja= county called Vraja province; sundariibhiH = by beautiful damsels [of Vraja county]; aali.ngitaH= embraced [Krishna is embraced]; shR^i.ngaaraH iva muurtimaan= romance, like, embodiment of; madhau= in springtime; kriiDati= playing [titillating.]

Or, in another way:

 sakhi= oh, friend; hariH= Krishna [with his personage, that is] mugdhaH= with heart stealing; vishveShaam= for all in the world; anuranjane= to accord delight; aanaanandam janayan= rejoice, to cause; angaiH= with parts [romanticised factors that are apt to cause happiness, like]; indiivara shreNii= blue black lotuses, clusters; shyaamala= darker [ambience with black Tamaala trees, nightfall, nightly Yamuna river etc.]; komalaiH= softish [flower beds, greensward, sand dunes]; ana.nga utsavam= Love god's, festivity [vasantosavam carnivalesque excitation]; upanayan= bringing off; abhitaH= all over; sva cChandam = unreservedly; prati a.ngam= every, limb; vraja sundariibhiH= by going, beauties [beauties who are passing by him]; aali.ngitaH= embraceable; muurtimaan= one having such a body, bodily presence; shR^i.ngaaraH iva= [personified] romance, as though; madhau kriiDati= in springtime, frolicking.

Oh, friend Rādha, charming Krishna is titillating in Brindavan in this springtime, causing happiness and mutual intimacy among all the worldly beings, and by the presence of his sapphirine bluish and daintily limbed body, that simile with the sprayey rows of blue black lotuses, he appears to be fetching the annual vasantotsava, the carnivalesque excitation, hence such limbs are unreservedly embraced by the beautiful damsels of Vraja county, either with their bodily limbs or by their heartfelt feelings, thus he is appearing like an embodiment of romance... [1-11]


Oh, friend Rādha, Krishna in Brindavan is with a delighting personage that is heart stealing for all people, and it is apt to cause rejoice in one and all, added are the romanticised factors of Brindavan, like darkish ambience with black Tamaala trees, nightfall, nightly Yamuna river, and softish flower beds, greensward, and riparian sand dunes, and his very bodily presence is as though the personified romance, bringing off the annual vasantotsava, carnivalesque excitation, and the beauties of Vraja, moving past him are deeming that personality as an unreservedly dependable and embraceable embodiment, hence Krishna is frolicking with them in this springtime, as he reckons them as dependents and embraced devotees...

 When it is said viSveSaam anuranjanena Krishna being capable to delight whole world in his own nature, here he became a mugdha personality charmingly graceful youngster, not a foolish boy, and delighted them and got delight from them, though they are nowhere near his Omniscience.

vasantotsava includes many festivals like snaana yaatra ablution festival, hindola yaatra swing festival, raasa yaatra festival of circular dance, ratha yaatra chariot festival, dolaa yatra or holi festival, in which people come out as in carnivals and colour sprays water and powder sprinkled for amusement. It is annual and takes it root in Krishna liila s of Brindavan.

alankara shleSa, diipaka; riiti vaidarbhi; rasa sringaaara; sharduula vikriiditam its metre; and this one verse is replete with incommunicable reflections from bhaaratiiya sringaara shaastra treatises on aesthetics of romanticism, but they are left out for the present.

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प्रालेयप्लवनेच्छयानुसरति श्रीखण्डशैलानिलः।
किम् च स्निग्धरसालमौलिमुकुलान्यालोक्य हर्षोदयात्
उन्मीलन्ति कुहूः कुहूरिति कलोत्तलाः पिकानाम् गिरः॥ १-१२

पदच्छेद : नित्य उत्संग वसत् भुजंग कवल क्लेशात् इव ईश अचलम् प्रालेय
 प्लवन इच्छया अनुसरति श्री खण्ड शैल अनिलः किम् च स्निग्ध रसाल मौलि मुकुलानि
आलोक्य हर्ष उदयात् उन्मीलन्ति कुहूः कुहूः इति कल उत्तलाः पिकानाम् गिरः

1-12 . shrii khaNDa= Malaya; shaila anilaH= mountain's, breezes; nitya= always; utsa.nga= in close proximity; vasat= lives, inhabits; bhuja.nga= by serpents; kavala= gluttonised; kleshaat= by agony [from their fangs]; iva= as though; praaleya= in snow water; plavana= to plunge down; icChayaa= desirous of; iisha achalam= god's, mountain [iishaH a calam= Shiva's, not, mobile mountain, or, iishaa guruH acalaH = Paarvati, father of= Himalaya madhyama pada lopa samaasa]; anusarati= following, coursing to; ki.m cha= why, even [further]; rasaala mauli= mango trees, at tops; snigdha mukulaani = tender [eatable,] sprouted buds; aalokya= on seeing; harSha udayaat= rejoice, on dawning, burgeoned; kala uttalaaH = inexplicably melodious, heightened in tone; kuhuuH kuhuuH iti = coo, coo [onomatopoeic words,] thus; pikaanaam giraH= Kokila s, words, voicing; unmiilanti= unfolding [sallying forth.]

Both breezes and serpents inhabit in the sandalwood groves of Mt malaya where serpents repeatedly bite breezes as they feeding upon them, whereby breezes undergo fervidity and course northward to take a plunge in Himalayan snow waters to cool off that feverishness, dealing out love fervidity en route; why breezes, even high rejoice is burgeoning in kokila birds on seeing just sprouted tender buds on mango trees, suddenly sallying forth coo coo voicing in an inexplicably melodious and heightened tones, only to heighten unrequited rejoice and lovesickness... thus this springtime is blithesome... [1-12]

The word kuhu, kuhuuH also means no moon night, without a streak of moon. The cooing of Kokila s is a bother to estranged couple, yet they are singing in fifth octave pancama svara only to intensify the troubles of such couples. The moon is an enemy to the estranged couple, for his very appearance enhances their uneasy passion. And somehow, the no moon day amaavaashya can be tolerated. The sounds of black koels are almost like no moon day that intimidates the moon. But the singing of koels is more painful, and all this culminates into spring fever, a restless or lethargic feeling sometimes associated with spring.

riiti vaidarbhi; varNaanu praasa shabda alankaara; upama hetu ardhaa alankaara; shaarduula vikriiDitam is its metre. Next, the poet while closing the first canto is telling a blessing benediction aashiirvaada ruupaka mangala aacaraNa.

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अभ्यर्णम् परिरम्यनिर्भरमुरः प्रेमान्धया राधया।
साधु त्वद्वदनम् सुधामयमिति व्याहृत्य गीतस्तुति
व्याजादुत्कटचुम्बितस्मितमनोहरी हरिः पातु वः॥ १-१३

पदच्छेद : रास उल्लास भरेण विभ्रम भृताम् आभीर वाम भ्रुवाम् अभ्यर्णम् परिरभ्य
निर्भरम् उरः प्रेम अन्धया राधया साधु त्वत् वदनम् सुधामयम् इति व्याहृत्य
गीत स्तुती व्याजात् उत्कट चुम्बित स्मित मनोहरी हरिः पातु वः

1-13 . prema andhayaa= by love, blinded [heedless]; raadhayaa= by Rādha; raasa= in ronde dance; ullaasa bhareNa= rejoice, replete with; vibhrama bhR^itaam= overwhelm, bearers [those girls that bear an overwhelmed mood= vivacious girls]; aabhiira= milkmaids; vaama= with curved; bhruvaam= eyebrows; abhyarNam= in close proximity [drawing nigh of him]; uraH= chest [of Krishna]; nirbharam= ardently; parirabhya= hugged; saadhu= by far [enthusiastically]; tvat vadanam= your, face; sudhaa mayam= nectar, abounding with; iti= thus; vyaahR^itya= on saying; giita= song [of Krishna]; stuti= eulogising; vyaajaat=on the pretext of; utkhaTa= excitedly; cumbita = one who is kissed [by Rādha]; smita= by smiles; manaH haarii= heart, stealing; hariH= Hari, Krishna; vaH= us, all of us; paatu= rule over [save our souls.]

Blinded by her love for Krishna, Rādha drew nigh of him, who is among vivacious milkmaids with curvy eyebrows, and who are replete with rejoice while in ronde dancing, but Rādha ardently hugged his chest among all of them, and enthusiastically said thus, "Your face is nectareous...thus your singing must be nectarean...come sing now... “And then, on the pretext of eulogising his singing, she started to kiss him, and he who is thus kissed by Rādha is all smiles for her, and he who steals hearts with his beaming smiles, that Krishna may save our souls... [1-13]

 In this lyric sringaara vipralambha; naayika pragalbha; naayaka mugdha; the manner of hugging is called vR^ikSha adhiruuDha tree climbing embrace tarum iva kamitaaram cumbana aartaa adhi roDhum yadabhilaSati naarii tat ca vR^ikShaadhiruuDham; the kissing style is called namitaka where milkmaids are happy enough with kissing and kisses abhiirajaaH cumbana haarya cittaaH; alankaara aashiis, aprastuta prasanga, vyaajoktiu, aakShepa, hetu; since Rādha advanced, some heroine's bravery is there naayika utsaaha ruupa viira rasa; anuvritti aarabhaTi; riiti paancaali; giiti artha maagadhi; gaana sthiti laya; Its metre is shaarduula vikriiDitam.


इति श्री जयदेव कृतौ गीतगोविन्दे सामोददामोदरो नाम प्रथमः सर्गः

Thus, this is the 1-st chapter, sAmodadAmodaram, in giita govindam of kavi jayadeva.

Verse Locator for Gita Govindam : Chapter 1

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2003, Desiraju Hanumanta Rao; Revised 2008