Chapter [sarga] 3 - Winsome Krishna

मुग्ध मधुसूदनम्

On establishing Rādha's sincere longing for Krishna in the earlier chapter, now the poet commences this chapter to show how Krishna feels for her, in an equal yearning.

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कंसारिरपि संसार वासना बन्ध शृङ्खलाम् ।
राधामाधाय हृदये तत्याज व्रजसुन्दरीः॥ ३-१

प-छे :- कंस अरिः अपि संसार वासना बन्ध शृंखलाम् राधाम् आधाय हृदये तत्याज व्रज सुन्दरीः

3-1. ka.nsa ariH=  kamsa's, enemy [Krishna]; api= even [also, not only Rādha but Krishna also felt for the absence of Radha]; sa.nsaara= this worldly; vaasanaa= by nostalgic reminiscences - of earlier births; bandha= bondage; shR^i.nkhalaam [raadhaam ]= shackle [like] [such a raadha]; raadhaam aadhaaya hR^idaye =  such a Rādha, on retaining, in his heart; tatyaaja vraja sundariiH=  left off - bade adieu, to other vraj, beauties.

Even Krishna with certain nostalgic reminiscences of Rādha, since she impressed on his heart like a shackle-like bondage in this worldly life, bade adieu to other beauties of vraj. [3-1]  

If one can enjoy the love of Rādha, he will be shackled to live in this world under love-bondage. When a departed soul cannot find any 'love' in heavens or other worlds, where gods adore and admire each other, and seraphically enjoy their divinity, minus any quotient of living, called love, that soul retains nostalgic reminiscences of this worldly love, and longing further for that love, that soul takes a rebirth.

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इतस्ततस्तामनुसृत्य राधिकाम् अनङ्गबाणव्रणखिन्नमानसः ।
कृतानुतापः स्स कलिन्दनन्दिनी तटान्तकुङ्जे विषसाद माधवः॥ ३-२

प-छे :-  इतः ततः ताम् अनुसृत्य राधिकाम् अनङ्ग बाण व्रण खिन्न मानसः
कृत अनुतापः सः कलिन्द नन्दिनी तट अन्त कुंजे विषसाद माधवः

3-2. ana~Nga=  by formless one's [Love-god's]; baaNa= arrow; vraNa= wounded; khinna  maanasaH= disheartened, with such a heart; kR^ita anutaapaH= made [became,] regretful [for unnecessarily neglecting Rādha]; saH maadhavaH= he, that Krishna; itaH tataH= here, there; taam raadhikaam   anusR^itya= after her, that Rādha, followed [on searching]; kalinda = Mt. Kalinda; nandinii= one who gladdens that Mt., namely River Yamuna, as she originated from this Mt. Kalinda; taTa anta ku.nje= on bank, at edge, in a bower; viSasaada= slumped.

Wounded with the arrows of Lovegod disheartened is his heart, thus he is regretful for his unnecessary neglect of Rādha; he searched for her hither and thither, but when that attempt came to naught, he slumped in a bower edging on the bank of yamuna river. [3-2]

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अष्ट पदि ७ । मुग्ध मधुसूदन हंस गीतम्

मामियम् चलिता विलोक्य वृतम् वधूनिचयेन ।
सापराधतया मयापि न वारितातिभयेन
हरिहरि हतादरतया गता सा कुपितेव । धृवम्॥ अ प ७-१

प - छे:- माम् इयम् चलिता विलोक्य वृतम् वधू निचयेन स अपराधतया मया अपि
न वारिता अति भयेन हरि हरि हत आदरतया गता सा कुपिता इव

a pa 7-1. iyam=  this [Rādha]; maam=  me; vilokya= on seeing; me who was; vadhuu nichayena =  with girls, heaps of [flocks of milkmaids]; vR^itam= surrounded [thronged]; chalitaa = she went away [forsook]; sa apaRādhatayaa mayaa api= with, fault [at fault,] by me, also; ati bhayena= highly, with fret -  I was highly fretfully; that is why I did not; na vaaritaa = not, averted her; hari hari= oh, god, oh, god; saa kupitaa iva= she is, vexed one, as if; hata adaratayaa = hurt, attentiveness [I was flippant of her, so she fled flippantly]; gataa= she fled; reprise :  hari= oh, god; hata aadaraatayaa= marred, courtesy; hari= oh, god; gataa= fled; saa= she is; kupitaa iva=  resenting, as if.

"On seeing me amidst thronging folks of milkmaids this Rādha forsook me... unable to avert her parting, as I was also at fault, I fretfully didn't implore her to stay... oh, god, she fled, as if she is an ireful person, which she isn't... oh, god, I was flippant of her, so she fled that flippantly... [a pa 7-1]

किम् करिष्यति किम् वदिष्यति सा चिरम् विरहेण ।
किम् धनेन जनेन किम् मम जीवनेन गृहेण । हरिहरि … कुपितेव । अ प ७-२

प - छे:-  किम् करिष्यति किम् वदिष्यति सा चिरम् विरहेण |
किम् धनेन जनेन किम् मम जीवनेन गृहेण

a pa 7-2. saa=  she; chiram=  for a long time; viraheNa=  [in my] separation; kim=  what [possible deed to relieve herself of that anguish]; kariSyati= she can do; kim vadiSyati= what, she says [if I go and beg her forgiveness]; mama=  to me; dhanena=  with money [prosperity]; kim=  what [kim prayojanam vinaa Rādhaa =  what is the use of prosperities without Rādha]; janena=  with people [kim prayojanam =  what is the use [with others without Rādha] gR^iheNa [kaa]=  with a house [what use]; jiivitena  kim= with [my] life, what [is its usefulness.]

"What would she do to relieve herself from the long-time anguish owing to my separation... what would she say if I were to go and beg her forgiveness... what is the use of prosperity, people, a palace, or with my very personality, when she won't be with me... [a pa 7-2]

 Here, by saying the 'prosperity' his shriyaH patitvam 'the possessor of Goddess lakSmii' is suggested. And by the word 'people' his prajaa patitvam 'the mastership of living beings' in leading them in and out of mortality is suggested. And with word 'house' bhuu patitvam 'lordship of abodes' is suggested. There is another variant as mama kim gR^iheNa sukhena 'even if riches are there, what is the use with those riches like house or other comforts without Rādha...' would be its import.

Here we have to dwell a little while on rasa siddhaanta 'Treatises on Aesthetic Pleasure...' where romance is but on expressible component.

A psychological theory that is a peculiarly Indian contribution is that of rasa, which is very often though wrongly, translated as sentiment. Rasa is aesthetic pleasure, which is said to be akin to the sublime bliss of God. The writers of alankaara [rhetoric, poetics] follow the Upanishadic view generally, and say that rasa is one and is Brahman. But it can take different forms, which are usually accepted as nine, corresponding to nine bhaavaa-s: emotions, sentiments. bhaavaa-s are of two kinds, sthayii bhaava 'stable' bhaavaa-s and sancaarii bhaavaa-s or unstable bhaavaa-s. It is the former that can become rasa. They are sringaara love, viira heroism, karuNa pity, adbhuta wonder, haasya laughter, bhhayaanaka dread, bhiibhatsa disgust, raudra fury, shaanta quiet or peace. At their base lie the corresponding dominant feelings of rati sexual craving, utsaaha energy, shoka sorrow, vismaya astonishment, haasa mirth, bhaya fear, jugupsa aversion, krodha anger, nirveda self-disparagement, which must be assisted by favourable excitants vi bhaava-s, both aalambana essential, uddiipana enhancing, by reinforcing ensuants anu bhaava, namely, voluntary and saatvika bhaava-sexpressions and also by certain accessories or subordinate feelings sancaarii bhaava-s, vybhicaarii bhaavaas which follow in the wake of the dominant sentiments and diversify themselves. - The Cultural Heritage of India, Vol. III - Philosophies.

Thus the explanations expand and expand. When it is said as 'he is appearing like an embodiment of romance... at 1-11, it is Krishna's personification, with which all milkmaids enjoyed all the aesthetic pleasures endowed by him. Some of the many ensuants of this savoury called aesthetic pleasure are noted here. shR^ngaaara is explained as vibhaavairanubhaavaiH ca bhaavaH sancaarii saattvikaiH | janito bodhitaH sphiito vR^iddhaH shR^ingaa iti ucyate |  bharata i.e., shR^ingaara will be caused by vibhaava, noticed by anu bhaava, excited by sancaarii bhaava, enhanced by saattvika bhaara then it shines forth as shR^ingaara rasa. And vibhaava-s are defined as|  bhaavayanti visheSeNa ye rasaan vai manoharaan | te vibhaavaaH tu kathyante naaTya shaastra kovidaiH || taking its root visheSeNa bhaavayanti [manoharaan rasaan] iti vibhaavaaH 'those that can be heart-pleasingly experienced, they are bhaavaa-s emotions, sentiments, let us call the 'pleasing romantic feelings' a time being.

The shR^ingaara rasa vibhaavaaH are R^itu maalyaa alankaaraiH priya jana gaandharva kaavya sevaabiH | upavana gamana vana vihaaaraiH shR^ingaara rasa samudbhavati 'acts befitting to the season, like wearing garlands and ornaments, moving with dear ones, singing and listing music, reading poetry, pleasure tripping in gardens and pleasure-parks etc., will be excitant factors for pleasing romantic feelings...'

The shR^ingaara rasa anuhaavaaH are nayana vadana prasaadaiH smita madhura vaco dhR^iti pramodaiH ca | madhuraiH svaa anga vikaaraiH tasyaa abhinayaH prayoktavyaH ' smiley faces and sparkling eyes, talking smilingly and melodiously, confidence, happiness, behaving with beautiful bodily gestures, and the like...'

The vyabhicaarii bhaavaaH - a word need be said about this word. The usage of this word is now corrupt and used to mean 'a bitch, or bitching...' That is absolutely wrong from the viewpoint of aesthetics. vyabhicaarii =  vi   abhi   caarii; vi =  visheSeNa =  essentially; abhi =  abhimukhyena =  before mukhyaH before important one, say the hero; caariNaH =  caranti iti vyabhicaariNaH =  those that move, behave, comport themselves. And in shR^ingaara vyabhicaara bhaavaaH are shankaa asuuyaa tathaa glaaniH vyaadhi cintaaa smR^itiH | autsukam vismayaH harao vriiDaa unmaadau bhayam tathaa | viSaado jaDataa nidraa bahudhaa capalaa matiH |iti bhaavaa prayoktavyaaH shR^ingaare vyabhicaariNaH || shR^ingaara tilaka. These are roughly |  doubt, jealousy, misgiving, uneasy thinking, reminiscing, self-confidence, happiness, astonishment, hilarity, shyness, craziness, slight fear, sadness, stolidity, sleepiness, uneasiness are the feeling in pleasing romanticism.

Then the shR^ingaara saattvika bhaavaaH expressions in pleasing romantics are sthambhH, svedaH, atha romaancaH, svara bhango atha, vepadhuH | vaivarNyam, ashru pralaya, iti aSTau saattvikaa mataaH || |  sh^ingaara tilaka freezing, sweating, bristling, voice change, shuddering, colour fade, tearfulness, self-torment are the eight states. So goes the list of moods and their expressions. With all this software Krishna makes others happy.

'As shR^ingaara has two aspects viz., samyoga [union] and vi yoga [separation,] there are two stages in this rasa, [rasa anubhuuti] , which the devotees enjoy. One in his company as they are in union with him, while the other in his absence they suffer the misery of separation and think of him all the time, so much so that they cannot see or experience anything but Krishna. According to some, the stage of separation is therefore superior to that of union.' |  The Cultural Heritage of India. Vol. III, Philosophies.

Coming to our mainstay, Krishna also has a longing feeling for his devotees, personified here as Rādha, whom he once neglected. Here he is in the state of smaraNa avastha 'reminiscing' his wrongdoing and her resent. It doesn't matter. A wrongdoer has a right to beg excuses, entwining threads and laces of many stories, at anytime. Let him do so, but first let him soliloquize what he has to say or feel for Rādha.

चिन्तयामि तदाननम् कुटिलभ्रु कोपभरेण ।
शोणपद्ममिवोपरि भ्रमताकुलम् भ्रमरेण। हरिहरि । कुपितेव । अ प ७-३

प-छे :- चिन्तयामि तत् आननम् कुटिल भ्रू कोप भरेण
शोण पद्मम् इव उपरि भ्रमता अकुलम् भ्रमरेण

a pa 7-3. kopa bhareNa=choler, filled with [hot-tempered]; kuTila bhruu= curvy [knitted,] eyebrows; upari= over; bhramataa= whirling; bhramareNa= by honeybee; akulam iva = agitated [frenzied,] resembles; shoNa= red; padmam= lotus; tat aananam chintayaami= that, face, I muse.

"I muse on that face which might be cholerically reddened with knitted eyebrows, and it must be resemblant of a red-lotus frenzied at a whirling honeybee over it... [a pa 7-3]

 'I muse on that face...' finishes with a word 'bemusedly...' It is his bounden duty to incite her, not to a resentment or anger, but to a full-fledged choleric state. Otherwise he will not have a chance to beg pardon. A lotus sways many times when jolted by a honeybee, and in doing so its petals widen and contract. Here the bee agitating Rādha is the buzzing thought of Krishna, knitted eyebrows are knitting/opening petals, and reddish lotus like face of Rādha/lotus still reddened, angering at bee/Krishna. upama.

तामहम् हृदि संगतामनिशम् भृशम् रमयामि ।
किम् वनेऽनुसरामि तामिह किम् वृथा विलपामि। हरिहरि ... कुपितेव। अ प ७-४

प-छे :- ताम् अहम् हृदि संगताम् अनिशम् भृशम् रमयामि किम् वने अनुसरामि
ताम् इह किम् वृथा विलपामि तन्वि खिन्नमसूयया हृदयम् तवाकलयामि

a pa 7-4. aham=  I am; vane= in woodland; taam=  her; kim= why; anusaraami= following [searching]; iha vR^ithaa= now, futilely; kim vilapaami= why, I wail [here, I worry]; hR^idi= in heart; anisham= always; sa.ngataam= unified; taam= about her; bhR^isham ramayaami= highly, I am delighting her; [or, the word 'kim' can be taken as interrog. ad said 'what for, why should I search?']

"Now why should I futilely search her in woodlands, why should I worry for her now, when she is always unified with my heart, and whom I always delight, wholeheartedly...? [a pa 7-4]

तन्वि खिन्नमसूयया हृदयम् तवाकलयामि ।
तन्न वेद्मि कुतो गतासि न तेन तेऽनुनयामि। हरिहरि ... कुपिते । अ प ७-५

प-छे :- तन्वि खिन्नम् असूयया हृदयम् तव आकलयामि तत् न वेद्मि कुतः
गता असि नतेन ते अनुनयामि दृश्यसे पुरतो गतागतमेव मे विदधासि|

a pa 7-5. hè tanvi=  oh, comely Rādha; tava hR^idayam= your, heart; asuuyayaa khinnam= by jealousy, downhearted; aakalayaami= [thus] I reckon; kutaH gataa asi= where, gone, you are; na vedmi= not, I know; tat= thereby; natena= head bent [bowing, reverently]; te anunayaami= you, I appease; [or, tat= thereby, because of your jealousy; kuto gataa asi na vedmi kim? = where you have gone don't I know; I know it; tena= thereby; te= you; na anunayaami= not, I appease; I needn't appease you, as I am aware of your departure on account of your own jealousy.]

"Oh, comely Rādha, jealousy downhearted your heart, not I, thus I reckon, but I am unaware as to where you have gone... now I reverently beseech you... tell me where you are... [a pa 7-5]

 In the first part of the verse state of ecstasy udvega avasta is said as in: yasmin ramyam aramyam ca syaat prakarSaaya kim can na | vidveSaH praaNitavye sa udvegaH prakiirtitaH || shR^ingaara tilaka In the later part talking beseechingly is said as in bambhramiiti mano yasminautsukyaayitam tataH | vaacaH priyaa aashrayaa eva sa pralaapa smR^ito yathaa || 'whose heart longs for his dear ones, whose talking will be over his dear ones, that is said to be pralaapanam 'an ecstatic talking.' Next he assumes that Rādha is before him, but not replying him.

दृश्यसे पुरतो गतागतमेव मे विदधासि।
किम् पुरेव समम्भ्रमम् परिरम्भणम् न ददासि । हरिहरि …कुपितेव । अ प ७-६

प - छे:-  दृश्यते पुरतः गत आगतम् इव मे विदधासि
किम् पुरा इव समम्भ्रमम् परिरम्भणम् न ददा असि

a pa 7-6. me purataH dR^ishyase= in my, front, you are appearing; gata aagatam iva= comer, goer, as if; vidadhaasi= you do [behave]; puraa iva= earlier, as with; samambhramam =  tantalizingly; parirambhaNam= tight hugging; kim na dadaa asi= why, don't, endow, you.

"You are appearing before me as if you are toing and froing towards me, why don't you endow a tight and tantalising embrace to me as you used to earlier... [a pa 7-6]

 This soliloquizing is as old as Ramayana, where Rama talks to disappeared Seetha: kim dhaavasi priye nuunam dR^iSTaa asi kamala iikSaNe | vR^ikSeNa aacchaadya ca aatmaanam kim maam na pratibhaaSase || 3-60-26 'Oh lotus eyed lady, in fact I have seen you my dear, then why this running away... even why this veiling of yours with leaves... why not reply me...' etc; and many other serenading soliloquies of Rama.

क्क्षम्यतामपरम् कदापि तवेदृशम् न करोमि ।
देहि सुन्दरि दर्शनम् मम मन्मथेन दुनोमि । हरिहरि ।  कुपितेव । अ प ७-७

प - छे:-  क्क्षम्यताम् अपरम् कदा अपि तव ईदृशम्
न करोमि देहि सुन्दरी दर्शनम् मम मन्मथेन दुनोमि

a pa 7-7. O, sundarii=  O, beauty [for, you take pride in your beauty]; kShamyataam= let [my offence be] pardoned; kadaa api aparam= never, again, next [ever]; tava= to you [in your respect]; iidR^isham =  this sort of [wrongdoing]; na karomi= not, I do; mama dehi darshanam [or, ramaNam] =  to me, give, your audience, [or, enjoyment]; manmathena dunomi= by Lovegod, I am seethed.

"O, beauty, let my offence be pardoned... I will never, nevermore do this again in your respect... come, give me your audience, as Lovegod is seething me... [a pa 7-7]

 In the earlier part of verse an ecstasied mood of love unmaada avasthata atasmimstaditi bhraantiH unmaadaat iva jaayate - is stated.

वर्णितम् जयदेवकेन हरेरिदम् प्रवणेन ।
बिन्दुबिल्वसमुद्रसंभवरोहिणीरमणेन । हरिहरि ।  कुपितेव । अ प । ७-८

प-छे :-  वर्णितम् जयदेवकेन हरेः इदम् प्रवणेन बिन्दुबिल्व समुद्र संभव रोहिणी रमणेन

a pa 7-8. hareH pravaNena=  of Krishna, in devotedness; bindubilva [or, Kendubilva]= in Bindubilva village; samudra= ocean/ocean-like; sa.mbhava= begotten; rohiNii ramaNena= Star Rohini, [one who] delights that star - namely the moon; jayadevakena= by Jayadeva; idam varNitam= this is, romanticized.

"O, Rādha, this I appeal to you as romanticized by poet Jayadeva, a devotee of Krishna, whom the poetic ocean called binbdubilva village has begotten, and who delights starry poetry, as ocean-born moon delight his star of stars, namely Rohini... hence listen to him and tell me where you are... [a pa 7-8]

 This is said to be a grand poetic construct. Unlike the doubtful expression of Kalidasa as at: kaH suuryaH prabhavo vamshaH? Jayadeva is self-assertive in asserting that though he came from a small village, he will be a moon in starry poetry, raising from earth to skyward like the ocean-born moon. This village Bindubilva, or Kendubilva, or Kenduli is said to be in Utkala area. If Utkala historically belongs to vanga desha i.e., Bengal, the poet is a bengaalii. Else, he is Oriya,

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हृदि बिसलताहारो नायम् भुजङ्गमनायकः
कुवलयदलश्रेणी कण्ठे न सा गरलद्युतिः।
मलयजरजो नेदम् भस्म प्रियारहिते मयि
प्रहर न हरभ्रान्त्यानङ्ग क्रुधा किमु धावसि॥ ३-३

प-छे :- हृदि बिसलता हारः न अयम् भुजंगम नायकः कुवलय दल श्रेणी कण्ठे न सा गरल द्युतिः
मलयज रजः न इदम् भस्म प्रिया रहिते मयि प्रहर न हर भ्रान्त्या अनंग क्रुधा किमु धावसि

3-3. hè ana.nga=  you, bodiless fellow [Lovegod]; priyaa rahite mayi= darling, without, in my respect; hara bhraantyaa= hara, [Shiva,] confusedly - mistaking me for god shiva; na prahara= don't, let fly  your arrow, don't batter; hR^idi= on [my] chest, in heart; ayam=  this ; bisalataa haaraH= lotus stalks, garland - that is there; na bhujan gama naayakaH=  is not, snakes, king of; kaNThe=  at neck; saa=  that; kuvalaya dala shreNii= black-lotus, petals, row [circlet]; na garala  dyutiH= not, in venom's, in hue; idam malayaja rajaH= this, sandal-paste's, dried up particles; na  bhasma=  not, ashes; krudhaa   kimu   dhaavasi= rancorously, why [kim u =  vexatiously, you run after [hound me.]

"You knavish bodiless Lovegod, don't batter me with your arrows when I am without my darling; don't chase me mistaking me for god Shiva... look, this garland of lotus-stalks on my chest is not king cobra; blue-lotus petal circlet at my neck is not the mark of venom on Shiva's throat; these particles of dried-up sandal-paste on my body are not the ashes on the body of Shiva body... why do you hound me rancorously and vexatiously... [3-3]

 "When Shiva reduced you, not even ashes of yours remained, and then he graced you to be a formless entity but with name... now, if you wish to take that revenge on Shiva, and rancorously and vexatiously chase me mistaking me for Shiva, I will now make you even a nameless, functionless entity... be careful..." is the finishing line.

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पाणौ मा कुरु चूतसायकम् अमुम् मा चापमारोपय
क्रीडानिर्जितविश्व मूर्छितजनाघातेन किम् पौरुषम् ।
तस्या एव मृगीदृशो मनसिजप्रेङ्खत्‌कटाक्क्षाशुग
श्रेणीजर्‌जरितम् मनागपि मनो नाद्यापि संधुक्क्षते॥ ३-४

प-छे :-  पाणौ मा कुरु चूत सायकम् अमुम् मा चापम् आरोपय
क्रीडा निर्जित विश्व मूर्छित जन आघातेन किम् पौरुषम्
तस्या एव मृगी दृशः मनसिज प्रेन्खत् कटाक्क्ष अशुग
श्रेणी जर्जरितम् मनागपि मनः न अद्य अपि संधुक्क्षते

3-4. kriiDaa=  by sport [love-sport]; nirjita= vanquished; vishva= world - one who has it under his control]; manasija= oh, Lovegod; paaNau amum= in hand, that; chuuta= mango [tender leaf]; saayakam= arrow; maa kuru= don't, make [don't wield it]; chaapam  maa   aaropaya = bow, don't, string [with bowstring]; muurchhita jana aaghaatena= fainted [killed,] people, by killing; kim  paurushham= what is, valour [kimpaurushham=  vainglorious]; mR^igii dR^ishaH= deer, look [one having them, Rādha]; tasyaa eva= by them, only; prenkhat= flitting; kaTaakSha [viikShaNa]= tilting glances; ashuga= that go at full tilt [arrows like glances]; shreNii= by rows, by fusillades; jar jaritam =  pulverised to particles; manaH= [my] heart; manaagapi= in the least; na adya= not, now; api  sa.ndhukShate= composed [or, sa.ntuSyate=  happy.]

"Oh, Lovegod, agreed that you are the vanquisher of this world with your love-sports, but now don't wield that arrow of tender mango leaf; even if you wiled it, don't string your bow with bowstring to take an aim with that mango-leaftlet-arrow at me... now my heart is disconcerted and pulverised by the fusillades of tilting deer-like glances of Rādha that are at full tilt targeting me... as such, of what worth is your valour in killing someone who is already killed... [3-4]

 In other mms this verse is placed as the last verse of this chapter.

Here, if anyone is going to ask Krishna, "On one hand you say in so many 'unusual' words, that Lovegod is murdering you; on the other you say that your own ladylove has already murdered you; both of them are your own creations, have you got a method in your madness to say so?"

For this Krishna says, "Yes! Yes! Why blame that fellow Lovegod, when this girl has become more than this fellow... I lack a method in my madness, agreed, for my own creation bothers me much..."  and it is detailed in next song by the poet.

Verse Locator

भ्रूपल्लवम् धनुरपाङ्गतरङ्गितनि बाणाः गुणः श्रवणपालिरिति स्मरेण।
तस्यामनङ्गजयजङ्गमदेवतायाम् अस्त्राणि निर्जितजगन्ति किमर्पितानि॥ ३-५

प-छे :-  भ्रू पल्लवम् धनुः अपांग तरंगितनि बाणाः गुणः श्रवण पालिः
इति स्मरेण तस्याम् अनंग जय जंगम देवतायाम् अस्त्राणि निर्जित जगन्ति किम् अर्पितानि

3-5. ana.nga jaya=  Lovegod, for the sake of victory; ja.ngama devataayaam=  [she who is like a] - mobile, goddess; tasyaam= in her [in Rādha]; smareNa= by Lovegod; bhruu pallavam dhanuH= eyebrows, leaflet-like, as bow; apaa.nga tara.ngitani= slanting-glances, lilting ones; baaNaaH= as arrows; shravaNa paaliH guNaH= ear-side, hanging flowery tassels [karNa lataa,] as bowstring; iti= this way [if thought, if seen]; nirjita jaganti astraaNi= completely conquerable , worlds, missiles [those missiles that can completely conquer all worlds]; arpitaani   kim = gave [entrusted,] or what?

"Has this Love-god entrusted all his missiles that can completely conquer all the worlds to this mobile goddess like Rādha, or what? If seen in this way, her leaflet like arching eyebrows appears as his bow; her slanting, lilting, slitting glances as his arrows; flowery tassels hanging at her ear-sides as the bowstring of that fellow... Yes! Both are connivers... [3-5]

 'Then why blame that unseen conniver, let me blame the seeable conniver as to why she became so hostile at me, just for one [among many of my meaningful] mistakes... I will tell her like this, if she is found..."

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भ्रूचापे निहितः कटाक्क्षविशिखो निर्मातु मर्मव्यथाम्
श्यामात्मा कुटिलः करोतु कबरीभारोऽपि मारोद्यमम्।
मोहान्तावदयम्च तन्वि तनुताम् बिम्बाधरो रागवान्
सद् वृत्तस्तनमण्दलस्तव कथम् प्राणैर्मम क्रीडति॥ ३-६

प-छे :- भ्रू चापे निहितः कटाक्क्ष विशिखः निर्मातु मर्म व्यथाम्
श्याम आत्मा कुटिलः करोतु कबरीभारः अपि मारोद्यमम्
मोहान् तान् अव दयम् च तन्वि तनुताम् बिम्ब अधरः रागवान्
सद् वृत्तः स्तन मण्दलः तव कथम् प्राणैः मम क्रीडति

3-6. hè tanvii=  oh, beauty; bhruu chaape=  in eyebrow, bow; nihitaH=  kept [take an aim] kaTaakSha  vishikhaH =  sidelong, pardoning glances; marma vyathaam= vitals, torture; nirmaatu =  may build [may cause]; shyaama  aatmaa= black, by nature; kuTilaH kabarii bhaaraH api= curvy, hair-bun, weighty one, even [rather, curvy horsewhip like braid]; karotu= may do; maarodyamam =  lashing [or, maara  udayam =  Lovegod's, activity]; raagavaan  taan   bimba   adharaH   cha= reddish [or, loveable,] small red cucumber like, lips, also; a + vadayamun = un , speakable; mohaan tanutaam =  infatuation, may increase; sad vR^ittaH = well, roundly [or, well, behaved, decorous]; tava stana maNdalaH =  your, bosom, sphere [bosomy bust]; katham mama praaNaiH kriiDati= how, with my, loves, playing; [pashya=  see]

"Oh, beauteous Rādha, your sidelong glances fitted on your bow-like eyebrows to take aim may cause torture to the vitals of others, your curvy horsewhip-like weighty braid may lash others in Lovegod's activity, and small-reddish cucumber like lips of yours may also increase infatuation in others, but see how your decorous bosomy bust is playing with my lives... [3-6]

Verse Locator

तानि स्पर्शसुखानि ते च तरलाः स्निग्ध दृशोर्विभ्रमाः
तद् वक्‌त्रांबुजसौरभम् स च सुधास्यन्दी गिराम् वक्रिमा।
सा बिम्बाधरमाधुरीति विषयासङ्गेऽपि चेन्मानसम्
तस्या लग्नसमाधि हन्त विरहव्याधिः कथम् वर्‌धते॥ ३-७

प-छे :- तानि स्पर्श सुखानि ते च तरलाः स्निग्ध दृशोः विभ्रमाः
तद् वक्त्र अंबुज सौरभम् स च सुधा स्यन्दी गिराम् वक्रिमा
सा बिम्ब अधर माधुरी इति विषया सन्गे अपि चेत् मानसम्
तस्या लग्न समाधि हन्त विरह व्याधिः कथम् वर्धते

3-7. taani=  those; sparsha sukhaani=  touch, comforts of; te cha=  they, also; taralaaH  snigdha  dR^ishoH vibhramaaH= billowy, friendly, eyes', flirtation; tat  vaktra   a.mbuja  saurabham = that, face, lotus-like, perfume; sa cha= that, also; sudhaa syandii giraam vakrimaa [caaturyam] =  ambrosia, pouring, words, finesse; saa  bimba   adhara maadhurii= that, small reddish cucumber like, lips, lusciousness; iti= this way; viSayaa sa.nge api= in subjects [of sensory organs,] attached to, even; maanasam=  heart; tasyaa=  in her; lagna samaadhi chet=  held fast, in [her] concentration, if [if unified in her thought]; viraha vyaadhiH = disunion, [called] sickness; katham vardhate= how, escalating; hanta= alas/amazing.


This verse is also explained in this way - sparsha sukhaani =  comforts from touching her [now being sensed]; taani =  they alone [those that were felt previously; by this sense of touching, namely skin, is satisfied even now]; taralaaH snigdha dR^ishoH vibhramaaH = now the eye filling sights of environ; te cha = they alone [those that were seen earlier – hence sense of seeing is satisfied even now]; vaktra a.mbuja saurabham = now the perfume that is being smelled; tat=  that alone [that was smelt earlier, by this sense of smell is still satisfied]; sudhaa syandii giraam vakrimaa = now what all the ears are listening; sa cha= hers, only [those that were heard earlier, hence sense of hearing remains satisfied]; bimba adhara maadhurii = lips still have that palatability; saa =  of her [which were once enjoyed, hence sense of taste remains satisfied]; rest as above.

"Those comfortable touches are still lasting; those flirtations of billowy and friendly eyes are still lingering; that perfume from her lotus-like face is still redolent; those luscious and ambrosial words with finesse poured forth from her reddish cucumber like lips are still immutable in memory; though no single sense organ is dissatisfied, as each is still enjoying the good old comfort, my heart is longing for her, in spite of the fact that hearts usually long after someone or something, an unavailable satisfying factor... this is amazingly self-contradictory, as it happens only in 'love...' [3-7]

 If it is asked 'is it enough that the satisfaction of sensory organs is simply sufficient, leaving the motor organs? For this it is replied 'motor organs are subservient to sensory organs, as they cannot perform actions on their own... further, the classification of motor organs is varied and numerous... hence, leave them as they are...'

Verse Locator

सारेकन्दलिताश्चितम्ददतुनः क्षेमम्‌ कटाक्षोर्मयः ॥ ३-८

प-छे :- तिर्यक् क्ण्ठ विलोल मौलि तरल अवत्तम्सस्य वंश उच्चरत्
दीप्ति स्थान कृत अवधान ललना लक्षैः न संलक्षिताः
संमुग्धे मधुसूदनस्य मधुरे राधा मुख इन्दौ सुधा
सारे कन्दलिताः चिरम् ददतु नः क्षेमम् कटाक्क्ष ऊर्मयः

3-8. tiryak kNTha=  transverse, neck; vilola mauli= rocking, head; tarala  avattamsasya =  tossing, headgear; madhusuudanasya= of Madhusuudana - of Krishna; va.msha= mohana vamshi, his flute; uccarat diipti sthaana= sounding off [blurted,] in higher, octave; kR^ita avadhaana= on making, listening; lalanaa lakShaiH= girl folks, in lakhs - numerous; na sa.mlakShitaaH= not, aimed at; sa.mmugdhe= highly, infatuating; madhure= luscious; sudhaa saare= nectarean, essence having; Rādhaa mukha indau= in Rādha's, face, called moon; ciram= for a long-time; kandalitaaH =  sprouted; kaTaakSha= gracing sidelong glances; uurmayaH= ripples; naH= to us; kShemam  dadatu =  impunity, let give.

Slanting his neck transversely, tossing head with headgear swingingly, Krishna then started to sound off his transverse flute, mohana vamshi, in a higher octave; then his highly infatuating looks that have sprouted in the moon like face of Rādha, enjoying the luscious and nectarean essence of her face for a long-time, are now not aiming at those thousands of milkmaids that have come again to listen his fluting, as those looks are now searching for Rādha... let those ripples like gracing sidelong glances endow us impunity in all our actions... [3-8]

This verse will not be found in northern mms, hence the problem with the construct of na sa.mlakShitaaH may not be observed. This is available in the publication of Gurudev Ranade Institute of Philo and Mysticism, Benguluru. There seems to be a riddle in that, and if any scholars can inform the correct construction, this will be amended.


इति गीतगोविन्दे मुग्धमधुसूदनो नाम तृतीयः  सर्गः

Thus, this is the 3rd chapter called Winsome Krishna in giita govindam of Jayadeva.

Verse Locator for Ch. 3 - mugdha madhussudanaH |  Winsome Krishna

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Sept, 2003, Desiraju Hanumanta Rao; Revised: Oct 08