Chapter [Sarga] 8 - Apologetic Krishna

Krishna appears before Rādha from out of thin air, on the next day morning. But Rādha on seeing his appearance and apologetic look, starts her rants and raves at him.

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अथ कथमपि यामिनीम् विनीय स्मरशरजर्जरितापि सा प्रभाते।
अनुनयवचनम् वदन्तमग्रे प्रणतमपि प्रियमाह साभ्यसूयम्॥ ८-१

प च्छे- अथ कथम् अपि यामिनीम् विनीय स्मर शर जर्जरिता अपि सा प्रभाते
अनुनय वचनम् वदन्तम् अग्रे प्रणतम् अपि प्रियम् आह साभ्यसूयम् ॥ ८-१

8-1. atha= then; saa= she, Raadha; smara shara jarjaritaa api= Lovegod's, by arrows, battered, even though; katham api= somehow; yaaminiim= night [that which has four quarters and is to be spent with an uncertainty, means - with the problem of separateness]; viniiya= [somehow] spent; prabhaate= in morning; agre= before her - Krishna appeared in her fore]; anunaya, vachanam / vinayam, vadantam= with apologetic, words, he who is speaking; praNatam api = he is supplicating, though; priyam= to her lover [Krishna]; aaha= [she] spoke; sa+abhyasuuyam= with jealousy [petulantly.]

On next day mooning Raadha saw Krishna appearing in her fore from nowhere, and started speaking to her apologetically and suppliantly with palmfold; but, she had to talk to him petulantly, because she somehow spent last night, an unspendable night throughout which Lovegod's arrows have been battering her, besides the problem of her solitude. [8-1]

Now she becomes khaNDita naayika one among eight kinds of poetic heroines, who speaks disparagingly on noticing her man spent time with other heroines.

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अष्टपदि १७ लक्श्मीपतिरत्नावलि

वहति नयनमनुरागमिव स्फुटमुदितरसाभिनिवेशम्॥
हरिहरि याहि माधव याहि केशव मा वद कैतववादम्
तामनुसर सरसीरुहलोचन या तव हरति विषादम् - धृवम्॥ अ प १७-१

 प च्छे - रजनि जनित गुरु जागर राग कषायितम् अलस निमेशम्
वहति नयनम् अनुरागम् इव स्फुटम् उदित रस अभिनिवेशम्
हरि हरि याहि माधव याहि केशव मा वद कैतव वादम्
ताम् अनुसर सरसीरुह लोचन या तव हरति विषादम्

a pa 17-1. hè maadhava= you, maadhava; yaahi= away with you; kaitava vaadam maa vada= beguiler's, lingo, don't, harp; hè keshava= oh, kehava - one with beautiful head hair, one who is interested in lovely women that adore their hairdos beautifully; yaahi= be off - reprise.

hè sarasii ruha lochana= oh, lotus-like, eyed one [here, the pair of eyes are luring, one with luring eyes; yaa= which girl; tava viSaadam harati= your, woes, takes away; taam anusara= her, you tag along;

rajani janita= night, caused; guru jaagara= by much, waking; raaga= reddened by passion towards your girlfriend / with red colour cosmetic of your girlfriend; [tava nayanam = your eyes]; kaSaayitam= a little reddened;


 alasa nimesham= with weakened, winks;


 udita rasa abhinivesham= sprang up [buoyant,] in romance [enjoying, in shR^ingaara] those that are experts in; tava nayanam= your, eyes; anuraagam= interestedness [in her alone]; sphuTam vahati=clearly, bear [those marks]; iva= as though - they tell so.

hari hari= oh god, oh god - oh boy, oh boy [in disdain; this is a catchword of those days, made available by the poet as he has not said this poem for kings, queens, or courtiers. This is still retained in Indian vocabulary, in forms like - hai rè hai, vaarè vaa, ayoyo, aDeDe, raamaraama... etc., as an expression of disdain, disgust, or sorry.]

"Be off, Krishna, better harp not on beguiler's lingo... leave me alone...

Your lotusy eyes, ever-buoyant and expressive of your desultory indulgences, are now winking weakly indicating your unsleeping; further they are doubly reddened, by nightlong waking and by the lipstick's colour of your lover, clearly bearing the mark of your curiousness about her... ergo tag along her who makes you woeless... why me... oh, boy, oh boy... [a pa 17-1]

Then he is about to concoct something like 'I was searching for you sleeplessly... I searched nightlong, hence my eyes are reddish... but... yet... that...' and then Raadha cuts in to rap out the following.

दशनवसनमरुणम् तव कृष्ण तनोति तनोरनुरूपम्॥ अ प १७-२

प च्छे - कज्जल मलिन विलोचन चुंबन विरचित नीलिम रूपम्
दशन वसनम् अरुणम् तव कृष्ण तनोति तनोः अनुरूपम्

a pa 17-2. hè kR^iSNa= oh, Krishna; kajjala malina= by mascara, besmirched; vilochana cu.mbana= on eyes, by kissing; virachita niilima ruupam= besmeared, blackness, a mark of; [tava] dashana vasanam aruNam= on teeth, covering - your lips [that are with the] glow of; tava tanoH tanoti= to your, [colour of] body, enriching; reprise - yaahi maadhava... yaa harati viSaadam= as above.

"Now matching is the glow of your lips with the blueblack colour of your body for the mascara on your love's eyes seems splodged on them when you kissed her... enough of it... be off... Krishna... &c [17-2]

वपुरनुहरति तव स्मरसंगरखरनखरक्षतरेखम्।
मरकतशकलकलितकलधौतलिपिरेव रतिजयलेखम्॥ अ प १७-३

 प च्छे - वपुः अनुहरति तव स्मर संगर खर नखर क्षत रेखम्
मरकत शकल कलित कल धौत लिपिः एव रति जय लेखम्

a pa 17-3. tava vapuH= your, body; smara sa.ngara= love's, war [warring in love-war, in grapples of courtship]; khara= sharp; nakhara= with fingernail' kShata rekham= fallen, chafes - streaks; marakata shakala= on emeralds, pieces of; kalita= carved; kala dhauta= with highly washed - finely melted - gold; lipiH= streaks - of gold; rati jaya lekham= in lovemaking, victory, certificate; anuharati iva= exceeds, as if.

A golden lettered certificate of merit in lovemaking, ornately chirographed with highly refined gold, gilded on emeraldine plaques to boot, seems to have been given to you... for your beryllus body is excelling with such withy carvings of streaks and scratches of fingernails in lovemaking... be off &c... [17-3]

चरणकमलगलदलक्तसिक्तमिदम् तव हृदयमुदारम्।
दर्शयतीव बहिर्मदनद्रुमनवकिसलयपरिवारम्॥ अ प १७-४

 प च्छे - चरण कमल गलत् अलक्त सिक्तम् इदम् तव हृदयम् उदारम्
दर्शयति इव बहिः मदन द्रुम नव किसलय परि वारम्

a pa 17-4. idam udaaram= this, broad [or, bounteous]; tava hR^idayam= your, bosom; charaNa kamala galat alakta siktam [or, kamala dala laktaka siktam]= from feet, called lotuses, slid, with red feet-paint, wet with; madana druma= love, tree; nava kisalaya parivaaram= with new, tender leaves, whorled; bahiH= to outside; darshayati iva = showing - appearing, as though.

"This broad chest of yours now wet with red-lac footpaint slid from some girl's lotusy feet, appears as an all-embracing love-tree whorled with love-enticing new coppery leaflets, to moor anyone coming under its berth... enough are these moorings and strivings... be off... &c... [17-4]

The simile is between coppery red leaflets of tree and reddish foot-paint of girls, and between the love-giving Krishna, and shade/comfort giving tree. If a tree is wetted many times, it will bear leaves anew. If love is satiated it bears newer fruits. This posture is called krodha bandha - vaatsaayana the main treatise on aesthetic romance.

दशनपदम् भवदधरगतम् मम जनयति चेतसि खेदम्।
कथयति कथमधुनापि मया सह तव वपुरेतदभेदम्॥ अ प १७-५

प च्छे- दशन पदम् भवत् अधर गतम् मम जनयति चेतसि खेदम्
कथयति कथम् अधुना अपि मया सह तव वपुः एतत् अभेदम्

a pa 17-5. bhavat adhara gatam= your, lip, gone in; dashana padam= tooth, foot [bite]; mama chetasi janayati khedam= in my, heart, causing, agony;

api adhunaa= even, now - even then;

tava vapuH= your, body; mayaa saha= me, along with; etat= all this [said, alleged singleness]; a+bhedam= not, separated [entity of raadhamaadhavatvam]; mama chetasi = in my, heart; katham kathayati= how, [my heart is] saying so.

tava vapuH= your, body; mayaa [vapuH] saha= my, [body] along with; a+bhedam= not, different; katham kathayati= how, you say so.

"Tooth bites on your lips cause agony to my heart, yet my heart says that we two are inseparably one... I don't know why... be off... &c...


Seeing tooth-bites on your lips my heart is anguished, even then you say that we are inseparably one, indissolubly concerted etc, etc... cozenage, or what... be off... &c... [17-5]

Some heavy-duty Philo on 'oneness of Radhakrishna' is imbued in this one stanza. This gives root to one viewpoint, darshana - a+cintya bheda a+bheda bhaava; generally it is - heedless of difference or non-difference - in supreme soul and individual soul, while the Philo thinking prior to this was manifoldly different. Then the argument is - 'though your lip is bitten, I feel pain in it, for we two may be different bodily but one in soul - a+bheda/non-difference. 'I have bitten my lip so ecstatically, hence I don't feel pain' - a+bheda. 'Your lip is bitten, not mine' bheda/difference. 'Though your lip is bitten, I feel that mine too is bitten - bheda-a-bheda - difference, yet non-difference. So goes endless arguments, understandably. Philosophising all this, at this level of understanding the wordsmithy of Jayadeva, would be futile.

बहिरिव मलिनतरम् तव कृष्ण मनोऽपि भविष्यति नूनम् ।
कथमथ वंचयसे जनमनुगतमसमशरज्वरदूनम् ॥ अ प १७-६

प च्छे - बहिः इव मलिन तरम् तव कृष्ण मनोः अपि भविष्यति नूनम्
कथम् अथ वंचयसे जनम् अनुगतम् असम शर ज्वर दूनम्

a pa 17-6. kR^iSNa= hè, Krishna; tava manoH api= your, heart, even; bahiH iva= external, like [like your external body]; malina taram= grimy, higher in degree [grimiest]; nuunam= definitely; bhaviSyati= it will be [it seems to be];

atha - athavaa = samprashna= if not [otherwise];

asama shara= Lovegod's, by arrows; jvara duunam= with fever, those that scorched - by arrows; / jvala maanam= those that are being blazing in love caused by Lovegod;

anugatam janam= following, people [your adherents, admirers]; katham vanchayase = how, you deceive - let down; [be off.]

"Your heart seems definitely grimier than your begrimed body, if not how come you let down your own admirers, agonised in the lovefever caused by Love-god's arrows? Be off, Krishna... &c... [17-6]

भ्रमति भवानबलाकवलाय वनेषु किमत्र विचित्रम्।
प्रथयति पूतनिकैव वधूवधनिर्दयबालचरित्रम्॥ अ प १७-७

 प च्छे - भ्रमति भवान् अबला कवलाय वनेषु किम् अत्र विचित्रम्
प्रथयति पूतनिक इव वधू वध निर्दय बाल चरित्रम्

a pa 17-7. bhavaan= you; vaneSu= in forests [in Brindavan]; abalaa kabalaaya= to wolf down, girls - even Colloq English has names like wolf, lady-killer etc for a playboy; bhramati= you roam; kim atra vichitram= what, therein, surprise [it is unsurprising]; vadhuu vadha nirdaya= women, in killing, as a merciless one; [tava] baala charitram= [your] childhood, legends, puutanika iva= puutana [the killing of demoness,] as with the legend of; prathayati= explains.

"You roam in Brindavan woodlands only to wolf down womenfolk; which is not at all surprising; your childhood legends amply explain that you are a lady-killer, as in the case of your killing demoness puutana... be off... &c [17-7]

शृणुत सुधामधुरम् विबुधा विबुधालयतोऽपि दुरापम्॥ अ प १७-८

प च्छे- श्री जयदेव भणित रति वंचित खण्डित युवति विलापम्
शृणुत सुधा मधुरम् विबुधा विबुध आलयतः अपि दुरापम्॥ ८-२

a pa 17-8. hè vibudhaaH= oh, literati; sudhaa madhuram= [than] nectar, nectareous; ; jayadeva bhaNita shrii [suukti ] = by Jayadeva, said, promising [song]; rati va.nchita= from intimacy, cheated; khaNDita= a sort of heroine; yuvati vilaapam= a young lady's - Raadha's, lament; vibudha aalayataH api dur aapam= gods, from abode of, even, an impossible song to get; shR^iNuta= be listened.

"Oh, literati, this promising song said by Jayadeva, that which is nectareous than nectar, and an impossible song to get even from the heaven, and that says about 'the bawls of a disregarded heroine' cheated form intimacy, may be listened... [a pa 17-8]

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तवेदम् पश्यन्त्याः प्रसरदनुरागम् बहिरिव
ममाद्य प्रख्यातप्रणयभरभन्गेन कितव
त्वदालोकः शोकादपि किमपि लज्जाम् जनयति॥ ८-२

प च्छे- तव इदम् पश्यन्त्याः प्रसरत् अनुरागम् बहिः इव
प्रिया पाद अलक्त च्उरितम् अरुण च्छाय हृदयम्
मम अद्य प्रख्यात प्रणय भर भन्गेन कितव
त्वत् आलोकः शोकात् अपि किम् अपि लज्जाम् जनयति

8-2. hè kitava= you beguiler; tvat aalokaH= [such as you are,] on your, appearance; priyaa paada alakta cCuritam= [your] love's, with her feet's red paint, bedaubed [chest, thereby]; bahiH prasarat anuraagam= out, flowing, [your] fondness [for her]; iva [sthitam] = as though [it appears]; pashyantyaaH= on seeing; tava idam aruNa cChaaya hR^idayam= your, this, red, coloured [covered,] chest; mama prakhyaata praNaya bhara= for me, [mine] highly renowned, love's, weight [here, a weighty primacy]; bhangena=owing to shattering; adya= now; shokaat api= from grief, than; kim api= what, even [to say]; lajjaam janayati= disgrace, causing.

"You beguiler, your appearance with a chest bedaubed by the red foot-paint of your love reminds me of your fondness for her outflowing from that chest; gazing all the time at that 'otherwise' reddened chest, the primacy of that highly renowned love of mine with you is shattered, thereby, to say nothing of grief, a disgrace is caused in me... what more can be said... [8-2]


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स्थंभाकर्षणदृप्तिहर्षणमहामंत्रः कुरंगीदृशाम्।
भ्रंशः कंसरिपोस्समर्पयतु वश्श्रेयान्सि वंशीरवः॥ ८-३

प च्छे - अन्तः मोहन मौलि घूर्णन चलत् मन्दार विभ्रंशन
स्थंभ अकर्षण दृप्ति हर्षण महा मंत्रः कुरंगी दृशाम्
दृप्यत् दनव दूयमान दिविषत् दुर्वार दुःख आपदाम्
भ्रंशः कंस रिपोः समर्पयतु वः श्रेयान्सि वंशी रवः

8-3. kura.ngii dR^ishaam= for those who have deer like glances, for beauties; antaH mohana= innerly [within heart of hearts,] faint [ecstasizes]; mauli ghuurNana= head, by nodding; calat mandaara vibhra.mshana= moving, mandaara flower, sliding down; sthambha  akarSaNa dR^ipti harSaNa= spellbinding, magnetising, agonising, gladdening; mahaa mantraH=supreme, hymn; dR^ipyat daanava duuyamaana= self-conceited, demons, scorching; diviSat durvaara duHkha aapadaam= for gods, unrelieved, woeful, impediments; bhranshaH ka.msa= Kamsa [the evil king]; ripoH [ kamsa daanava]= enemy [of Kamsa and other demons];' va.mshii ravaH= mohana vamshi, the flute, fluting; vaH shreyaansi samarpayatu = to you all, riches, will endow [in mms shreyaamsi vipolayatu it is the same meaning, but when said vyapohatuvo.ashreyaamsi = vaH a shreyaamshi vyapohayatu = all your problems be relieved by that melodies from flute.]

That which ecstasies the hearts of hearts of deer-eyed beauties, that which makes his head to nod, by which nodding vermilion mandara flowers slide down, that which is a supreme hymn with spellbinding, magnetising, agonising, gladdening effects, that which is scorching to self-conceited demons, that which is a destructive power to the unrelieved woeful impediments of gods in destructing the evil kings like Kamsa, thereby that flutist has become the only enemy of demons, that fluting-melody from that Divine Flute, mohana vamshi, shall endow prosperety to you all. [8-3]

The spellbinding, magnetising, agonising, gladdening effects, called mohana, vashiikaraNa, maaraNa, sthambhana, aakarSaNa are deducible from the treatises of aesthetic romance.


इति गीतगोविन्दे खण्डितावर्णने विलक्श्यलक्श्मीपतिर्नाम अष्ठमः सर्गः

Thus, this is the 8th chapter, called vilakSha/vilakShya lakShmiipatiH - Apologetic Krishna, in Gita Govindam of Jayadeva.

Verse Locator for vilakShya lakShmiipatiH - Apologetic Krishna : Chapter 8

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Oct, 2003, Desiraju Hanumanta Rao; Revised No 08