mahAkavi kAlidAsa


Ritu samhAram
...a medley of seasons

grIShma - summer
first chapter
 28 verses


प्रचण्डसूर्यः स्पृहणीयचन्द्रमाः सदावगाहक्षतवारिसञ्चयः।
दिनान्तरम्योऽभुय्पशान्तमन्मथो निदाघकालोऽयम् उपागत ॥१-१

pracaṇḍasūryaḥ spṛhaṇīyacandramāḥ
sadāvagāhakṣatavārisañcayaḥ |
nidāghakālo'yam upāgataḥ || 1-1

pracaNDasUryaH spR^ihaNIyacandramAH sadAvagAhakShatavArisa~ncayaH |
nidAghakAlo.ayam upAgataH | || 1-1


pracaNDa suuryaH spR^ihaNiiya ca.ndramaa sadaa avagaaha kshama vaari sa.mcayaH dina a.nta ramyaH abhyupashaa.nta manmadho nidaagha kaalo ayam upaagataH priye

1-1. priye= oh, dear; ayam= this [season]; ni daagha kaalaH= utterly, sweltering, time [season]; pra caNDa suuryaH= highly, rampant, of sun; upa aagataH= nearby, came [drawing nigh]; sadaa= always [in daytime]; avagaaha= to take [daytime] baths; kshama= acceptable [good enough; other mms kshata= waters depleted by sun]; vaari= water; samcayaH = heaps [plenteous waters in lakes and rivers]; dina anta= day, at end of [at nightfall]; spR^ihaNiiya= fascinating; candramaa= moon; ramyaH = pleasant [will be the nights]; manmathaH=Manmatha, the Love-god; abhyupashaanta [abhi upa shaanta]= [somehow] almost, be mollified

"Oh, beloved, somewhere the moon is shoving the blackish columns of night aside, somewhere else the palace-chambers are highly exciting with water showering, sprinkling and splashing machines, and elsewhere the matrices of gems like moon-stones, coolant pearls etc are there, and even the pure sandalwood is liquefied with other coolant scents for smearing on bodies... thus, this season is getting an adoration from all the people... [1-2]


Vividly: The nights of these post-spring and pre-summer season will be pleasant for outdoor strolls because the immaculate moon with his softish moonshine will be shoving off the blackish streaks of night, thus abated is the bodily heat... in daytime the palace-chambers fitted with machines that shower, sprinkle or splash waters will be highly exciting, thus abated is the bodily heat... and in nights, slabs of cool moon-stones, candra kaantamaNishilaa paryanka-s, are there to repose... besides, we wear coolish pearly ornaments and dab our bodies with pure sandalwood paste liquefied with coolant scents like yellow camphor, kastuuri etc... when all such coolants are there, how the sun can scald us... hence, this particular period of the season is adorable for one and all...

There is a verse in kAlidAsa abhij~naana shaakuntalam with almost the same meaning: subhaga salila avagaahaaH paaTala samsarga surabhi vana vaataaH |pracChaaya sulabha nidraa divasaaH pariNaama ramaNiiyaaH || Taking this as a clue, much is said that R^itusamhaara is not the work of kAlidAsa, and somebody might have followed his style. It is impossible for anybody to follow his verbiage, prosody or poetics, and hence this must be kAlidAsa's work - is the opinion of others.

In this work, the hero explains the nature of seasons to his heroine, except for this no head and tail of this work is evident, or referenced. Hence, this work is held to be a part of his abhij~naana shaakuntalam, but he may have discarded this piece of Dushyanta's dialogue with Shakuntala, during their wooing and courting for gaandharva vivaaha, lest this work would have become a tedious adversity on the dramatic effect of that drama abhij~naana shaakuntalam, since these verses contain a very personal nature of conversation about rasa-s 'the moods' of seasons.

kAlidAsa is famous to juxtapose two very dissimilar items and link them with a common word to give a beautiful meaning. Here sun is rampantly blazing and the moon is coolly shining. In Raghuvamsha at 11-20, he says that shUrpaNakha is hit - raama manmadha shareNa taaDita...  gandha vat rudhira candanokshitaa i.e., shUrpaNakha is hit with an intolerable love-arrow from rAma, called Lovegod-arrow, where that arrow is an intolerable passion for Rama, and an actual all-ruining missile arrow of Rama, as well. Where is Rama and where is manmatha. And then, her own blood is smearing her body like a sandal-paste - and where is blood and where is sandawood's paste; hence this blazing sun and cooling moon are indicative of bhiibhatsa and sringaara rasa; a+mata padaartha doSa grastam. Hence this usage is ramaNiiya, delightful after some thinking.


निशाः शशाङ्कक्षतनीलराजयः क्वचिद् विचित्रम् जलयन्त्रमन्दिरम्।
मणिप्रकाराः सरसम् च चन्दनम् शुचौ प्रिये यान्ति जनस्य सेव्यताम्॥ १-२

niśāḥ śaśāṅkakṣatanīlarājayaḥ
kvacid vicitram jalayantramandiram |
maṇiprakārāḥ sarasam ca candanam
śucau priye yānti janasya sevyatām || 1-2

nishAH shashA~NkakShatanIlarAjayaH
kvacid vicitram jalayantramandiram |
maNiprakArAH sarasam ca candanam
shucau priye yAnti janasya sevyatAm1-2


Verse Locator

nishaaH shashaa.nka kshata niila raajayaH kvachit vicitram jala ya.ntra ma.ndiram  maNi praakaaraH sa rasam ca ca.ndanam shucau priye yaa.nti janasya sevyataam

1-2.  priye= oh, beloved one; kvachit= somewhere; shashaanka kshata= by moon, marred [shoved aside]; niila raajayaH nishaaH= blackish, columns, nights; [elliptic: kvachit= somewhere else]; vi citram= highly, exciting; jala yantra mandiram= water, machines, palace-chambers; [elliptic: kvachit= else where]; maNi praakaaraH= gem, matrices; [elliptic: kvachit= somewhere]; sa rasam= with, liquid [liquefied]; shucau= pure; candanam ca= sandalwood paste, even; yaanti= gets; janasya= for [all] people; sevyataam= [season gets] adoration].

"Oh, beloved, somewhere the moon is shoving the blackish columns of night aside, somewhere else the palace-chambers are highly exciting with water showering, sprinkling and splashing machines, and elsewhere the matrices of gems like moon-stones, coolant pearls etc are there, and even the pure sandalwood is liquefied with other coolant scents for smearing on bodies... thus, this season is getting an adoration from all the people... [1-2]


Vividly: The nights of these post-spring and pre-summer season will be pleasant for outdoor strolls because the immaculate moon with his softish moonshine will be shoving off the blackish streaks of night, thus abated is the bodily heat... in daytime the palace-chambers fitted with machines that shower, sprinkle or splash waters will be highly exciting, thus abated is the bodily heat... and in nights, slabs of cool moon-stones, candra kaantamaNishilaa paryanka-s, are there to repose... besides, we wear coolish pearly ornaments and dab our bodies with pure sandalwood paste liquefied with coolant scents like yellow camphor, kastuuri etc... when all such coolants are there, how the sun can scald us... hence, this particular period of the season is adorable for one and all... [1-2]


सुवासितम् हर्म्यतलम् मनोहरम् प्रियामुखोच्च्वासविकम्पितम् मधु।
सुतन्त्रिगीतम् मदनस्य दीपनम् शुचौ निशीथेऽनुभवन्ति कामिनः॥ १-३

suvāsitam harmyatalam manoharam
priyāmukhoccvāsavikampitam madhu |
sutantrigītam madanasya dīpanam
śucau niśīthe'nubhavanti kāminaḥ  || 1-3

suvAsitam harmyatalam manoharam
priyAmukhocchvAsavikampitam madhu |
sutantrigItam madanasya dIpanam
shucau nishIthe.anubhavanti kAminaH  || 1-3


suvaasitam harmya talam manoharam priyaa mukha ucChvasa vika.mpitam madhu suta.ntri giitam madanasya diipanam shuchau nishiidhe anubhavanti kaaminaH

1-3. kaaminaH= lovesick; anubhavanti= will enjoy; shuchau= in clear; nishiidhe= in midnights [late nights]; su vaasitam= well, fragranced; manaH haram= heart, stealing [delightful]; harmya talam= buildings, on tops - upstairs; priyaa mukha= [his] love's, face; ucChvasa vi  kampitam= [by her] suspiration [of drinks,] verily, moved up [stirred up by her suspires]; madhu= strong drinks; madanasya= for passion; diipanam= brightening [intensifier]; su tantri= good [melodious,] stringed [instrumental]; giitam= songs [vocal music.

"Lovesick will enjoy the clear late nights of these summer days on delightful and well- fragranced upstairs of buildings, savouring strong drinks that are commoved by the suspires of their ladyloves, while the passion-intensifier, melodious instrumental and vocal music, is cross-fading... [1-3]


नितम्बबिम्बैः सदुकूलमेखलैः स्तनैः सहाराभरणैः सचन्दनैः।
शिरोरुहैः स्नानकषायवासितैः स्त्रियो निदाघम् शमयन्ति कामिनाम् ॥१-४

nitambabimbaiḥ sadukūlamekhalaiḥ
stanaiḥ sahārābharaṇaiḥ sacandanaiḥ |
śiroruhaiḥ snānakaṣāyavāsitaiḥ
striyo nidāgham śamayanti kāminām || 1-4

nitambabimbaiH sadukUlamekhalaiH
stanaiH sahArAbharaNaiH sacandanaiH |
shiroruhaiH snAnakaShAyavAsitaiH
striyo nidAgham shamayanti kAminAm || 1-4


nitamba bi.mbaiH su dukuula mekhalaiH stanaiH sa haara aabharaNaiH sa ca.mdanaiH |shiroruhaiH snaana kaSaaya vaasitaiH striyo nidaagham shamayanti kaaminaam

1-4. striyaH= women; shamayanti= are ameliorating; nidaagham= heat; kaaminaam= of lovers; su dukuula mekhalaiH= with chicly, fineries, cinctures with tassels; nitamba bimbaiH= with fundaments, rotund; stanaiH= with bosoms; sa haara aabharaNaiH= with, pearly strings, golden lavalieres; sa candanaiH= with [bedaubed,] sandal-paste; shiro ruhaiH= locks of head hair; snaana kaSaaya vaasitaiH= bathing [time,] emulsion [applicable on body,] fragranced [with the scent of those emulsions.]

"Clad in chicly coolant silken fabrics gliding onto their rotund fundaments, for they are knotted loose; golden sashes with dangling tassels glissading onto those silks, for they are battened on and off; sporting semi-shown buxom bosoms, for they are bedaubed with sandal-paste, semi-covered with pearly strings and golden lavalieres, and let-flying hairlocks, fragrant with just now applied bath-time emulsions, onto their faces, the womenfolk is visually ameliorating the heat of their lovers during these days. [1-4]


नितान्तलाक्षारसरागरञ्जितैर् नितम्बिनीनाम् चरणैः सनूपुरैः।
पदे पदे हंसरुतानुकारिभिर् जनस्य चित्तम् क्रियते समन्मथम्॥ १-५

nitambinīnām caraṇaiḥ sanūpuraiḥ |
pade pade haṁsarutānukāribhir
janasya cittam kriyate samanmatham || 1-5

nitambinInAm caraNaiH sanUpuraiH |
pade pade haMsarutAnukAribhir
janasya cittam kriyate samanmatham || 1-5


nitaa.nta laakshaa rasa raaga ra.njitaiH nita.mbiniinaam caraNaiH sa nuupuraiH |pade pade ha.msa ruta anukaaribhiH janasya cittam kriyate sa manmadham

1-5.  nitaanta=much [brightly]; raaga ranjitaiH= [by lac's resin's] colour, coloured; laakshaa  rasa=lac's, resin [reddish foot paint]; sa nuupuraiH= with, anklets with jingle bells; pade  pade= step, after step; hamsa ruta= swan's, clucks; anukaaribhiH= mimicking; nitambiniinaam  caraNaiH= with such feet; cittam= heart; janasya= of people; sa manmadham kriyate= with, impassion, they make [render.]

"Coloured brightly with reddish foot-paint akin to the reddish resin of lac, adorned with anklets festooned with jingling bells, step-after-step tintinnabulations mimic the stepping clucks of swans, with such feet women with bumpy behinds render the hearts of people impassioned in this springtime... [1-5]


पयोधराश् चन्दनपङ्कचर्वितास् तुषारगौरार्पितहारशेखराः।
नितम्बदेशाश् च सहेममेखलाः प्रकुर्वते कस्य मनो न सोत्सुकम्॥ १-६

payodharāś candanapaṅkacarvitās
tuṣāragaurārpitahāraśekharāḥ |
nitambadeśāś ca sahemamekhalāḥ
prakurvate kasya mano na sotsukam|| 1-6

payodharAsh candanapa~NkacarvitAs
tuShAragaurArpitahArashekharAH |
nitambadeshAsh ca sahemamekhalAH
prakurvate kasya mano na sotsukam || 1-6


payodharaaH ca.ndana pa.nka carcitaaH tuSaara gaura arpita haara shekharaaH nitamba deshaaH ca sa hema mekhalaaH prakur.hvanti kasya mano na sa utsukam

1-6. payaH dharaaH= milk, bearers [bosoms]; candana= sandal-paste's; panka= scent; caricitaaH= bedaubed with; tuSaara gaura = snowy, white; arpita= given out, adorned with; haara= pearly pendants; shekharaaH= sporting; sa hema mekhalaaH= with, golden, [dangling] girdle-strings; nitamba  deshaaH ca= buttocks, at areas [at hiplines,] even; kasya= whose; manaH= heart; sa utsukam= with, raptures; na pra kurvanti= not, really, make [fill with.]

"At this time when women bedaub their bosoms with scents and sandal-paste, adorn them with snowy-white pearly pendants, unlace strings of golden griddles to dangle them upon their portly hipline, whose heart is it that does not go into raptures... [1-6]


समुद्गतस्वेदजिताङ्गसन्धयो विमुच्य वासांसि गुरूणि साम्प्रतम्।
स्तनेषु तन्वंशुकम् उन्नतस्तना निवेशयन्ति प्रमदाः सयौवनाः॥ १-७

vimucya vāsāṁsi gurūṇi sāmpratam |
staneṣu tanvaṁśukam unnatastanā
niveśayanti pramadāḥ sayauvanāḥ || 1-7

vimucya vAsAMsi gurUNi sAmpratam |
staneShu tanvaMshukam unnatastanA
niveshayanti pramadAH sayauvanAH  || 1-7


samudgata sveda jita a.nga sa.ndhayo vimucya vaasaa.msi guruuNi saa.mpratam staneSu tanu a.mshukam unnata stanaaH niveshaya.nti pramadaaH sa yauvanaaH

1-7. sam udgata= well [often,] emerging; sveda= by sweat; jita= conquered; anga sandhayaH= limb, joints [seams]; sa yauvanaaH= with, of age [mature women]; unnata stanaaH= peaky, bosomed; pramadaaH= lustful ladies; saampratam= presently; vimucya= casting aside; guruuNi = weighty [rough-woven, roughish]; vaasaamsi= apparels; staneSu= on bosoms; tanu  amshukam niveshayanti= thin, clothing, keeping [banding light weight cloths on breasts.]

tAtparyam : sulabham [1-7]


सचन्दनांबुव्यजनोद्भवानिलैः सहारयष्टिस्तनमण्डलार्पणैः। सवल्लकीकाकलिगीतनिःस्वनैर्निबोध्यते सुप्त इवाद्य मन्मथः ॥ १-८

sahārayaṣṭistanamaṇḍalārpaṇaiḥ |
nibodhyate supta ivādya manmathaḥ || 1-8

sahArayaShTistanamaNDalArpaNaiH |
nibodhyate supta ivAdya manmathaH  || 1-8


sa ca.ndana a.mbu vyajana udbhava anilaiH sa haara yaSTi stana maNDala arpaNaiH sa vallakiikaa kali giita niHsvanaiH vibodhyate supta iva adya manmadha

1-8. vyajana udbhava= by fans [with peacock plumage,] emerged [blown]; sa candana  ambu= comprising, sandal-paste's [aroma,] water; anilaiH= air [draughts]; sa haara  yaSTi= with, pearls, strings of; stana maNDala arpaNaiH= to bosoms, roundish, with dedications [ornaments hugging bosoms]; sa= with; vallakiikaa= string instrument's [of viiNa-s]; kali giita= subtle, melody; niHsvanaiH= [singers'] intonations; adya= now; supta iva manmatha= sleeping, as though, Manmatha, the Love-god; vi bodhyate= waking up.

"When the swishes of air winnowed with the peacock-feather-fans wafting sprays of sandal are heard; when the rustles of pearly pendants hugging the roundish bosoms of ladyloves are heard; when the whispers of subtle instrumental and vocal melodies are heard, then they all seem to wake up the slumbering Lovegod manmatha after his mischievous manoeuvres in last season...  [1-8]


सितेषु हर्म्येषु निशासु योषिताम् सुखप्रसुप्तानि मुख्यानि चन्द्रमाः।
विलोक्य नूनम् भृशम् उत्सुकश्चैरम् निशाक्षये याति ह्रियेव पाण्डुताम् १-९

siteṣu harmyeṣu niśāsu yoṣitām
sukhaprasuptāni mukhyāni candramāḥ |
vilokya nūnam bhṛśam utsukaś
cairam niśākṣaye yāti hriyeva pāṇḍutām || 1-9

siteShu harmyeShu nishAsu yoShitAM
sukhaprasuptAni mukhyAni candramAaH |
vilokya nUnaM bhR^ishaM utsukash
cairaM nishAkShaye yAti hriyeva pANDutAm || 1-9


siteSu harmyeSu nishaasu yoSitaam sukha prasuptaani mukhaani ca.ndramaaH vilokya nuunam bhR^isham utsukaH ciram nishaa kshaye yaati hriyeva paa.nDutaam

1-9. candramaaH= moon; nishaasu= in nights; siteSu harmyeSu= whitish, on housetops; yoSitaam sukha pra suptaani = at maids, who are comfortably, well, sleeping; ciram vilokya= for a long time [throughout the night,] on seeing; mukhaani= at [maids'] faces; bhR^isham utsukaH= he is highly, ecstasised; [as such that moon] nishaa kshaye= night, on dwindling; hriyaa iva= ashamed, as though; yaati paanDutaam = goes, into pallidity; nuunam= surely.

"Throughout the night the moon beheld the lineaments of damsels comfortably sleeping on white terraced rooftops and he is ecstasised, for he is unpossessed of any such flawless face; for his own face is dented with rabbit or deer; he is becoming pale-faced with the dwindling of night and surely he must be going into hiding as he has no face to face the flawless sun.[1-9]


असह्यवातोद्धतरेणुमन्डला प्रचण्डसूर्यातपापि मही।।
न शक्यते द्रष्टुमपि प्रवासिभिर् प्रियावियोगानलदग्धमानसैः॥१-१०

pracanḍasūryātapāpi mahī |
na śakyate draṣṭumapi pravāsibhir
priyāviyogānaladagdhamānasaiḥ|| 1-10

pracanDasuuryaatapaapi mahii |
na shakyate draSTumapi pravaasibhir
priyaaviyogaanaladagdhamaanasaiH|| 1-10



asahya vaata uddhata reNu manDalaa pracanDa suurya aatapaa api mahii na shakyate draSTum api pravaasibhiH priyaa viyoga anala dagdha maanasaiH

1-10. a+sahya= not, tolerable; vaata uddhata= by wind, upheaved; reNu manDalaa= dust, spheres [clouds of dust]; pracanDa suurya= blazing, sun; aatapaa api mahii= ablaze, even, earth; priyaa viyoga anala= from ladylove, detachment, blaze of; dagdha maanasaiH= blazed down, with hearts; pravaasibhiH= by itinerants; draSTum api= to see, even; na shakyate= not, possible.

"The intolerable westerly wind of the summer is upheaving the clouds of dust; set by the blazing sun even the earth is ablaze; for the itinerants whose hearts are already put to blaze by the blaze called the detachment from their ladyloves, now it has become impossible even to look at the blazing earth, to tread further... [1-10]


मृगाः प्रचण्डातपतापिता भृशं तृषा महत्या परिशुष्कतालवाः।
वनान्तरे तोयम् इति प्रधाविताः निरीक्ष्य भिन्नाञ्जनसन्निभं नभाः॥ १-११

mṛgāaḥ pracaṇḍātapatāpitā bhṛśaṁ
tṛṣā mahatyā pariśuṣkatālavāḥ |
vanāntare toyam iti pradhāvitāaḥ
nirīkṣya bhinnāñjanasannibhaṁ nabhāḥ || 1-11

mR^igAaH pracaNDAtapatApitA bhR^ishaM
tR^iShA mahatyA parishuShkatAlavaaH |
vanAntare toyam iti pradhAvitAaH
nirIkShya bhinnA~njanasannibhaM nabhaaH  || 1-11


mR^igaaH pracaNDa aatapa tapitaa bhR^isham tR^iSaa mahatyaa parishuSka taalavaH vanaa.ntare toyam iti pradhaavitaa niriikshya bhinna a.njana sannibham nabhaH

1-11. pracaNDa aatapa= reigning, torridity; mR^igaaH= animals; tapitaa= rendered parched; mahatyaa tR^iSaa= with great [unquenchable,] thirst; bhR^isham parishuSka= highly, shrivelled; taalavaH= palatine organs [tongue, throat, lips]; vana antare= forest, in another; niriikshya= on seeing; bhinna= kneaded; anjana= mascara [like clouds, blackish mirages]; sannibham= similar in shine; nabhaH= at sky; toyam iti= water, thus [presuming]; pradhaavitaa= made to rush [by mirages.]

"The reigning sun's torridity rendered wild-animals parched; highly shrivelled are their tongues, throats and lips and with unquenchable thirst; on seeing kneaded blackish mascara-like mirages on sky in another forest that are cloudlike in their shine, those animals are rushing there, presuming them to be water... [1-11]

Here the upama is between bhinnanjana and nabha; upama - bhinnanjana mascara heap; upameya - aakaasha sky; saadhaaraNa dharmi - though unsaid, it is blackness; vaacaka - commonality - sannibham; bhinnanjanenasadR^isham - a sva padavigraham; dharma luptaarthi upama - : thirsty, serpents';also said as blackness of water in cloud; pramaaNa - cf. hR^itvaa niilasalila vasanam - meghasandesha 1-45, or in the same work at 1-63; snigdha bhinnanjanaaabhe...tvayi... etc. Let us load these long forgotten things, if this web page is fated to be read.


सविभ्रमैः सस्मितजिह्मवीक्षितैर् विलासवत्या मनसि प्रवासिनाम्।
अनङ्गसन्दीपनम् आशु कुर्वते यथा प्रदोषाः शशिचारुभूषणाः॥ १-१२

savibhramaiaḥ sasmitajihmavīkṣitair vilāsavatyā manasi pravāsinām | anaṅgasandīpanam āśu kurvate yathā pradoṣāaḥ śaśicārubhūṣaṇāaḥ|| 1-12

savibhramaiaH sasmitajihmavIkShitair
vilAsavatyA manasi pravAsinAm |
ana~NgasandIpanam Ashu kurvate
yathA pradoShAaH shashicArubhUShaNAaH  || 1-12


sa.mvibhramaiH sasmita jihma viikshataiH vilaasavatyo manasi pravaasinaam ana.nga sa.ndiipanam aashu kurvate yathaa pradoSaaH shashi caaru bhuuSaNaH

1-12. vilaasavatyaH= charming women; yathaa pradoSaaH= as with, twilight; shashi caaru  bhuuSaNaH= moon, [called] beautiful, ornament; sam vibhramaiH= with confusion [decorating themselves]; sa smita= with smiles; jihma viikshataiH= with slanted, looks;manasi  pravaasinaam= hearts, of itinerants; an+anga= one without, body [incorporeal Love-god]; sandiipanam= incitement; aashu  kurvate= in a trice, [the women are] causing.

"The women of charm with smiles and sidelong glances are like twilights that are ornamented with a beautiful ornament called moon; yet they are now decorating themselves confusedly inciting the incorporeal Lovegod in the hearts of onlooking itinerants... [1-12]

The object, bimba is - sa smita kuTila viikshitaaH; mirrored - pratibimba - shashi caaru bhuuSaNa aadi; there is object-mirror relation in this - bimbapratibimba bhaava; vibhrama - at the time of meeting one's own lover, the hastiness and excited confusion that prevails on the mind of women - tvarayaaharSaraagaadeH dayitaaaagamanaadiSu | a sthaanebhuuSaNaadiinaam vibhramomataH || yathaa - shrutvaa yaantambahiH kaantam a samaaptavibhuuSayaa | phaalean~janam dR^ishoHlaakshaa kapoletilakaH kR^itaH || saahityadarpaNam.

Certain women with their eagerness to meet their lovers are decorating necklaces on biceps, girdle chains at arms, eye mascara on forehead, and the vermilion mark of forehead - tilaka - on cheeks, and red lipstick as eye mascara etc in ecstatic confusion, which is inciting love in the hearts of itinerants.


रवेर्मयूखैरभितापितोभृशम् विदह्यमानः पथि सप्तपांसुभिः।
अवाङ्मुखोजिह्मगतिर्श्वसन् मुहुः फणी मयूरस्य तले निषीदति॥ १-१३

vidahyamānaḥ pathi saptapāṁsubhiḥ |
muhuḥ phaṇī mayūrasya tale niṣīdati || 1-13

vidahyamAnaH pathi saptapAMsubhiH |
muhuH phaNI mayUrasya tale niShIdati

|| 1-13


raveH mayuukhaiH abhitaapato bhR^isham vihadyamaanaH pathi tapta paa.msubhiH avaa.nmukho jahmagati shvasan muhuH phaNii mayuurasya tale niSiidati

1-13.bhR^isham abhitaapataH= extremely, seared; raveH mayuukhaiH= sun's, with sunrays; pathi= on pathway; tapta paamsubhiH= by scorched, dust; avaak mukhaH= downcast, faced [hood]; jahma gati= with slithery, motion; muhuH shvasan= repeatedly, suspiring; vi hadyamaanaH= awfully, being scalded; phaNii= serpent; mayuurasya tale= peacock's, pave of; niSiidati= sinking down.

"Extremely searing sunrays overhead, already seared dust of pathway underneath, with them that serpent suspiring repeatedly is slithering with downcast hood; thus scalded awfully that serpent is presently sinking under the pave of peacock's plumage, distrait of the fact that a peacock is an enemy of serpents, thus distrait is the relative danger from a born-enemy resulting from the searing summer. [1-13]


तृषामहत्या हतविक्रमोद्यमः श्वसन्मुहुर्दूरविदारिताननः।
न हन्त्यदूरेऽपि गजान् मृगेश्वरो विलोलजिह्वश्चलिताग्रकेसरः ॥ १-१४

tṛṣāmahatyā hatavikramodyamaḥ
śvasanmuhurdūravidāritānanaḥ |
na hantyadūre'pi gajān mṛgeśvaro
vilolajihvaścalitāgrakesaraḥ || 1-14

tR^iShAmahatyA hatavikramodyamaH
shvasanmuhurdUravidAritAnanaH |
na hantyadUre.api gajAn mR^igeshvaro
vilolajihvashcalitAgrakesaraH || 1-14


tR^iSaa mahatyaa hata vikrama udyamaH shvasan muhur duura vidaarita aananaH na ha.nti aduure api gajaan mR^igeshvaro vilola jihvaH calita agra kesaraH

1-14. mahatyaa tR^iSaa= with abnormal, thirst; hata vikrama udyamaH= thwarted, valorousness, venturesomeness; duura vidaarita aananaH= lengthily, muchly gaping, with face; vi lola jihvaH= verily [lengthened,] dangling, tongue; muhuH shvasan= repeatedly, suspiring; calita agra kesaraH= whisking, frontal, hair of mane; mR^iga iishvaraH= animals', king - lion; a+duure api= not, distant, even [even they are nearby]; na hanti gajaan= not, killing [pawing,] elephants.

"Thwarted are the valorousness and venturesomeness of that lion, the king of animals, for his thirst is abnormal; suspiring repeatedly with broadly gaping mouth, tongue lengthened and dangling, whisking mane frequently, that lion is not pawing the elephants though they are at his nearby, and though they both are born rivals, as if the scalding summer cooled off their mutual contempt.  [1-14]


विशुष्ककण्ठाहृतसीकराम्भसो गभस्तिभिर् भानुमतोऽनुतापिताः।
प्रवृद्धतृष्णोपहता जलार्थिनो न दन्तिनाः केसरिणोऽपि बिभ्यति॥ १-१५

gabhastibhir bhānumato'nutāpitāaḥ |
pravṛddhatṛṣṇopahatā jalārthino
na dantināḥ kesariṇo'pi bibhyati || 1-15

gabhastibhir bhAnumato.anutApitAaH |
pravR^iddhatR^iShNopahatA jalArthino
na dantinaaH kesariNo.api bibhyati || 1-15


vishuSka ka.nTha aahR^ita shiikara a.mbhasaH gabhastibhiH bhaanumato anutaapitaaH pravR^iddha tR^iSNo apahataa jala arthino na da.ntinaH kesariNo api bibhyati

1-15. vi shuSka kanTha= verily, dried up, with throats; shiikara ambhasaH= cool, water having [in trunk]; aahR^ita= brought [by the prehensility of elephants' trunks; or, udgatam= coming out, frothy saliva]; bhaanumataH gabhastibhiH= by sun's, sunrays; anutaapitaaH= highly scorched; pra vR^iddha  tR^iSNaH  apahataa= heightened, thirst, overpowered by; jala arthinaH= water, seekers; dantinaH= tuskers; api= even [they too]; kesariNaH na bibhyati= from lions, not, afraid.

"Bringing up some cool-water somehow remaining in their prehensile trunks, tuskers are trying to wet their highly exsiccated throats; but too scanty is that water for those megavores; sunrays intensely scorching, thirst immensely overpowering, those water-seeking tuskers are braving the nearby lions, for social danger is nothing before a natural calamity.  [1-15]


हुताग्निकल्पैः सवितुर्गभस्तिभिः कलापिनः क्लान्तशरीरचेतसाः।
 न भोगिनम् घ्नन्ति समीपवर्तिनम् कलापचक्रेषु निवेशिताननम् ॥ १-१६

hutāgnikalpaiaḥ saviturgabhastibhiaḥ
kalāpinaḥ klāntaśarīracetasāḥ |
na bhoginam ghnanti samīpavartinam
kalāpacakreṣu niveśitānanam || 1-16

hutAgnikalpaiaH saviturgabhastibhiaH
kalApinaH klAntasharIracetasaaH |
na bhoginam ghnanti samIpavartinam
kalApacakreShu niveshitAnanam || 1-16


huta agni kalpaiH savitur gabhastibhiH kalaapinaH klaa.nta shariira cetasaH na bhoginam ghna.nti samiipa vartinam kalaapa cakreSu niveshita aananam

1-16.  savituH= sun's; gabhastibhiH= by sunrays; huta agni kalpaiH= blazing, Ritual-fire, alike; klaanta= wilted; shariira cetasaH= are bodies, are souls; kalaapinaH= peacocks; kalaapa cakreSu= in plumage, wheel [of plumage]; niveshita aananam= wedged in, face; na+ghnanti bhoginam= not, pecking to death, serpent; samiipa vartinam= nearby, milling around.

"Scorching sunrays akin to the tongues of blazing Ritual-fire are wilting the bodies as well as the souls of peacocks making them to wedge their faces in the wheel of plumes for certain coolness; though they mark serpents through those plumes and feathers, straying under the very same plumage, they peck not those serpents to death, as their priority is to cool off their faces and heads... [1-16]

Here the upamaa is - huta agni - ritual fire made to glow with ghee, samidha-s, many sticks of firewood etc; upameya - sun with scorching sunrays; saadhaaraNa dharmi common factor - unsaid, but it is heat of summer; upama vaacakam is - kalpa - a little lesser than 'like...' kalpa` pratyaya - kalpaaadi prayoge tu artha eva. alankaara - dharma lupta - arthi - upama.


सभद्रमुस्तम् परिशुष्ककर्दमम् सराः खनन् आयतपोतृमण्डलैः।
 रवेर्मयूखैरभितापितो भृशम् वराहयूथो विशतीव भूतलम्॥ १-१७

sabhadramustam pariśuṣkakardamam
sarāḥ khanan āyatapotṛmaṇḍalaiaḥ |
ravermayūkhairabhitāpito bhṛśam
varāhayūtho viśatīva bhūtalam || 1-17

sabhadramustam parishuShkakardamam
saraaH khanan AyatapotR^imaNDalaiaH |
ravermayUkhairabhitApito bhR^isham
varAhayUtho vishatIva bhUtalam|| 1-17


sa bhadramustam parishuSka karmadam saraH khanan aayata potR^i ma.nDalaiH raveH mayuukhaiH abhitaapito bhR^isham varaaha yuudho vishati iva bhuutalam

1-17.  sa bhadramustam= [an area] with, bhadra-musta grass; parishuSka karmadam= having dried up, slime; saraH= ponds [swamps]; aayata potR^i manDalaiH= with long, broad-snouted, rounded [snouts]; khanan= on digging; raveH mayuukhaiH= by sun's, rays; bhR^isham  abhitaapitaH = highly, sweltered; varaaha yuudhaH= wild boars, sounder [of wild boars]; vishati iva bhuu talam= to enter, as though, earth's, [interior of] surface.

"Though slime in ponds dried up bhadra-musta grass is still available here and there, which a sounder of wild boars is digging with long and broad snouts for a piggish slumber; on and on they dug it as if to enter the interior of earth to get a miry slumber, for their backs are burnt with highly sweltering sunrays. [1-17]


विवस्वता तीक्ष्णतरांशुमालिना सपङ्कतोयात् सरसोऽभितापिताः।
 उत्प्लुत्य भेकस्तृषितस्य भोगिनाः फणातपत्रस्य तले निषीदति ॥ १-१८

vivasvatā tīkṣṇatarāṁśumālinā
sapaṅkatoyāt saraso'bhitāpitāḥ |
utplutya bhekastṛṣitasya bhogināḥ
phaṇātapatrasya tale niṣīdati || 1-18

vivasvatA tIkShNatarAMshumAlinA
sapa~NkatoyAt saraso.abhitApitaaH |
utplutya bhekastR^iShitasya bhoginaaH
phaNAtapatrasya tale niShIdati

 || 1-18


vivasvataa tiikshNa taraa a.mshumaalinaa sa pa.nka toyaat saraso abhitaapitaH utplutya bhekaH trR^iSitasya bhoginaH phaNa aatapatrasya tale niSiidati |

1-18. tiikshNa taraa= very harsh, in higher degree [unbearable prickly heat]; amshu maalinaa= by one who has sunrays; vivasvataa= by sun; abhitaapitaH= highly seared; bhekaH= frog; ut plutya= up, jumping; sa panka toyaat sarasaH= with, mud, from muddy water, pond; trR^iSitasya bhoginaH= thirsty, serpent's; phaNa aatapatrasya= snake's hood, parasol [a parasol called serpent's hood]; tale= under its surface [shade]; niSiidati= sitting down.

"Seared highly with scorching sunrays a frog jumped out of a slimy pond with clammy water, and sat under the hood of a snake as if umbrellaed by a parasol - a summerly oblivion of their mutual animosity.


समुद्धृताशेषमृणालजालकम् विपन्नमीनम् द्रुतभीतसारसम्।
परस्परोतुत्पीडन संहतैर्गजैः कृतम् सरः सान्द्रविमर्दकर्दमम्॥ १-१९

vipannamīnam drutabhītasārasam |
parasparotutpīḍana saṁhatairgajaiḥ
kṛtam saraḥ sāndravimardakardamam|| 1-19

vipannamInam drutabhItasArasam |
parasparotutpiiDana sa.mhatairgajaiH
kR^itam saraH sAndravimardakardamam || 1-19


samuddhR^itaa asheSa mR^iNaala jaalakam vipanna miinam dhR^ita bhiita saarasam paraspara utpiiDana sa.mhataiH a.ngaiH kR^itam saraH saa.ndra vimarda kardamam

1-19. paraH para= each, to each; utpiiDana= highly huddling; angaiH= by limbs; samhataiH  saraH= hard hit [belaboured,] lake; samuddhR^itaa [sam ut dhR^itaa] a+sheSa= without, remnants - completely; mR^iNaala= tall slender stems [of lilies and lotuses]; jaalakam= heaps of; vipanna miinam= with ill-fated, fishes; dhR^ita bhiita saarasam= fleeing, by fear, water fowls; saandra= agglutinated; vi marda= verily trampled; kardamam= mud; kR^itam= rendered [lake's floor is rendered like that.]

"A lake's quietude is belaboured when bathing elephants huddled one another frantically; completely uprooted are its tall slender stems of lilies and lotuses only to lump under elephants' feet; when trodden thus the fish is ill-fated and the saarasa waterfowls are fleeing with fear of this rumpus; thus that tranquil lake's floor, waters and banks are trampled and muddied owing to the bath-insatiate elephants. [1-19]

This suggests that one raucous, rumbustious, boisterous couple is enough to trouble the entire community or society of gentle couples living peacefully and enjoying themselves in sequestered togetherness.


रविप्रभोद्भिन्नशिरोमणिप्रभः विलोलजिह्वाद्वयलीढमारुतः।
विषाग्निसूर्यातपतापिताः फणी न हन्ति मण्डूककुलम् तृषाकुलः॥ १-२०

vilolajihvādvayalīḍhamārutaḥ |
viṣāgnisūryātapatāpitāḥ phaṇī
na hanti maṇḍūkakulam tṛṣākulaḥ || 1-20

vilolajihvAdvayalIDhamArutaH |
viShAgnisUryAtapatApitaaH phaNI
na hanti maNDUkakulam tR^iShAkulaH || 1-20


ravi prabha udbhinna shiromaNi prabhaH vilola jihvaa dvaya liiDha maarutaH viSa agni suurya aatapa taapitaH phaNii na hanti ma.nDuuka kulam tR^iSa aakulaH

1-20. ravi prabha= sun's, shine; [sama= akin to] utbhinna= up, cast; shiraH maNi prabhaH= head [hood,] with, jewel, irradiance; vilola jihvaa dvaya= moving [wigwagging,] of tongue, twin [tongued]; liiDha maarutaH= licking, air; viSa agni suurya aatapa= by venom, fire [on soil,] sun's, searing; taapitaH= seared; tR^iSa aakulaH= by thirst, tottering; phaNii= one which has snake-hood, the serpent; manDuuka kulam= frogs, classis [dregs of]; na hanti= not, killing [draining to the dregs.]

"Akin to sunshine upcast is the radiance of the jewel on its hood; wigwagging its twinned tongue it is licking the air; seared by its own venom, by fiery soil, and by the searing sun as well, that hooded serpent tottering thirstily is not draining the dregs of frogs, to the dregs... [1-20]

It means that living beings if encountered with numerous natural problems will tend to forget their personal and naturalistic characteristics, as their priority is to overcome imminent discomfiture, as fear precedes the other three natural instincts of living beings, namely aahaara, bhaya, nidraa, maidhuna 'food, fear, sleep, coition...' Mythical snakes said to bear a sparking jewel on their hood and the snake pits are dug up for diamonds, but it ends with the gain of snakeskin, for making fancy handbags.


सफेनलोलायतवक्त्रसंपुटम् विनिःसृतालोहितजिह्वमुन्मुखम्।
तृषाकुलम् निःसृतम् अद्रिगह्वराद् अवेक्ष्यमाणम् महिषीकुलम् जलम् ॥ १-२१

viniḥsṛtālohitajihvamunmukham |
tṛṣākulam niḥsṛtam adrigahvarāt
avekṣyamāṇam mahiṣīkulam jalam || 1-21

viniHsR^itAlohitajihvamunmukham |
tR^iShAkulam niHsR^itam adrigahvarAt
avekShyamANam mahiShIkulam jalam || 1-21


sa phena lola aayata vak.htra sa.mpuTam viniHsR^ita aalohita jihvam unmukham tR^iSaakulam viniHsR^itam adri gahvaraat avekshyamaaNam mahiSii kulam jalam

1-21. sa phena= with, froth; lola= reeling; aayata= lengthy [gaping, or, lalaavR^itam ca= with saliva, filled also]; vaktra sampuTam= faces [snouts,] two-piece [lower jaw and upper jaw]; vi niH sR^ita= verily, to outside, coming [jerkily extruding]; aalohita= lightly reddened; jihvam= with tongues; tR^iSa aakulam= by thirst, staggering; jalam avekshyamaaNam= water, looking for; ut mukham= with upraised, faces [snouts]; mahiSii kulam= buffalos, herd of; adri gahvaraat= from mountain's, cave; viniHsR^itam= extruded from.

"Herds of she-buffalos are extruding from the caves of mountain with their two-pieced snouts gaping and reeling frothily; lightly reddened tongues extruding jerkily; looking for water with upraised snouts they are staggering thirstily, but all in vain as their condition became pan-to-fire, for thirst drove them out of those cool caves.[1-21]


दिनकरपरितापक्षीणतोयाः समन्ताद्
विदधति भयम् उच्चैर् वीक्ष्यमाणा वनान्ताः॥ १-२२

paruṣapavanavegotkṣiptasaṁśuṣkaparṇāaḥ |
dinakaraparitāpakṣīṇatoyāaḥ samantād
vidadhati bhayam uccair vīkṣyamāṇā vanāntāaḥ  || 1-22

paruShapavanavegotkShiptasaMshuShkaparNAaH |
dinakaraparitApakShINatoyAaH samantAd
vidadhati bhayam uccair vIkShyamANA vanAntAaH || 1-22


paTutara davadaaha ucChuSka sasya prarohaaH  paruSa pavana vega utkshipta sa.mshuSka parNaa dinakara paritaapa kshiiNa toyaaH samantaat  vidadhati bhayam ucchaiaH vikshyamaaNaa vanaantaa

1-22. paTu tara= higher, in degree [extremely]; dava daaha= wildfire, burnt [withered]; ut shuSka= utterly, shrivelled; sasya prarohaaH= crop's, tender stalks; paruSa pavana  vega= by harsh, wind, speed; ut kshipta= up, rooted; sam shuSka= completely, wilted; parNaa= straws; samantaat= all over; dinakara pari taapa= by day maker [by sun,] overall, scorched; kshiiNa toyaaH= lessened [evaporated, evanished] water; ucchaiaH= from high places; vikshyamaaNaa= while being seen; vana antaa= forest, up to end; bhayam vidadhati= disconcert, foisting upon.

"Extremely withered as though by wildfire and utterly shrivelled are the tender stalks of crops; as if windswept by harsh winds they are uprooted and completely wilted and reduced to straw; all over scorched are they in an overall manner as the water is evanished; if seen from highlands till the end of forest, this summer is foisting upon the onlookers a kind of disconcert, as the straw in the wind about the monsoon is unnoticeable. [1-22]


श्वसिति विहगवर्गः शीर्णपर्णद्रुमस्थः
कपिकुलम् उपयाति कलान्तम् अद्रेर् निकुञ्जम्।
भ्रमति गवययूथः सर्वतस्तोयमिच्छन्
चरभकुलम् अजिह्मम् प्रोद्धरति अम्बुकूपम्॥ १-२३

śvasiti vihagavargaḥ śīrṇaparṇadrumasthaḥ
kapikulam upayāti kalāntam adrer nikuñjam |
bhramati gavayayūthaḥ sarvatastoyamicchan
carabhakulam ajihmam proddharati ambukūpam|| 1-23

shvasiti vihagavargaH shIrNaparNadrumasthaH
kapikulam upayAti kalAntam adrer niku~njam |
bhramati gavayayUthaH sarvatastoyamicChan
charabhakulam ajihmam proddharati ambukUpam || 1-23


shvashati viha.nga vargaH shiirNa parNa druma sthaH  kapi kulam upayaati klaa.ntam adreH niku.njam bhramati gavayaH yuudhaH sarvataH toyam icChan sharabha kulam ajihmam proddharati a.mbu kuupaat

1-23. shiirNa= wilted; parNa= leaves; druma= tree; sthaH= staying [perching on]; vihanga  vargaH= bird, flock; shvashati= suspiring [in hyperventilation]; klaantam= overtired; kapi  kulam= monkeys', troops of; adreH= mountain's; nikunjam= to caves with climbers and bushes viny caves; upayaati= going nigh of; gavayaH yuudhaH= buffalos, herd of; toyam icChan= water, craving for; sarvataH= all over [itaH tataH= here, there] bhramati= rambling; a jihmam= not, devious [straight flying; sharabha kulam= a kind of winged bird [not sharabha= the lion killer; nor karabha= the baby elephant], flights [of such birds]; pra uddharati= easily, lifting up; ambu kuupaat = water, from wells.

"Perching on the trees with wilted leaves, flocks of birds are hyperventilating; overtired troops of monkeys are going nigh of viny caves on mountain; water-craving herds of buffalos are rambling hither and thither; but the straight flying sharabha birds are nose-diving into wells and easily lifting up the water. [1-23]

Here the alankaara - svabhaavokti; sharabha animals have eight legs four upward like wings, and four downward, and they are the killers of lions. sharabhaH tu gajaaraatiH utpaadaH ca aSTa paadaa api - vyjayanti nighanTu.


प्रबलपवनवेगोद्धूतवेगेन तूर्णम्।
दिशि दिशि परिदग्धा भूमयः पावकेन ॥ १-२४

vikacanavakusuṁbhasvacchasindūrabhāsā prabalapavanavegoddhūtavegena tūrṇam | taṭaviṭapalatāgrāliṅganavyākulena
diśi diśi paridagdhā bhūmayaḥ pāvakena || 1-24

vikacanavakusu.mbhasvacChasindUrabhAsA prabalapavanavegoddhUtavegena tUrNam | taTaviTapalatAgrAli~NganavyAkulena
dishi dishi paridagdhA bhUmayaH pAvakena || 1-24


vikaca nava kusu.mbha svacCha si.nduura bhaasaa  prabala pavana vega udbhuuta vegena tuurNam taTa viTapi lataa agra aali.ngana vyaakulena dishi dishi paridagdhaa bhuumayaH paavakena

1-24. paavakena= by fire [wildfire]; vikaca= blossomed; nava= new [just blossomed]; kusumbha = safflower [Carthamus tinctorius]; svacCha sinduura bhaasaa= bright, ochry, in simulation; prabala = exceedingly; pavana vega= by wind's, speed; udbhuuta= generated [whipped up]; vegena= by speed; taTa= on banks [of lakes, rivers]; viTapi= trees; lataa agra= climbers, apices of; aalingana vyaakulena= in embracing, eager to; dishi dishi= quarter, quarter [every quarter]; bhuumayaH= of land; tuurNam= in a trice; paridagdhaa= completely, burnt down.

"Wildfire simulative of a just blossomed bright and fiery ochreish safflower is rampant; further whipped up by wind's speed it is eagerly embracing treetops standing on the banks of lakes and rivers with its tongues of fire; where the climber plants are coetaneously eager to embrace those treetops; thus that wildfire of summer burnt down trees, climbers and every quarter of land, in a trice...  [1-24]


ज्वलति पवन वृद्धः पर्वतानाम् दरीषु
स्फुटति पटु निनादैः शुष्कवंशस्थलीषु।
प्रसरति तृण मध्ये लब्ध वृद्धिः क्षणेन
ग्लपयति मृगवर्गम् प्रांत लग्नो दवाग्नि॥॥ १-२५

jvalati pavana vṛddhaḥ parvatānām darīṣu
sphuṭati paṭu ninādaiḥ śuṣkavaṁśasthalīṣu |
prasarati tṛṇa madhye labdha vṛddhiḥ kṣaṇena
glapayati mṛgavargam prāṁta lagno davāgni || 1-25

valati pavana vR^iddhaH parvataanaam dariiSu
sphuTati paTu ninaadaiH shuSkava.mshasthaliiSu |
prasarati tR^iNa madhye labdha vR^iddhiH kShaNena
glapayati mR^igavargam praa.nta lagno davaagni || 1-25


jvalati pavana vR^iddhaH parvataanaam dariiSu sphuTati paTu ninaadaiH shuSka va.msha sthaliiSu prasarati tR^iNa madhye labdha vR^iddhiH kshaNena glapayati mR^iga vargam praa.nta lagno davaagni

 1-25. davaagni= wildfire; pavana vR^iddhaH= by fire, intensified; parvataanaam dariiSu= mountains', in valleys; jvalati= blazing; shuSka vamsha sthaliiSu= dried out, bamboo, places [stands]; paTu ninaadaiH= with clattering, rattles; sphuTati= shattering; kshaNena= in a second; labdha vR^iddhiH= receiving, escalation [from gusts]; tR^iNa madhye prasarati= in straw [fields,] in the midst of [from within,] overspreading; praanta lagnaH= at sides [at perimeter,] on touching [on smacking]; mR^iga vargam glapayati= deer, classis [herds,] broiling [tumultuously.]

"Now intensified by the gusts that wildfire is blazing the valleys of mountains; then skittering across it is entering the stands of bamboos, only to shatter them in a second with clattering rattles of bamboos; then escalated by gusts it is overspreading the straw fields; then from their within, on smacking the perimeter of straw-field, it is broiling the herds of deer, tumultuously ... [1-25] 


बहुतर इव जातः शाल्मलीनाम् वनेषु
स्फुरति कनकगौरः कोटरेषु द्रुमाणाम्।
परिणतदलशाखानुत्पतन् प्रांशुवृक्षान्
भ्रमति पवनधूतः सर्वतोऽग्निर् वनान्ते॥ १-२६

bahutara iva jātaḥ śālmalīnām vaneṣu
sphurati kanakagauraḥ koṭareṣu drumāṇām | pariṇatadalaśākhānutpatan prāṁśuvṛkṣān
bhramati pavanadhūtaḥ sarvato'gnir vanānte|| 1-26

bahutara iva jAtaH shAlmalInAm vaneShu
sphurati kanakagauraH koTareShu drumANAm | pariNatadalashAkhAnutpatan prAMshuvR^ikShAn
bhramati pavanadhUtaH sarvato.agnir vanAnte|| 1-26

bahu tara iva jaata shaalmaliinaam vaneSu sphurati kanaka gaura koTareSu drumaaNaam pariNata dala shaakhaan utpatan praa.nshu  vR^ikshaan bhramati pavana dhuutaH sarvato agniH vana ante

 1-26. agniH= [wild] fire; jaata= taking birth; shaalmaliinaam vaneSu= in silk-cotton, copses of; bahu tara iva= extreme, in degree, as with [extremely blazing]; drumaaNaam koTareSu= of trees, cavities; kanaka gaura sphurati= with gold's, yellowness, remindful of [glinting]; pariNata= wizened; dala shaakhaan= leaves, branches having; praanshu vR^ikshaan= on silk-cotton, trees; ut patan= to up, fell [to fell down, uproot]; pavana dhuutaH= by gust, hurled; vana ante= woodland, up to edging; bhramati sarvataH= whirling, everywhere.

"Taking a rebirth in the copses of silk-cotton trees that wildfire is extremely blazing; erupting from within the cavities of the trees with a glint of golden yellow, it is torching the trees together with wizened leaves on wizened branches, and then hurled by gusts it is whirling everywhere in that woodland unto its edging.[1-26]


गजगवयमृगेन्द्रा वह्निसन्तप्तदेहाः
सुहृद इव समेता द्वन्द्वभावं विहाय।
हुतवहपरिखेदाद् आशु निर्गत्य कक्षाद्
विपुलपुलिनदेशान् निम्नगां संविशन्ति॥ १-२७

gajagavayamṛgendrā vahnisantaptadehāaḥ
suhṛda iva sametā dvandvabhāvaṁ vihāya |
hutavahaparikhedād āśu nirgatya kakṣād
vipulapulinadeśān nimnagāṁ saṁviśanti || 1-27

gajagavayamR^igendrA vahnisantaptadehAaH
suhR^ida iva sametA dvandvabhAvaM vihAya |
hutavahaparikhedAd Ashu nirgatya kakShAd
vipulapulinadeshAn nimnagAM saMvishanti || 1-27


gaja gavaya mR^igendraa vahni sa.ntapta dehaaH suhR^ida iva sametaa dvandva bhaavam vihaaya huta vaha parikhedaat aashu nirgatya kakshaat vipula pulina deshaam nimnagaam sa.mvishanti

1-27. vahni santapta dehaaH= by fire, scorched, with bodies; dvandva bhaavam vihaaya=dichotomic, thinking, on discarding; su hR^ida iva= good, hearted ones [friends,] like; sametaa= coming together; gaja gavaya= elephants, buffalos; mR^iga indraa= animals, kings [lions]; huta vaha= burnt [ritual oblation,] carrier [fire]; parikhedaat= when blighted; kakshaat= from [habitual] confines; nirgatya= on exiting; vipula pulina deshaam= broad, sandbanks, areas; nimna gaam= to slopes, goers [rivers]; aashu samvishanti= quickly, entering.

"When wildfire scorched their bodies, elephants, buffalos and lions are coming together as friends discarding their dichotomic thinking of mutual hostilities; blighted thus by the fire, they are quickly exiting their habitual confines to enter the areas of rivers that have broad sandbanks... [1-27]


कमलवनचिताम्बुः पाटलामोदरम्यः
सुखसलिलनिषेकः सेव्यचन्द्रांशुहारः।
व्रजतु तव निदाघः कामिनीभिः समेतो
निशि सुललितगीते हर्म्यपृष्ठे सुखेन॥ १-२८

kamalavanacitāmbuḥ pāṭalāmodaramyaḥ
sukhasalilaniṣekaḥ sevyacandrāṁśuhāraḥ |
vrajatu tava nidāghaḥ kāminībhiḥ sameto
niśi sulalitagīte harmyapṛṣṭhe sukhena || 1-28

kamalavanacitAmbuH pATalAmodaramyaH
sukhasalilaniShekaH sevyacandrAMshuhAraH |
vrajatu tava nidAghaH kAminIbhiH sameto
nishi sulalitagIte harmyapR^iShThe sukhena || 1-28


kamala vana cita a.mbuH paaTala aamoda ramyaH sukha salila niSekaH sevya candra a.mshu haaraH  vrajatu tava nidaaghaH kaaminiibhiH sameto nishi sulalita giite har.hmya pR^iSTe sukhena

1-28. su lalita giite= very, melodious, having song [one who sings melodiously, oh, dear]; kamala vana cita ambuH= lotuses, overlaid, on water; paaTala aamoda ramyaH= Trumpet flower [Bignonia sauveolens,] agreeably, refreshing; sukha salila niSekaH= comfortable, water, bathing pools; sevya= pleasurable; candra amshu= moons, rays; haaraH= with pearl-stings, [and jasmine garlands]; kaaminiibhiH= [lexically] with ladyloves [but ifc = intoxicant like drinks, potations]; sametaH= together [savouring]; tava= your [when euphemized = our]; nidaaghaH= simmering [summer]; nishi= nights; harmya pR^iSTe= on building, tops; sukhena  vrajatu= enjoyably, slip away.

Oh, dear melodious singer, what if the summer is scorching... fragrant lotuses are overlaid on coolant waters, agreeably refreshing is the fragrance of Trumpet flowers, comfortable is the fresh water in bathing pools, pleasurable are those moonbeams, and with these pearly pendants and these jasmine garlands, let our simmering summer nights enjoyably slip by, while we abide on the tops of buildings right under the moonscape, savouring potations and amidst music and song... [1-28]



इति महाकवि कालिदासकृत ऋतुसंहार काव्ये ग्रीष्मऋतु वर्णणो नाम प्रथमः सर्गः

iti mahākavi kālidāsakṛta ṛtusaṁhāra kāvye grīṣmaṛtu varṇaṇo nāma prathamaḥ sargaḥ

Thus, this is the portrayal of grIShma, summer season, the first chapter in Ritu samhaaram of kavi kAlidAsa.


desiraju hanumanta rao, April, 2010

desirajuhrao at