mahAkavi kAlidAsa
Dynasty of Emperor Raghu
1 chapter -- 95 verses



The poem opens with the customary salutation to Shiva-Parvati, the favourite divinity of Kaldasa.  After the briefest allusion to the origin of the Solar race the poet gives us an aoount of Dilipa the great-great-grand father of Rama. The description of his virtues and moral rectitude indicate to us Kalidasa's ideal of an aristocrat. The nucleus of the story of'the first canto is the childless condition of the king. He decides upon going to his family priest--the sage Vasislltha - and consuultil1g him as to the cause of Destiny being against him in this particular. Putting his hereditary amd faithful ministers in charge of the kingdom he journeys with his queen,  Sudakshina, to the hermitage. The description of the route, the trees on the road-side, the joltngs of the car in tho ruts etc., are highly graphical and can only be appreciated by those who have had occasions to travel in this primitive manner and not by those used to flying in railway trains.. The royal pair reaches the hermitage in the evening
where it is warmly welcomed and assigned a hut for the night's rest with a few deer-skins for lbeds. Vasishta discloses to them the real cause of their childless condition and directs them to propitiate the celestial cow Nandinf who alone, he says, has the power to fulfil the yearning desire of nleir heart. - Kishanrao Madhavarao Joglekar. - KMJ

Notes and commentary of Kishanrao Madhavarao Joglekar on this 1st canto is made available here 1.25 MB pdf for further reading.



वागर्थाविव संपृक्तौ वागर्थप्रतिपत्तये।
जगतः पितरौ वन्दे पार्वतीपरमेश्वरौ॥ १-१

vāgarthāviva saṁpṛktau vāgarthapratipattaye |
jagataḥ pitarau vande pārvatīparameśvarau || 1-1

vaagarthaaviva sa.mpR^iktau vaagarthapratipattaye |
jagataH pitarau vande paarvatiiparameshvarau || 1-1


vAk arthau iva sa.mpR^iktau vAk artha pratipattaye  jagataH pitarau vande pArvatI parameshvarau

1-1. vAk= shabda= sound - what is or may be heard; artha= its meaning, import; iva= like; sa.mpR^iktau= nitya sambandha= indissolubly cleaved together, ever embodied two-in-one entity pArvatI-parameshvara; vAk= of speech, idiom; artha= its meaning - import, the process of forming and relating ideas from listened sound; pratipattaye= samyak j~nAna artham= to derive pertinent idiom and ideation, language and paralanguage; jagataH= of universe; pitarau= parents; vande= I adore; pArvatI= pArvati; parama Ishvarau= supreme, lord - shiva.

To derive the pertinent idiom and its ideation I adore the Parents of Universe, pArvati - parameshvara, who are indissolubly cleaved together like sound and sense

 An epic always bases itself on ideas, idioms, and their ideation. Though Goddess saraswati is the presiding deity of words, speech etc. the poet is reverently praying Shiva and [Arvati for more choice for pertinent words and their perfect meaning, as the poet kAlidAsa is a deemed goddess saraswati in male form pumbhAva saraswati... And according to the tenets of vAyu purANa, shiva and pArvati are the deities for according exemplary meanings/words. shabdajAtam asheSantu dhatte sharvasya vallabhA | artha rUpam yadakhilam dhatte mugdhendndu shekharaH ||; shiva shaktayoH vishiSTa shabda artha adhi devatAH;

The translation used here for Sanskrit poetics is not precise. If elaborate accounts are wanted, the works of AcArya Sushil Kumar De and others may please be consulted. However, only main outlines are given here for a birds eye view of poetics.


Here the first metaphor or a condensed simile is placed in vAgarthAviva sampR^iktau wherein the u.ma 1] vAk, 2] artha; sound and sense; u.me 1] pArvati, 2] parameshvara; objects compared: shiva-pArvati; sAdhAraNa dharma, underlying qualities or factors sampriktau - inseparability; sAdhAraNa vAcaka, general word: - iva, like, as with, hence it is kevala niravayava  shrauti pUrNa upama.

The genders should be the same of the objects, and objects compared. pArvati - speech, are in fem. while shiva in masc. The inseparability of speech and its meaning is compared with the inseparability of name and form of any object in this universe nAma rUpAbhyAm idam jagat... Thus, though upama, say condensed simile or metaphor is there right from Vedic literature, as in tryambakam yajAmahe... urvArukam iva bandhanAt mukto... 'like a cucumber that separates itself from stalk, I aspire release...' etc., but kAlidAsa pleasantly plays with it.

Many authorities have rendered magnificent commentaries on this particular verse, a jewel among all poetic works of kAlidAsa, but here, at the very outset of such a work for a complicated poetry, this much is said.

For the right understanding (or the proper knowledge) of words, and their meanings, I bow down to pArvati and parameshvara, the greatest of the gods, who are the parents of the universe ( or creation ) and the perpetual relation ( or constant union) between whom is as close as the one subsisting between words and their meanings. - nandArgIkar.

For the correct grasping of words and their sense I bow to pArvati and parameshvara who are the parents of the universe and are connected togther like words and their meaning. - Joglekar.




क्व सूर्यप्रभवो वंशः क्व चाल्पविषया मतिः।
तितीर्षुर्दुस्तरं मोहादुडुपेनास्मि सागरम्॥ १-२

kva sūryaprabhavo vaṁśaḥ kva cālpaviṣayā matiḥ |
titīrṣurdustaraṁ mohāduḍupenāsmi sāgaram || 1-2

kva suuryaprabhavo va.mshaH kva caalpaviSayaa matiH |
titiirSurdustara.m mohaaduDupenaasmi saagaram || 1-2


kva sUrya prabhavo va.mshaH kva ca alpa viSayA matiH  titIrSuH dustaram mohAt uDupenAsmi sAgaram || 1-2

1-2. sUrya= Sun; prabhavaH [iyam] vamshaH= originated, [this] dynasty; kva= where; alpa= meagre; viSayA= subjects, learning; matiH ca= [my] intellect, even; kva= where; duH  taram = un, navigable; sAgaram= ocean; mohAt= by folly, inanely; uDupena =by a small barque; titIrSuH asmi= wish to go across, I am.

Where the dynasty originated from Sun where the meagre intellect of minewith an intellect yet to be edified, am I inanely wishing to go across this unnavigable ocean called the solar dynasty by a small barque called my ersatz education? [1-2]

 Even today the poetic aestheticians have kept their debate pending on the poetic aesthetics used in this verse. Some say that kAvyArtha nidarshana alankAra is there in this verse, while others say it is lalitha alankAra, while some more say it has dR^iSTAnta alankAra.

alankArika-s like mummaTAcArya long before said that 'going across the ocean called Solar dynasty in a small barque...' is asambhavam= anupadyamAnAH tAtparya viSaya iti yAvat; vastuno= vAkyArthayoH; sambandhaH= anvayaH; upamAm parikalpayatIti - upamA parikalpakaH; but this is contradicted in bAla bodhinI vyAkhya; na atra dR^iSTAntA alankAra buddhiH na kAryAH; upamAyAm paryavasAnAt vAkyArtha nidarshaneyam... bimba prati bimbatve dR^iSTAnaH Another treatise kuvalayAnanda says that lalitA alankAra is there and rasagangAdhara contradicts this saying lalita alankAra is an ingredient of nidarshana alankAra - kevalam tatra tAtparysya gamyamAnatvAt... uDupena sAgaram titIrSurasmi... So, firstly let them resolve this, to name names. uDupa is a very small boat built with cane, and a leather hull for one or two, still in use, esp., in South India.

Where is the race sprung from the sun (the race which tmces its origfr to the sub ) ? and where my scanty powers of mind ? Methinks! from sheer folly I am bent upon crossing the ocean, though difficult to be passed over, by means of a small raft ( or a boat). -  nandArgIkar


मन्दः कवियशः प्रार्थी गमिष्याम्यपहास्यताम्।
प्रांशुलभ्ये फले लोभादुद्बाहुरिव वामनः॥ १-३

mandaḥ kaviyaśaḥ prārthī gamiṣyāmyapahāsyatām |
prāṁśulabhye phale lobhādudbāhuriva vāmanaḥ || 1-3

mandaH kaviyashaH praarthii gamiSyaamyapahaasyataam |
praa.nshulabhye phale lobhaadudbaahuriva vaamanaH || 1-3


mandaH kavi yashaH prArthI gamiSyAmi apahAsyatAm  prA.nshu labhye phale lobhAt ud bAhuH iva vAmanaH

1-3. mandaH= dunce [like me] - u.me; kavi yashaH= kavInAm yadyashaH kAvya nirmANena tad prAthanA shIlaH [like vAlmIki, vyAsa]= [hence eminent] poet's, celebrity; prArthI = desirous [fanciful] - bimba; prAnshu - unnata puruSena= by tall one; labhye phale= obtainable, fruit; lobhAt = covetously; ud bAhuH= up, raised [elevating,] arms prati-bimba; vAmanaH= hrasva = short one - - u.mA; iva= as with a - sA.vA; apahAsyatAm= mockery - sA.dha; gamiSyAmi= go in will I be subjected to; [kim= or, what - make a fool of myself, or what]

Will I become the butt of ridicule if I were to covet the celebrity of an eminent poet, like a short fellow overstretching his arms for a fruit obtainable only by the tall, because I am still a dunce in this subject matter? [1-3]

 The object 'fancy for poet's celebrity' is mirrored in 'covetous elevation of short man's arms' for an otherwise unobtainable fruit for both, with concomitant result of both landing in a laughable situation. The compound mandaH kaviH yashaH prarthI... if cleaved as mandaH kaviH; yashaH prarthi it becomes - dunce poet, renown seeker, then the topic of old poets will not be touched. Here upama is: anugAmitva, bimba prati bimba upama alankAra, with mixture in commonalities.


अथवा कृतवाग्द्वारे वंशेऽस्मिन्पूर्वसूरिभिः।
मणौ वज्रसमुत्कीर्णे सूत्रस्येवास्ति मे गतिः॥ १-४

athavā kṛtavāgdvāre vaṁśe'sminpūrvasūribhiḥ |
maṇau vajrasamutkīrṇe sūtrasyevāsti me gatiḥ || 1-4

athavaa kR^itavaagdvaare va.mshe.asminpuurvasuuribhiH |
maNau vajrasamutkiirNe suutrasyevaasti me gatiH || 1-4


athavA kR^ita vAk dvAre va.mshe asmin pUrva sUribhiH  maNau vajra samutkIrNe sUtrasya iva asti me gatiH || 1-4

1-4. athavA [pakshAntare]= or else; pUrva sUribhiH= by earlier, poets; kR^ita  vAk   dvAre= rAmAyaNAdi prabantha rUpA yA vAk saiva dvAram= made, idiomatic speech, entrance pUrva kRita vaAgdvAram bimba; asmin vamshe= in this [depiction,] of dynasty; vajra [maNi vedhaka sUcI visheSeNa]= by diamond [edged tool for boring a diamond]; samutkIrNe= drill-holed vajra samutkIrNam - pratibimba; maNau= in diamond; sUtrasya= for thread sUtram  - u.mA; iva= as with a [ thread in jewels] - sA.vA; m= to me - kAlidAsa -  u.me; gatiH= pravesham= [easy] entrance - sA.dha; asti= will be there - varNanIye raghuvamshe mama vAk prasAro asti iti arthaH; sUrya vamsham bimbam; maNi prati bimbam; hence alankAram -  anugAmitva-bimba-prati-bimba-bhAva mishraNa.

Or else, my course in depicting this dynasty might as well be easy through the idiomatic gateway already crafted by the earlier poets, like a diamond boreholed by a diamond-edged tool for an easy passage of thread. [1-4]

 'Though dunce, I have a way in through the epics already rendered by vAlmIki, vyAsa et al, which will hold the thread of my narration tight, like the thread that easily moves in and out of the bored diamonds, tightly holding many diamonds...' whereby my work will not be sva kapola kalpitam... not concocted by me This indicates that the threads and strings of his narrations are drawn from the earlier poets, but they are not his whims or fancies, hence they are authentic. And Joglekar sys, Ramayana is the main store out of which kAlidAsa drew material for his raghuvamsha... of course, apart from wholesale' lifting from numerous purANa-s, mythologies, so disputing that is a waste.

Or rather in this royal dynasty, where the door for poetical description has been opened by ancient ( or preceding) poets, there is also a way for me to enter; just as there is a passage for the thread, in the precious stone, ( previously ) bored through by means of a diamond-pin. - nandArgIkar.

Or, perhaps there will be an ingress for me [in the narration of] this race wherein a passage has been constructed in the form of poetical composition by the learned of bygone days like the passage of aa thread in a diamond previously bored. -KMJ


आसमुद्रक्षितीशानामानाकरथवर्त्मनाम्॥ १-५

so'hamājanmaśuddhānāmāphalodayakarmaṇām |
āsamudrakṣitīśānāmānākarathavartmanām || 1-5

so.ahamaajanmashuddhaanaamaaphalodayakarmaNaam |
aasamudrakShitiishaanaamaanaakarathavartmanaam || 1-5


saH aham Ajanma shuddhAnAm Aphalodaya karmaNAm  Asamudra kshiti IshAnAm AnAka ratha vartmanAm || 1-5

1-5. saH aham [mando api, raghuvamshe labdha praveshe, pratijAnIte]= such as I am [though dunce, I who entered the entrance made by earlier poets, and having known about raghu vamsham]; A-janma   shuddhAnAm= right from birth, impeccable ones; A-phalodaya   karmaNAm = until fruition, deed-doers - those who have undertaken efforts till their frution; A-samudra   kshiti   IshAnAm = unto ocean, lands, lords of; A-nAka  ratha   vartmanAm [indra sahakAriNAm]= up to heavens, chariots, pathway [as cooperants of indra]; this is ekAnvayam raghUNAm anvyam vakshe= I poetise about the dynasts of raghu' this refrain is to be tagged up to verse 8.

Such as I am, perhaps a dunce, an account of raghus dynasty is somewhat known to me through earlier poets; as such, I poetise about those dynasts who are impeccable right from their birth; who have undertaken effortful deeds till their fruition; who lorded lands unto oceans and who, as cooperants of , had driveways up to heavens for their chariots... [1-5]


यथाविधिहुताग्नीनां यथाकामार्चितार्थिनाम्।
यथापराथदण्डानां यथाकालप्रबोधिनाम्॥ १-६

yathāvidhihutāgnīnāṁ yathākāmārcitārthinām |
yathāparāthadaṇḍānāṁ yathākālaprabodhinām || 1-6

yathaavidhihutaagniinaa.m yathaakaamaarcitaarthinaam |
yathaaparaathadaNDaanaa.m yathaakaalaprabodhinaam || 1-6


yathA vidhi huta agnInAm yathA kAma arcita arthinAm  yathA aparAtha daNDAnAm yathA kAla prabodhinAm || 1-6

1-6. yathA vidhi= as, ordained - vidhim an-atikramya= without transgressing religious duty; huta   agnInAm = who oblated,who alwys maintined ritual-fires with proper oblations; yathA kAma=  as, desired by the seekers - abhilASAm an-atikramya = without overlooking the desires of supplicants; arcita arthinAm =who had gratified, supplicants; yathA= as to how - aparAthAn an-atikramya - without tresspassing limits with offenders - without third degree measures; aparAthAn= to offenders; daNDAnAm= who became punishers; yathA kAla = kAlam an-atikramya =without lapsing time; prabodhinAm = samaya jAgarUkatA= who were awaking - having time-sense, vigilant in governance - caturbhiH visheSanaiH devatAya jana atithi satkAra yathA arha danDa-dharatvam, prajA pAlana samaya jAgarUktvAni vivakshitAni.

About those kings who ever had ever-lit propitiatory ritual-fires with un-transgressed religious duty; generous towards their supplicants gratifying all their appeals un-condescendingly; punishers of offenders according to offence, but un-aggressively; vigilant in governance, un-inadvertently... hence, they are the worthiest kings in kingcraft... [1-6]


त्यागाय संभृतार्थानां सत्याय मितभाषिणाम्।
यशसे विजिगीषूणां प्रजायै गृहमेधिनाम्॥ १-७

tyāgāya saṁbhṛtārthānāṁ satyāya mitabhāṣiṇām |
yaśase vijigīṣūṇāṁ prajāyai gṛhamedhinām || 1-7

tyaagaaya sa.mbhR^itaarthaanaa.m satyaaya mitabhaaSiNaam |
yashase vijigiiSuuNaa.m prajaayai gR^ihamedhinaam || 1-7


tyAgAya sa.mbhR^ita arthAnAm satyAya mita bhASiNAm  yashashe vijigISUNAm prajAyai gR^iha medhinAm

1-7. tyAgAya= for munificence; sa.mbhR^ita arthAnAm = sankalita dhanAnAm= amassed, riches; satyAya= for truth [speaking]; mita bhASiNAm= those that have controlled, speech - reticent; yashashe= for pre-eminence, upper hand; vijigISUNAm= ambitious conquerors; prajAyai= for progeny; gR^iha  medhinAm = gR^haiH dAraiH medahnate - sangacChata iti gR^iha medinaH= get married to wives - ebhiH visheSaNaiH paropakAratvam, satya vacana tAtparyam, yashaH paratvam, pitR^I uNAm anR^iNya sraddhA ca vivakshitaH.

About those kings who amass riches only for the sake of munificence; reticent only for the sake of veraciousness; ambitious to campaign only for the sake of their upper hand and those that get married only for the sake of meetly progeny... hence, they are the conscientious kings... [1-7]

 Here mahA mahopAdhyAya mallinAtha sUri says vacana tAtparyam= whatever is said in sentences is some meaning of an indiscernible thought. It may expand or contract, or at time nonexistent. In presenting these Sanskrit classics, the Indian scholars of yester years did not give any gist, synopsis, or translation for certain verses after giving elaborate word-to-word meanings.  shrI Joglekar has not given any translation here for verses from 5 to 9 as early as in 1916, and shrI kALe was also reluctant to put more sentences in his summation, though his notes were superb. Later it has become a fashion to omit, or place the original text as appendices, then to go on writing one's own words, calling translations. If a particular reader wishes to read the original word and translated word, then he/she had to sift through hundreds of pages. Therefore, we are bringing word for word separation right from Ramayana, and request the readers to go by the word for word section prati-pada-artham - more than this generalised, emphasised, detailed or reduced section called gist, synopsis or translation tAtparya. We also implore upon you to make some of your personal ideation in understanding, so that you also may come up with some new thoughts, called bottles, for these oldest possible wines, called Sanskrit classics, because translations are always approximations.


शैशवेऽभ्यस्तविद्यानां यौवने विषयैषिणाम्।
वार्धके मुनिवृत्तीनां योगेनान्ते तनुत्यजाम्॥ १-८

śaiśave'bhyastavidyānāaṁ yauvane viṣayaiṣiṇām |
vārdhake munivṛttīnāṁ yogenānte tanutyajām || 1-8

shaishave.abhyastavidyaanaaa.m yauvane viSayaiSiNaam |
vaardhake munivR^ittiinaa.m yogenaante tanutyajaam || 1-8


shaishave abhyastha vidyAnAam yauvane viSaya eSiNAm | vArthake muni vR^ittInAm yogena ante tanu tyajatAm || 1-8

1-8. shashave= in adolescence; abhyastha vidyAnAam= brahma carya AshramaH= studied in-depth, studies; yauvane= gR^ihasta Ashrama= in adulthood; viSaya eSiNAm= material pleasures, desirers of [have a penchant]; vArthake= vAnaprastha Ashrame= in old-age; muni   vR^ittInAm= saints, saintlike, in their activities gravitating towards those activities of sages and saints; yogena= paramAtma dhyAnena= when minds yoked to the Absolute; ante= at end; tanu   tyajatAm= body, those that evict the soul from body like house; etena moksha bhAvo vivakshitaH.

About those who in their adolescence are masterly in studies; in adulthood predisposed for material pleasures; in old-age gravitating towards saintlike activities, and at end-time yoking their minds with the Absolute and ultimately evicting their souls from their bodies to attain moksha... [1-8]


रघूणामन्वयं वक्ष्ये तनुवाग्विभवोऽपि सन्।
तद्गुणैः कर्णमागत्य चापलाय प्रचोदितः॥ १-९

raghūṇāmanvayaṁ vakṣye tanuvāgvibhavo'pi san |
tadguṇaiḥ karṇamāgatya cāpalāya pracoditaḥ || 1-9

raghuuNaamanvaya.m vakShye tanuvaagvibhavo.api san |
tadguNaiH karNamaagatya caapalaaya pracoditaH || 1-9


raghUNAm anvayam vakshye tanu vAk vibhavo api san | tad guNaiH karNam Agatya cApalAya pracoditaH || 1-9

1-9. tanu= a little; vAk= alpa vANI prasAro api= expressive diction; vibhavaH= glory; api san= even though, it is [it may be]; tat= that [of their]; guNaiH= by merits; [madIya] karNam   Agatya = [to my] ears, they came - I have an excellent ear, appreciation, taste; cApalAya = cApala karma, avimR^ishya karaNa rUpam= not thinking back and forth, inadvertently, spontaneously regarding 1] literary style, etc., gracefully natural and unconstrained; 2] involuntary, not due to conscious volition of my poetic expertise; pracoditaH= [by such merits] motivated; raghUNAm  anvayam   vakshye= about raghu, dynasty, I am going to tell.

I am going to spontaneously narrate about such-and-such kings in the lineage of raghu, because I have an excellent ear for the merits of those kings and I am motivated by those very merits, even if the glory of expressive diction is scanty with me [1-9]


तं सन्तः श्रोतुमर्हन्ति सदसद्व्यक्तिहेतवः। 
हेम्नः संलक्ष्यते ह्यग्नौ विशुद्धिः श्यामिकाऽपि वा॥ १-१०

htaṁ santaḥ śrotumarhanti sadasadvyaktihetavaḥ |
emnaḥ saṁlakṣyate hyagnau viśuddhiḥ śyāmikā'pi vā || 1-10

ta.m santaH shrotumarhanti sadasadvyaktihetavaH |
hemnaH sa.mlakShyate hyagnau vishuddhiH shyaamikaa.api vaa || 1-10


tam santaH shrotum arhanti sat asat vyakti hetavaH hemnaH sa.mlakshyate hi agnau vishuddhiH shyAmikA api vA || 1-10

1-10. tam= of that epic; sat asat vyakti hetavaH= merit, demerit, clarifying, causers [resolvers]; santaH= sagacious people; shrotum arhanti= to listen, apt; hemnaH= of gold; vishuddhiH = purity; shyAmikA  api vA= lohAntara sansarga Adi doSo api vA= discoloured, [impurity owing to alloying with other metals,] even or; agnau= in fire; sa.mlakshyate hi= marked [distinguished,] indeed.

Sagacious people who are the resolvers in clarifying merit and demerit are apt to listen this, as fire indeed can distinguish whether the gold is pure or impure. [1-10]

 This is ardhAntara nyAsa alankAra; sAmAnyena visheSasya, visheSeNa sAmAnyasa vA yat samardhanam tat arthAnta nyAsam justifying a common thing with uncommon, or an uncommon with a common factor - a kind of allusion.


वैवस्वतो मनुर्नाम माननीयो मनीषिणाम्।
आसीन्महीक्षितामाद्यः प्रणवश्छन्दसामिव॥ १-११

vaivasvato manurnāma mānanīyo manīṣiṇām |
āsīnmahīkṣitāmādyaḥ praṇavaśchandasāmiva || 1-11

vaivasvato manurnaama maananiiyo maniiSiNaam |
aasiinmahiikShitaamaadyaH praNavashChandasaamiva || 1-11


vaivasvato manuH nAma mAnanIyo manISiNAm | AsIt mahIkshitAm AdyaH praNavaH candasAm iva || 1-11

1-11. manISiNAm = manasa ISiNo, dhIrAH, vidvAmsa= for sensible people; mAnanIyaH= AdyaH= an estimable one manISiNAm mAnanIyaH ubhava anvayi;   candasAm [AdyaH]= for prosody - Veda-s; an adorable syllable praNavaH = Om - u.mA;  prati-bimba; iva= like - sA.vA; mahI kshitAm AdyaH= among kings, first one [unexcelled] - bimba; vaivasvataH =vivasvata sUryasya Apatyam pumAn= man birthed from Sun vaivasvata manu - u.me; nAma= named; manuH AsIt= manu, was there.

Firstly there was an unexcelled king among kings, namely vaivasvat-manu, an estimable one for all sensible people, like the unexcelled mystic syllable Om for Veda-s. [1-11]

 The first Manu, the king of mankind, originated from the Sun. 'whatever least Manu says, that shall be good like medicine...' taittarIya 1-1-10.

mahIkshitAm AdyaH - bimba - o; chandasAm AdyaH prati-bimba, om; manISiNAm mAnanIya - ubhaya anvyi; then this has shleSa, bimba pratibimba bhAva - SliSta prayoga when Adya is ellipted to Om. 'The syllable Om and the sound atha came out splitting the throat of brahma; hence those two are auspicious...' Hence the object and mirrored object share the commonality in upama, condensed simile.


तदन्वये शुद्धिमति प्रसूतः शुद्धिमत्तरः।
दिलीप इति राजेन्दुरिन्दुः क्षीरनिधाविव॥ १-१२

tadanvaye śuddhimati prasūtaḥ śuddhimattaraḥ |
dilīpa iti rājendurinduḥ kṣīranidhāviva || 1-12

tadanvaye shuddhimati prasuutaH shuddhimattaraH |
diliipa iti raajendurinduH kShiiranidhaaviva || 1-12


tat anvaye shuddhimati prasUtaH shuddhimat taraH | dilIpa iti rAjendu induH kshIra nidhau iva || 1-12

1-12. shuddhimati= immaculate [white]; tat anvaye= in that, lineage; shuddhimat= nirdoSe = with immaculacy [very white]; taraH= to the nth degree, highly; dilIpa   iti= dilIpa, thus [known as]; rAja indu = king, [like] the moon - - u.me; kshIra nidhau= from milk, ocean; induH= moon -u.mA; iva= as with - sA.vA; prasUtaH= took birth -  anugAmitva sA.dha.

In that immaculate linage a moonlike king, known as dilIpa, took birth with highest immaculacy, like the moon taking his birth from Milky Ocean. [1-12]

 Like the whitest moon born out of white Milky Ocean, irreproachable dilIpa took birth in a dynasty that which is beyond reproach - meaning a befitting king from Manu dynasty, and he is a pleasant one for one and all, like moon. Hence, moon is attached to both the solar dynasty and Milky Ocean.

Hence this is anugAmitva, shleSa, bimba-prati bimba mishraNa alankAra. The dynasty is object, Milky Ocean mirrored object, and both mixed with the communality of prasUtaH= taking birth. Here, shuddhi = 1] pavitrata= holiness, purity; 2] svacChatva = nirdoSatva= immaculacy; shvetatva= whiteness etc are reflected.  


व्यूढोरस्को वृषस्कन्धः शालप्रांशुर्महाभुजः।
आत्मकर्मक्षमं देहं क्षात्रो धर्म इवाश्रितः॥ १-१३

vyūḍhorasko vṛṣaskandhaḥ śālaprāṁśurmahābhujaḥ |
ātmakarmakṣamaṁ dehaṁ kṣātro dharma ivāśritaḥ || 1-13

vyuuDhorasko vR^iSaskandhaH shaalapraa.mshurmahaabhujaH |
aatmakarmakShama.m deha.m kShaatro dharma ivaashritaH ||1-13


vyUDha urasko vR^iSaH skandhaH sAla prA.mshuH mahAbhujaH | Atma karma kshamam deham kshAtro dharma iva AshritaH || 1-13

1-13. vyUDha uraskaH= one with sizable, chest; vR^iSaH skandhaH= bullish, scapulary muscle, say shoulder blade; sAla prAmshuH = unnata sAla prAnshuH= like sala tree, tallish one [in stature]; mahA bhujaH= mahA bAhuH= great arms [arms dexterous]; Atma= his own; karma = for deeds [for kingship]; kshamam= befitting; deham= with physique; AshritaH= assuming; kshAtraH   dharma iva= kshatriya, duty, devoir, like [mUrtimAn parAkrama iva stitaH= abided like the personification of valour; iti utprekha= hyperbole.]

He who has a befitting physique for his heroic deeds in kingship, with a sizable chest, bullish shoulders, tallish stature like a sala tree, and with dextrous arms, abided as a personification of the devoir and valour of kshatriya-s. [1-13]

Here the first word in first stanza vyUDhorakso is directly lifted from Valmiki Ramayana, bAla kANDa, 1-1-10. To prove the maxim that good poets steal, while the bad poets borrow...' in Ramayana it will be mahA uraskaH - gUDha jatruH. Here the poet changes thus making it as an impossible word for detection.


आकारसदृशप्रज्ञः प्रज्ञया सदृशागमः।
आगमैः सदृशारम्भ आरम्भसदृशोदयः॥ १-१५

ākārasadṛśaprajñaḥ prajñayā sadṛśāgamaḥ |
āgamaiḥ sadṛśārambha ārambhasadṛśodayaḥ || 1-15

sarvaatiriktasaareNa sarvatejo.abhibhaavinaa |
sthitaH sarvonnatenorvii.m kraantvaa merurivaatmanaa|| 1-14


sarva atirikta sAreNa sarva tejo abhibhAvanA | sthitaH sarva unnatena urvIm krantvA meruH iva AtmanA || 1-14

1-14. [saH dilIpa= he, that dilIpa]; sarva atirikta sAreNa [balena]= over everything, superlative to, in might; sarva tejaH abhibhAvanA= anything, by resplendence, that looks down on spurns anything that is self-resplendent; sarva   unnatena   AtmanA= on all, imposing, by himself [with such a physique]; urvIm= earth; krantvA [Akramya] = having pervaded; meruH   iva   sthitaH= Mt. meru, like, he was there.

He whose might is superlative over everything, whose resplendence spurns anything that is self-resplendent, whose physique is imposing among all physical bodies, that king dilIpa stood out pervading whole of the earth like all-superlative, all-resplendent, all-imposing Mt. meru that stands pervading all the earth [1-14]

 He is said to be self-resplendent because he emerged from the self-resplendent Sun, and any other thing is a lamp before sun, and hence like father like son. Though there is no physical comparability between a man and a mountain, their attributes compare one another, as a mountain lessens in a mirror. This is an allusion with object and mirrored-object with the communality clause pervading. shleSa mUlaka bimba pratibimba bhAvopama; u.mA/o - Mt. meru; u.me/oc - dilIpa; sA.dha- commonality - besetting the earth; sA.vA/cw like; loftiness = commonality; king bimba; mountain = prati-bimba.


भीमकान्तैर्नृपगुणैः स बभूवोपजीविनाम्।
अधृष्यश्चाभिगम्यश्च यादोरत्नैरिवार्णवः॥ १-१६

bhīmakāntairnṛpaguṇaiḥ sa babhūvopajīvinām |
adhṛṣyaścābhigamyaśca yādoratnairivārṇavaḥ || 1-16

aakaarasadR^ishapraj~naH praj~nayaa sadR^ishaagamaH |
aagamaiH sadR^ishaarambha aarambhasadR^ishodayaH|| 1-15


AkAra sadR^isha praj~naH praj~nayA sadR^isha AgamaH | AgamaiH sadR^isha Arambha Arambha saDR^isho udayaH || 1-15

1-15. AkAra= [unnata AkAra = lofty, personality - like the towerng Mt. meru]; sadR^isha= conformable to [similar to]; [unnata] praj~naH= his [lofty] brilliance; sadR^isha= conformable with [consistent with]; AgamaH= [praj~nA rUpa shAstra parishrama]= scripturally majestic enterprises [set of formularies for kingcraft, and performing sacrifices etc]; AgamaiH= enterprises; sadR^isha= conformable to [consistently]; Arambha= initiation; Arambha=[resolute] initiations; sadR^ishaH= similar to; udayaH = phala siddhiH= yielding fructified results.

His towering personality is conformable to his lofty brilliance, and that lofty brilliance is conformable with his scripturally majestic enterprises, and those enterprises are conformable to his resolute initiations, and his initiations conformably yield fructified results. [1-15]

 The upameya, oc, used in the first upama alankAra, simile, becoming the upama, o, in the succeeding simile, and thus chaining similes in the same manner is known as rashana upama, where rashana in Sanskrit means - a multi-stringed girdle chain, whose chains will be like festoons at waist.

In the first simile, AkAram= towering personality - u.ma/o; praj~na= lofty brilliance - u.me/oc;

In the second, praj~na= brilliance - - u.ma/o; Agamam = scriptural enterprises - u.me/oc;

In third simile, Agamam = enterprises - u.ma/o; Arambham= endeavours - u.me/oc;

In fourth, Arambham= endeavours - u.ma/o; phala-siddhi= fructification - u.me/oc;

In all the similes common word - sAdhAraNa vAchaka - vA is unsaid, but subsituted with upama vAchaka - sadR^isha, yet commonality - sA.dha - is unsaid. Hence all these are dharma lupta - arthi upama-s, put togethr all becoming one - rashana upama alankAra.


रेखामात्रमपि क्षुण्णादा मनोर्वर्त्मनः परम्।
न व्यतीयुः प्रजास्तस्य नियन्तुर्नेमिवृत्तयः॥ १-१७

ekhāmātramapi kṣuṇṇādā manorvartmanaḥ param |
na vyatīyuḥ prajāstasya niyanturnemivṛttayaḥ || 1-17

bhiimakaantairnR^ipaguNaiH sa babhuuvopajiivinaam |
adhR^iSyashcaabhigamyashca yaadoratnairivaarNavaH || 1-16


bhIma kAntaiH nR^ipa guNaiH sa babhUva upajIvinAm | adhR^iSyaH ca abhigamyaH ca yAdo ratnaiH iva arNavaH || 1-16

1-16. bhIma= dreadful [traits - tejasa, prabhAva, pratApa Adi guNAH= resplendence, valour, victorious disposition]; kAntaiH= shIla dAkshiNyAdi guNaiH = desirable [grace, favour, generosity traits]; nR^ipa guNaiH= king's, traits - bimba; upajIvinAm= for dependants; yAdaH ca ratnaiH ca = with crocodiles, sharks like capturers, also, with gemstones, also both prati-bimbA-s and anugAmi dharmA-s; iva= as with - sA.vA; arNavaH= ocean - u.mA; saH= he, dilIpa - u.me; babhUva= became; adhR^iSyaH  ca= unassailable - inaccessible, steely - also - sA.dha; abhigamyaH ca= accessible, also - sA.dha.

With his kingly traits of dreadfulness in his resplendence, valour, victories etc he became inaccessible like an inaccessible ocean containing capturers like crocodiles, sharks etc for seafaring warriors or pirates, and yet with his desirable traits in grace, favour, and generosity he became accessible to his dependents, like the very same ocean that contains gemstones pearls, seafood etc becoming accessible for the pearl-divers, fisherfolk etc that depend on that ocean. [1-16]

 Apart from simile there is yathA sankhya alankAra. Objects and mirrored objects said in seriatim. The traits required of a king are mainly two: adhR^iSya guNAH - inaccessibilty: tejo balamsattvavatta prathAnaH prApa kAlatA | adhR^iSya guNAn etAn nR^ipasya munayo viduH ||; and the other abhigamya guNAH   accessiblity: kulam shIlam dayA dAnam dharamH satyam kR^itaj~natA | iti Adayo abhigamyasya nR^ipasya kathatA guNAH || iti smR^iti. Though there are discussions about gender differences in simile, they are adjusted by bringing some subtle rules.


प्रजानामेव भूत्यर्थं स ताभ्यो बलिमग्रहीत्।
सहस्रगुणमुत्स्रष्टुमादत्ते हि रसं रविः॥ १-१८

prajānāmeva bhūtyarthaṁ sa tābhyo balimagrahīt |
sahasraguṇamutsraṣṭumādatte hi rasaṁ raviḥ || 1-18

rekhaamaatramapi kShuNNaadaa manorvartmanaH param |
na vyatiiyuH prajaastasya niyanturnemivR^ittayaH|| 1-17


rekhA mAtram api kshuNNAt AmanoH vartmanam param | na vyatIyaH prajAH tasya niyantuH nemi vR^ittayaH || 1-17

1-17. niyantuH= shikshka, sArathi= helmsman [expert charioteer,] wheelman; tasya= his [dilIpa's]; prajAH = subjects; nemi= rim [of wheel]; vR^ittayaH= cakra dhArANAm vR^ittayaH = rotations moving in beaten tracks; AmanoH= from [time of] manu; kshuNNAt= abhyastAt, prahatAcca= practised course of conduct / beaten track wheel grooves; vartmanaH= AcAra paddhateH= conducting themselves in traditional customs, traditionalists; param= adhikam= more; rekhA   mAtram   api= line, at least, even [even by hairbreadth]; na vyatIyaH= not, overstepped [out of line - failing to conform to a rule or convention, behaving inappropriately.]

dilIpa being the wheelman, his subjects being the traditionalists, they have never gone out of the line of their traditional course of conduct practiced from the time of manu-prajApati even by a hairbreadth, as with the rotating wheels of a chariot that do not veer out of the beaten track of wheel-grooves on roadway when steered by an expert charioteer. [1-17]

 Here rotations vR^ittayaH are to be ellipted to people also - nemInAm vR^ittayaH - nemi vR^ittayaH; nemi vR^ittayaH iva vR^ittayaH yAsAm tAH 'those that have beaten-track conduct and those that are not off the beaten track of tradition...' Then rotations o, u.mA; cyclic traditionary conduct of citizens oc, u.me; moving in beaten tracks - in 1] grooves of wheels, 2] grooves of tradition, unswervingly - c, sA.dha; as with, or like - cw, sA.vA. Then in this shleSa anu- prANita upamAna-vAcaka-lupta-upama is imbibed.


प्रजानामेव भूत्यर्थं स ताभ्यो बलिमग्रहीत्।
सहस्रगुणमुत्स्रष्टुमादत्ते हि रसं रविः॥ १-१८

prajānāmeva bhūtyarthaṁ sa tābhyo balimagrahīt |
sahasraguṇamutsraṣṭumādatte hi rasaṁ raviḥ || 1-18

prajaanaameva bhuutyartha.m sa taabhyo balimagrahiit |
sahasraguNamutsraSTumaadatte hi rasa.m raviH  || 1-18


prajAnAm eva bhUti artham sa tAbhyo balim agrahIt | sahasra guNam ut SR^iSTum Adatte hi rasam raviH || 1-18

1-18. saH= he, dilIpa; prajAnAm= for people; bhUti artham eva= for wellbeing, for welfare state or works, for the sake of, only; tAbhyaH= from them; balim= SaSTa amsha rUpam karam= tax in one sixth part of produce; agrahIt= taken; hi= indeed, reasonably; raviH= sun; sahasra   guNam= thousands, multiples of; ut SR^iSTum= utsarjana kriyA visheSa= to pour forth [rains, raindrops]; rasam= essence [of waterdrops]; Adatte = takes.

That king dilIpa takes only one sixth part of peoples income as tax, that too for the sake of a welfare state, indeed, like the sun taking earthly water-drops only to indemnify her with multiples of raindrops thereof. [1-18]

 Justifying present activity with a remote activity arthAntara nyAsa somewhat transferred epithet.


सेना परिच्छदस्तस्य द्वयमेवार्थसाधनम्।
शास्त्रेष्वकुण्ठिता बुद्धिर्मौर्वी धनुषि चातता॥ १-१९

senā paricchadastasya dvayamevārthasādhanam |
śāstreṣvakuṇṭhitā buddhirmaurvī dhanuṣi cātatā || 1-19

senaa paricChadastasya dvayamevaarthasaadhanam |
shaastreSvakuNThitaa buddhirmaurvii dhanuSi caatataa || 1-19


senA paricChadaH tasya dvayam eva artha sAdhanam | shAsteSu akuNThitA buddhiH maurvI dhanuSi ca AtatA || 1-19

1-19. tasya= his; senA= army; paricChadaH= entourage [handling parasols, royal fans etc.] artha   sAdhanam= purpose, achieving [aspects]; dvayam eva= two, only; shAsteSu  akuNThitA   buddhiH = in sciences [like political science, or economics etc., say kingcraft] unswerving, a mind [one aspect]; dhanuSi   AtatA [AropitA] maurvI ca= on bow, tautened, bowstring, also; [nIti purassaram eva shauryam tasya AbhUt iti bhAvaH.]

His army is just an entourage on par with those that handle the royal parasols and fans, while the real achievers of his purpose are but two; one is his unswerving mind in the sciences of kingcraft; while the other is his bow, ever tautened with bowstring. [1-19]


तस्य संवृतमन्त्रस्य गूढाकारेङ्गितस्य च।
फलानुमेयाः प्रारम्भाः संस्काराः प्राक्तना इव॥ १-२०

tasya saṁvṛtamantrasya gūḍhākāreṅgitasya ca |
phalānumeyāḥ prārambhāḥ saṁskārāḥ prāktanā iva || 1-20

tasya sa.mvR^itamantrasya guuDhaakaare~Ngitasya ca |
phalaanumeyaaH praarambhaaH sa.mskaaraaH praaktanaa iva || 1-20


tasya sa.mvR^ita ma.ntrasya gUDha AkAra ingitasya ca | phala anumeyAH prAra.mbhAH sa.mskArAH prAktanA iva || 1-20

1-20. sa.mvR^ita ma.ntrasya= gupta vicAryasya= abstruse concepts; gUDha= invisible; AkAra = bhrUkuTI mukha rAgAdi AkAraH= body language; ingitasya ca= hR^idgata bhAvo = mind language, also; tasya= his; prAra.mbhAH= sAma Adi upAya prayogA= tactical manoeuvring of kingcraft; prAktanA sa.mskArAH = pUrva janma vAsanA= repercussions from past life - the recovery of things known to the soul in previous existences; iva= like; phala= kAryeNa= by fruits of action; anumeyAH= inferable.

His tactical manoeuvres in kingcraft are inferable only by their fruition, just like the repercussions in this life are implied from past life, since his concepts, body-language or orientation are abstruse. [1-20]

 The repercussions from past life o, - u.mA; manoeuvres in kingcraft oc, u.me; like - c, sA.vA; inference commonality, sA.dha; anugAmi sahitopama a simile with underlying quality.


जुगोपात्मानमत्रस्तः भेजे धर्ममनातुरः।
अगृध्नुराददे सोऽर्थमसक्तः सुखमन्वभूत्॥ १-२१

jugopātmānamatrastaḥ bheje dharmamanāturaḥ |
agṛdhnurādade so'rthamasaktaḥ sukhamanvabhūt || 1-21

jugopaatmaanamatrastaH bheje dharmamanaaturaH |
agR^idhnuraadade so.arthamasaktaH sukhamanvabhuut || 1-21


jugopa AtmAnam atrastaH bheje dharmam anAturaH | agR^idhnuH Adade saH artham asaktaH sukham anvabhUt || 1-21

1-21. saH= he, dilIpa; a trastaH= without, consternation; AtmAnam jugopa= his own self, [his body,] conserved; an AturaH= without, illness [even if he is with ill health, he felt like a healthy person to performe dutiful deeds]; dharmam= dutiful deeds; bheje= ArjitavA= served, performed; a gR^idhnuH= without, avarice; artham Adade= riches, recouped; a + saktaH= without, attachment [succumbing to temptation]; sukham anvabhUt= comforts, enjoyed.

dilIpa conserved his body not out of his self-consternation, but to perform dutiful deeds, even if he were to be with ill health he performed dutiful deeds for duty's sake, he recouped riches without any personal avarice, and he enjoyed physical comforts without succumbing to temptations. [1-21]


ज्ञाने मौनं क्षमा शक्तौ त्यागे श्लाघाविपर्ययः।
गुणा गुणानुबन्धित्वात्तस्य सप्रसवा इव॥ १-२२

jñāne maunaṁ kṣamā śaktau tyāge ślāghāviparyayaḥ |
guṇā guṇānubandhitvāttasya saprasavā iva || 1-22

j~naane mauna.m kShamaa shaktau tyaage shlaaghaaviparyayaH |
guNaa guNaanubandhitvaattasya saprasavaa iva|| 1-22


j~nAne maunam kshamA shakatau tyAge shlAghA viparyayaH | guNAH guNa anuba.ndhitvAt tasya sa prasavA iva || 1-22

1-22. j~nAne= para vR^ittanta parij~nAbe satyapi= even if he is aware of others' misdeeds; maunam= vA~NiyamaH= tongue-tied; shakatau= even capable enough to retaliate, rebuke etc; kshamA= apakAra sahanam= patience to bear animosity [shaktAnAm bhUSaNam kshama - cANakya]; tyAge= while endowing munificence; shlAghA= exaltation; viparyayaH= abhAvaH= apathetic; tasya guNAH= his, attributes [like awareness, capability, munificence]; guNa= attributes [like silence, patience, apathy and other contradictory]; anuba.ndhitvAt= saha cAritvAt = coexistent factors; sa   prasavA iva= sodarA iva= along with, born ones, like [paraspara viruddhA api guNAH tasmin na virodhena eva sthitA= like the children of same mother, they coexisted in him.]

Though he is aware of others' misdeeds he is tongue-tied; though capable enough to retaliate, rebuke etc he is patient with them; though he is highly exalted while endowing munificence he is apathetic to any magnification; thus his attributes like awareness, capability, munificence are coexistent in him along with mutually contradictory attributes like silence, patience, apathy, as though they all are the children of the same mother. [1-22]



अनाकृष्टस्य विषयैर्विद्यानाम् प्रारदृश्वनः।
तस्य धर्मरतेरासीद्वृद्धत्वं जरसा विना॥ १-२३

anākṛṣṭasya viṣayairvidyānām prāradṛśvanaḥ |
tasya dharmaraterāsīdvṛddhatvaṁ jarasā vinā || 1-23

anaakR^iSTasya viSayairvidyaanaam praaradR^ishvanaH |
tasya dharmarateraasiidvR^iddhatva.m jarasaa vinaa  || 1-23


anAkR^iSyasya viSayaiH vidyAnAm prAra dR^ishvanaH |tasya dharma rateH AsIt vR^iddhatvam jarasA vinA || 1-23

1-23. viSayaiH an AkR^iSyasya= by sensory subjects, not, attracted [dispassionate]; vidyAnAm = veda veda angAnAm= in scriptures; prAra dR^ishvanaH= up to end, one who has seen [knew scriptures in-depth, knowledgeable]; dharma rateH= in duty, delights in; tasya= to him; vinA   jarasA= without, aging; vR^iddhatvam AsIt= old age, bechanced; [tasya rAj~naH j~nAna vR^iddhatvam Aha.]

As sensory subjects have not attracted him he is dispassionate; as a knowledgeable person he took delight only in duty; to such a person bechanced is senescent look without actual aging, as if he is an oldster wisdom-wise. [1-23]


प्रजानां विनयाधानाद्रक्षणाद्भरणादपि।
स पिता पितरस्तासां केवलं जन्महेतवः॥ १-२४

prajānāṁ vinayādhānādrakṣaṇādbharaṇādapi |
sa pitā pitarastāsāṁ kevalaṁ janmahetavaḥ || 1-24

prajaanaa.m vinayaadhaanaadrakShaNaadbharaNaadapi |
sa pitaa pitarastaasaa.m kevala.m janmahetavaH  || 1-24


prajAnAm vinaya AdhAnAt rakshaNAt bharaNAt api |sa pitA pitaraH tAsAm kevalam janma hetavaH || 1-24

1-24. prajAnAm= for people; vinaya= sikshayAH= by training; AdhAnAt= by giving [orienting subjects in good conduct]; rakshaNAt bharaNAt api= by protecting [from the factors of fear or danger,] by succouring [with welfare facilities,] even; saH= he; [AbhUt] pitA= [became] father; pitaraH tAsAm= parents, theirs [subjects]; kevalam= just; janma hetavaH= for birthing, factors [AbhUt= became.]

Orienting his subjects in good conduct, protecting them from fears or dangers, according succour with welfare facilities, king dilIpa became their de facto father while their actual parents remained parents de jure. [1-24]


स्थित्यै दण्डयतो दण्ड्यान्परिणेतुः प्रसूतये।
अप्यर्थकामौ तस्यास्तां धर्म एव मनीषिणः॥ १-२५

sthityai daṇḍayato daṇḍyānpariṇetuḥ prasūtaye |
apyarthakāmau tasyāstāṁ dharma eva manīṣiṇaḥ || 1-25

sthityai daNDayato daNDyaanpariNetuH prasuutaye |
apyarthakaamau tasyaastaa.m dharma eva maniiSiNaH|| 1-25


sthitai daNDayataH daNDyAn pariNetuH prasUtaye | api artha kAmau tasya AstAm dharmAya eva manISiNaH || 1-25

1-25. daNDyAn= those that are punishable; sthitai= loka pratiSThAyai= for maintenance of system [of law and order]; daNDayataH= he punished; prasUtaye pariNetuH= for progeny, he marries; manISiNaH   tasya= viduSaH tasya= being a scholar, his; artha   kAmau   api= purposes, pleasures, even; dharmAya eva AstAm= in propriety, alone, abiding, maintained [artha kAmayo api dharma visheSatAm ApAdayan.]

Punishing the punishable only for the sake of law and order, wives only for the sake of proper progeny, that scholarly king maintained his own purposes and pleasures in propriety alone. [1-25]


दुदोह गां स यज्ञाय सस्याय मघवा दिवम्।
सम्पद्विनियमेनोभौ दधतुर्भुवनद्वयम्॥ १-२६

dudoha gāṁ sa yajñāya sasyāya maghavā divam |
sampadviniyamenobhau dadhaturbhuvanadvayam || 1-26

dudoha gaa.m sa yaj~naaya sasyaaya maghavaa divam |
sampadviniyamenobhau dadhaturbhuvanadvayam || 1-26


dudoha gAm sa yaj~nAya sasyAya maghavA divam | sampat viniyamena ubhau dadhatuH bhuvana dvayam || 1-26

1-26. saH= he, dilIpa; yaj~nAya= for Vedic-rituals; gAm= bhuvam= earth; dudoha= milked, - idiomatic English has this 'milking' - taxman is milking me dry - kara grahaNe riktAm cakAra= milked earth for levies to conduct rituals]; maghavA= Indra; sasyAya= for crops; divam= heaven; [dudoha= milked]; ubhau= both; sampat= wealth; viniyamena= paraspara AdAna prati dAnAbhyAm= reciprocally; bhuvana dvayam dadhatuH = nourished, two, realms; [rAjA yaj~naiH  lokam, H ca vR^iSTau bhUlokam pupoSe]

dilIpa milked the earth for levies only to conduct Vedic-rituals in order to appease indra, while  indra milked heaven for causing rains on earth for crops in order to appease the king dilIpa and his subjects, thus both reciprocally exchanged prosperities in order to nourish a pair of realms, earth and heaven. [1-26]


न किलानुनयुस्तस्य राजानो रक्षितुर्यशः।
व्यावृत्ता यत्परस्वेभ्यः श्रुतौ तस्करता स्थिता॥ १-२७

na kilānunayustasya rājāno rakṣituryaśaḥ |
vyāvṛttā yatparasvebhyaḥ śrutau taskaratā sthitā || 1-27

na kilaanunayustasya raajaano rakShituryashaH |
vyaavR^ittaa yatparasvebhyaH shrutau taskarataa sthitaa || 1-27


na kila anunayuH tasya rAjAno rakshituH yashaH | vyAvR^ittA yat parasvebhyaH shrutau taskaratA sthitA || 1-27

1-27. rAjAnaH= [other] kings; rakshituH= being protector; [dilIpa's]; tasya yashaH= his renown; na   kila   anunayuH= not, indeed, emulate; yat= why because; taskaratA= thievery; parasvebhyaH = from others [riches]; vyAvR^ittA [vi A vR^it]= made an about turn; shrutau   sthitA= in listening, remained; nyAyena shabde sphuritA na sva rUpo asti iti arthaH= thievery remained in rulebooks as a name minus its functionality.

Indeed the other kings could not emulate the fame of dilIpa, why because the name 'thievery' took an about-turn from the other mens riches and remained in all but a name, that too in rulebooks of law. [1-27]

 This verse is said to contain kAlidAsa's knowledge in grammar, logic, dialectics etc., in projecting an idea in unusual method. None of his subjects have said: Give me not poverty lest I steal because there is plenty.


द्वेष्योऽपि सम्मतः शिष्टस्तस्यार्तस्य यथौषधम्।
त्याज्यो दुष्टः प्रियोऽप्यासीदङ्गुलीवोरगक्षता॥ १-२८

dveṣyo'pi sammataḥ śiṣṭastasyārtasya yathauṣadham |
tyājyo duṣṭaḥ priyo'pyāsīdaṅgulīvoragakṣatā || 1-28

dveSyo.api sammataH shiSTastasyaartasya yathauSadham |
tyaajyo duSTaH priyo.apyaasiida~NguliivoragakShataa || 1-28


dveSyaH api sammataH shiSTaH tasya Artasya yathA auSadham | tyAjyo duSTaH priyo api asIt a.ngulI iva uraga kshatA || 1-28

1-28. shiSTaH= one with righteous conduct [principled person]; dveSyaH api= despicable, even if; yathA Artasya auSadham= as with, to a patient, [pungent] medicine; tasya  sammataH   asIt= to him [to dilIpa,] agreeable, became; duSTaH priyaH api= unprincipled one, dearer, even if; uraga kshatA a.ngulI iva= snake, fanged, finger, as with; tyAjyaH= discardable one; [AsIt= became.]

Even if someone is despicable he becomes agreeable to dilIpa, in case if he were to be a principled person, as with a pungent medicine somehow agreeable to a patient; and even if someone is dearer to him he becomes discardable to him in case if he were to be an unprincipled person, as with a finger fanged by a snake, severable for anyone. [1-28]

 Two sets of similes are there in this verse:

1] medicine- o, u.mA; principled person oc, u.me; as with cw, sA.vA; agreeability c, sA.dha; pungency o; despicability - mo; to dilIpa - o; to a patient - mo.

 2] finger - o; unprincipled one - mo; discarding - commonality; cw - as with; dearer one - o; snake-fanged - mo; to dilIpa - o; to anyone discarding finger - mo.

Thus there is a mixture of undelying qualities, o and mo. Snake bitten parts, if possible, will be amputated immedietly.


तं वेधा विदधे नूनं महाभूतसमाधिना।
तथा हि सर्वे तस्यासन्परार्थैकफला गुणाः॥ १-२९

taṁ vedhā vidadhe nūnaṁ mahābhūtasamādhinā |
tathā hi sarve tasyāsanparārthaikaphalā guṇāḥ || 1-29

ta.m vedhaa vidadhe nuuna.m mahaabhuutasamaadhinaa |
tathaa hi sarve tasyaasanparaarthaikaphalaa guNaaH|| 1-29


tam vedhA vidadhe nUnam mahAbhUta samAdhinA tathA hi sarve tasya Asan para artha eka phalA guNAH || 1-29

1-29. vedhA= god Brahma; mahAbhUta samAdhinA= five subtle elements, causative factors; nUnam= must have; tam vidadhe= him [dilIpa,] created; tathA hi= yes, indeed; sarve tasya= all, his; guNAH= rUpa rasa Adi mahAbUta guNavat eva= elemental attributes, essential traits [of dilIpa]; para artha= catering to others, purpose; eka phalA Asan= one, fruit, becoming [yielding one fruit, called social welfare.]

Creator-brahma must have created dilIpa with all the selfless five subtle elements, yes indeed! Because all his essential traits like rUpa, rasa, gandha form, essence, and scent - are unselfishly catering to others' purposes yielding only one fruit, called social welfare. [1-29]


स वेलावप्रवलयां परिखीकृतसागराम्।
अनन्यशासनामुर्वीं शशासैकपुरीमिव॥ १-३०

sa velāvapravalayāṁ parikhīkṛtasāgarām |
ananyaśāsanāmurvīṁ śaśāsaikapurīmiva || 1-30

sa velaavapravalayaa.m parikhiikR^itasaagaraam |
ananyashaasanaamurvii.m shashaasaikapuriimiva  || 1-30


sa velA vapra valayAm parikhI kR^ita sAgarAm | ananya shAsanAm urvIm shashAsa eka purIm iva || 1-30

1-30. saH= he dilIpa; velA= seashore; vapra valayAm= prAkAra veSTA= [like] ramparts, surrounded; sAgarAm parikhI kR^ita= ocean, as moat, on making; an anya  shAsanAm= not, by others, ruled monorchial rule [monarch - from from Gr. monos 'alone'   arkho 'to rule']; urvIm= earth u.me; shashAsa = ruled; eka purIm = one, city - u.mAiva= like - - sA.vA.

That dilIpa monarchised entire earth, hitherto un-umbrellaed under a single umbrella by any one king, as if she is his single capital bulwarked with seashores and moated with oceans  [1-30]

 The seashores as the surrounding rampart, oceans as moat, unruled by other kings - - these three factors relate to capital, while the earth is compared with a capital. velA iva vapra valayAH yasyAH tAm - on city's side; velA eva vapravalayA yasyAH tAm - on earth's side; samAsa bheda Ashrayana and this 'unruled by others' belongs both to earth and capital - shleSa - allusion.


तस्य दाक्षिण्यरूढेन नाम्ना मगधवंशजा।
पत्नी सुदक्षिणेत्यासीदध्वरस्येव दक्षिणा॥ १-३१

tasya dākṣiṇyarūḍhena nāmnā magadhavaṁśajā |
patnī sudakṣiṇetyāsīdadhvarasyeva dakṣiṇā || 1-31

tasya daakShiNyaruuDhena naamnaa magadhava.mshajaa |
patnii sudakShiNetyaasiidadhvarasyeva dakShiNaa|| 1-31


tasya dAkshiNya rUDhena nAmnA magadha va.msha jA | patnI sudakshiNa iti AsIt adhvarasya iva dakShiNA || 1-31

1-31. tasya= his; magadha va.msha jA= in magadha, dynasty, born in; dAkshiNya = dAkshiNyam = para cChandA anuvartanam= one who deportst according to the wishes of those on whom she is dependent, and convincingly make others to accept her opinions, as her opinions will always be right those that have such dAkshiNyam  - sA.dha, anugAmi dharma; rUDhena= prasiddham = renowned one for such amicable conduct; nAmnA   sudakshiNa= by name, sudakshiNa  - u.me; iti= thus known as; adhvarasya= R^itvik, one who conducts Vedic- ritual and takes munificence for the culmination of that ritual, but now personified as Vedic-ritual itself; iva= like - sA.vA; dakShiNA= munificence - u.mA; patnI= wife; AsIt= [sudakshiNa, sArthaka nAmadheyI] is there.

A princess from magadha dynasty renowned for her amiable deportment and comportment is the inseparable wife of king dilIpa, like the ever wedded consort of yaj~na-puruSha, namely lady dakshiNa hence, she is celebrated by her name lady su-dakshiNa meaning: an honorable beneficence chanced on king dilIpa [1-31]

A Vedic-ritual minus munificence and/or a wife is a mere farce. Charitableness and Vedic rituals are inseparably wedded together. dakshiNa is the name for the munificence given profusely in Vedic rituals, or even in household ceremonies, to priests, relative and/or friends. Hence that dakshiNa, the munificence, is now anthropomorphised goddess as Lady Munificence, and made as the consort of personified vedic-ritual - yaj~na-puruSha. The munificence given at the end of Vedic rituals, or even in ordinary ceremonies, is not the fees paid to the priest. It is to prove that the officiator desires higher worlds, at the munificence of all of his property, even his wife/wives. Please see Ramayana, Bala Kanda as to how dasharatha gives up everything to the priests that conduct ashvamedha yajna. Here, dilIpa- o; orchestrator of vedic-ritual - mo; wifehood and munificence - uq; objects are mirrored and mixed.


कलत्रवन्तमात्मानमवरोधे महत्यपि।
तया मेने मनस्विन्या लक्ष्म्या च वसुधाधिपः॥ १-३२

kalatravantamātmānamavarodhe mahatyapi |
tayā mene manasvinyā lakṣmyā ca vasudhādhipaḥ || 1-32

kalatravantamaatmaanamavarodhe mahatyapi |
tayaa mene manasvinyaa lakShmyaa ca vasudhaadhipaH || 1-32


kalatravantam AtmAnam avarodhe mahati api | tayA mene manasvinyA lakshmyA ca vasudha adhipaH || 1-32

1-32. vasudha adhipaH= land, lord [king]; avarodhe= into which entry to others is prohibited= antaHpura= palace chamber of queens; mahati api= greater, even if [many more better beauties are there as queens]; manasvinyA tayA= one with heartiness [by sudakshiNa]; lakshmyA   ca = by Fortunate-Lady-of-Kingdom, also; AtmAnam= himself; kalatravantam mene= having wife [really married to,] deemed.

Though many better beauties are there as his queens in the palace-chambers of queens, he deemed himself to have a really wedded wife in this hearty lady sudakshiNa, and obviously even with rAjya-lakshmi, Fortunate-Lady-of-Kingdom. [1-32]

As indicated by poet with the word lakshmyA   ca = rAjya-lakshmyA ca. 


विलम्बितफलैः कालं स निनाय मनोरथैः॥ १-३३

tasyāmātmānurūpāyāmātmajanmasamutsukaḥ |
vilambitaphalaiḥ kālaṁ sa nināya manorathaiḥ || 1-33

tasyaamaatmaanuruupaayaamaatmajanmasamutsukaH |
vilambitaphalaiH kaala.m sa ninaaya manorathaiH|| 1-33


tasyAm AtmA anurUpAyAm atmam janma samutsukaH | vil.mbita phalaiH kAlam sa ninAya manorathaiH || 1-33

1-33. saH= he [dilIpa]; Atma anurUpAyAm= self, in harmony with [similar]; tasyAm = in her, in sudakshiNa; atmam janma= AtmanaH janmani putra rUpeNa utpattau= selfsame son; samutsukaH= enthusiastic to get; vilmbita phalaiH= delayed, with fruition; manorathaiH= kadA me putro bhavet iti AshAbhiH= with ambition as to when a son chances; kAlam   ninAya= time, led off.

Enthusiastic to get a selfsame son in self-similar wife sudakshiNa, dilIpa frittered his time away while the fruition of his ambition is delayed. [1-33]


सन्तानार्थाय विधये स्वभुजादवतारिता।
तेन धूर्जगतो गुर्वी सचिवेषु निचिक्षिपे॥ १-३४

santānārthāya vidhaye svabhujādavatāritā |
tena dhūrjagato gurvī saciveṣu nicikṣipe || 1-34

santaanaarthaaya vidhaye svabhujaadavataaritaa |
tena dhuurjagato gurvii saciveSu nicikShipe ||  1-34


sa.ntAna arthAya vidhaye sva bhujAt avatAritA | tena dhUH jagataH gurvI saciveSu nicikshape || 1-34

1-34. tena= by him [by dilIpa]; sa.ntAna= for progeny; arthAya= for the purpose of [begetting]; vidhaye= vidhi anuSThAnAya= for [performing] sacred duties; sva bhujAt= from his own, shoulders; ava tAritA= down, loaded; jagataH= world's [the world of his kingdom]; gurvI dhUH= weighty, weight; saciveSu nicikshape= among ministers, consigned.

For the purpose of betting progeny by performing sacred duties king dilIpa downloaded the weighty weight of his worldly kingdom from his shoulders and consigned it to his ministers. [1-34]


अथाभ्यर्च विधातारं प्रयतौ पुत्रकामया।
तौ दम्पती वसिष्ठस्य गुरोर्जग्मतुराश्रमम्॥ १-३५

athābhyarca vidhātāraṁ prayatau putrakāmayā |
tau dampatī vasiṣṭhasya gurorjagmaturāśramam || 1-35

athaabhyarca vidhaataara.m prayatau putrakaamayaa |
tau dampatii vasiSThasya gurorjagmaturaashramam || 1-35


atha abhyarca vidhAtaram pratau putra kAmyayA | tau da.mpatI vashiSTasya guroH jagmatuH Ashramam || 1-35

1-35. atha= then; tau dampatI= twosome, couple; abhyarca vidhAtaram= on worshipping, Creator [Brahma]; pra yatau= very, effortfully; putra kAmyayA= son, yearning for; guroH   vashiSTasya= mentor, vashiShTha's; ashramam jagmatuH= to hermitage, proceeded - this is refrain to every verse till they reach hermitage.

Then that couple, king dilIpa and sudakshiNa, on worshipping creator-brahma very effortfully, yearning for a son as they are, proceeded towards the hermitage of their mentor, sage vashiShTha. [1-35]


स्निग्धगम्भीरनिर्घोषमेकं स्यन्दनमाश्रितौ।
प्रावृषेण्यं पयोवाहं विद्युदैरारताविव॥ १-३६

snigdhagambhīranirghoṣamekaṁ syandanamāśritau |
prāvṛṣeṇyaṁ payovāhaṁ vidyudairāratāviva || 1-36

snigdhagambhiiranirghoSameka.m syandanamaashritau |
praavR^iSeNya.m payovaaha.m vidyudairaarataaviva|| 1-36


snigdha ga.mbhIra nirghoSam eka syandanam Asthitau | prAvR^iSeNyam payo vAham vidyut airAravA iva || 1-36

1-36. snigdha= madhura= nice; gabhIra= booming; nirghoSam= having blare; eka  syandanam = in single, chariot; prAvR^iSeNyam= in rainy season; payaH vAham= water, carrier - rainy black cloud; vidyut= lightning - u.mA; airAravA= elephant of Indra - u.mA; iva= like [chariot] - sA.vA; Asthitau= on settling [on mounting]; [from here up to verse 45 this refrain is to be annexed: tau dampatI= that couple dilIpa, sudakshiNa - u.me; vashiSTasya guroH jagmatuH Ashramam= that couple proceeded towards the hermitage of their mentor vashiShTha.

Encharioted on a single chariot that is blaring boomingly but nicely like a rain-cloud, both dilIpa and sudakshiNa proceeded towards the hermitage of their mentor vashiShTha, as if both, airAvatI and airAvta, i.e., a flash of lightning and airAvata, the majestic elephant of, are mounted on a single cloud in rainy season. [1-36]

 Indras elephant airAvata is always associated with the flashes of lightning as they two are inseparable male-female-duo, while airavata is male and airAvatI, the flash, is female. airAvato .abhro nAga tasya strI airAvatI... they both ride on a raincloud at the same time.

In this, lightning and elephant are - o; dilIpa and sudakshiNa - oc; in that - sudakshiNa is compared to the flash of lightning for her lightning-like beauty, and dilIpa to the silvern and elephantine majesty, where this airavata of  is a four tusked white skinned majestic elephant of indra, unlike black elephants of earth. The resonant sound of chariot is - o; cloud's thunder is - oc; both mounting on a single chariot -o; both elephant and lightning ascending on cloud mo.

There is no separate state carriage to this queen. Both are in the same chariot means that both are with a single aim.


मा भूदाश्रमपीडेति परिमेयपुरस्सरौ।
अनुभावविशेषात्तु सेनापरिवृताविव॥ १-३७

mā bhūdāśramapīḍeti parimeyapurassarau |
anubhāvaviśeṣāttu senāparivṛtāviva || 1-37

maa bhuudaashramapiiDeti parimeyapurassarau |
anubhaavavisheSaattu senaaparivR^itaaviva|| 1-37


mA bhUt Ashrama pIDA iti parimeya purassarau | anubhAva visheSAt tu senA parivR^itA iva || 1-37

1-37. mA bhUt= not, let there be; Ashrama pIDA= hermitage, perturbation; iti [hetoH] = that way, [for the reason of, thinking so]; parimeya= minimal entourage; purassarau= keeping in van; anubhAva visheSAt tu= tejo visheSAt tu= by their resplendence, hallmark of; senA   parivR^itA  = by [entire] army, surrounded by; iva= as though; [jagmatuH= proceeded.]

While proceeding to hermitage they thought, "Let there be less escort lest the hermitage is perturbed..." and proceeded with a minimal entourage in their van; but owing to the hallmark of the resplendence even of that minimal entourage it appeared like an entire army. [1-37]


सेव्यमानौ सुखस्पर्शैः शालनिर्यासगन्धिभिः।
पुष्परेणूत्किरैर्वातैराधूतवनराजिभिः॥ १-३८

sevyamānau sukhasparśaiḥ śālaniryāsagandhibhiḥ |
puṣpareṇūtkirairvātairādhūtavanarājibhiḥ || 1-38

sevyamaanau sukhasparshaiH shaalaniryaasagandhibhiH |
puSpareNuutkirairvaatairaadhuutavanaraajibhiH || 1-38


sevyamAnau sukha sparshaiH sAla niryAsa gandhibhiH | puSpa reNu utkirNaiH vAtaiH AdhUta vana rAjibhiH || 1-38

1-38. sukha sparshaiH= comfortable, with touch; sAla niryAsa gandhibhiH= sala trees, trickling sap, with fragrances; puSpa reNu utkirNaiH= flowers, pollen, up-heaved [hence sightly]; AdhUta= lightly winnowing; vana rAjibhiH= forest, ranges; vAtaiH sevyamAnau = by breezes, being adored; [jagmatuH= proceeded.]

They proceeded while they are adored by the comfortable touch of the breezes that are balmy for they are wafting fragrance from the trickling sap of sala trees; sightly for they are whiffing the pollen upheaved from flowers, and lovely for they are lightly winnowing the ranges of forest trees. [1-38]


मनोभिरामाः शृण्वन्तौ रथनेमिस्वनोन्मुखैः।
षड्जसंवादिनीः केका द्विधा भिन्नाः शिखण्डिभिः॥ १-३९

manobhirāmāḥ śṛṇvantau rathanemisvanonmukhaiḥ |
ṣaḍjasaṁvādinīḥ kekā dvidhā bhinnāḥ śikhaṇḍibhiḥ || 1-39

manobhiraamaaH shR^iNvantau rathanemisvanonmukhaiH |
SaDjasa.mvaadiniiH kekaa dvidhaa bhinnaaH shikhaNDibhiH  || 1-39


manobhirAmAH shruNvantau ratha nemi svano unmukhaiH |saDja sa.mvAdinIH kekkA dvidhA bhinnAH shikha.nDibhiH || 1-39

1-39. ratha nemi svana= chariot's, wheel's, by sounds [rattles]; ut mukhaiH= up, faced [ shikhanDibhiH]= by those that have crests [- peacocks]; dvidhA bhinnAH= two way, split; SaDja= SaDja - first of seven Indian music notes, as in octave - u.mA; savAdinIH= resembling in sound equality this samvAdinI is a upamAvAchaka - sA.vA; anaH   abhirAmAH = heart, pleasing ones - sA.dha; kekA= screams of peacocks - u.me; shruNvantau = on listening; [jagmatuH= proceeded.] This verse has an arthi-pUrNa upama.

They have travelled on and on listening to the heart-pleasing screams of peacocks that have raised their faces on listening to the rhythmic rattles of chariot wheelspin and started to scream in two split-pitches, exactly like the SaDja musical notes that will be split into two pitches called chyuta broken; and achyuta unbroken. [1-39]

 If an octave contains eight notes, its Indian counterpart also contains eight, but leaving the last one, they are called sapta swara-s - sa, ri, ga, ma, pa, da, ni , but by adding one more sa in next pitch, they total to an octave. These are musically called SaDjama, R^iSabha, gAndhAra, madhyama, pancama, dhaivata, niSAda plus one more SaDja in next scale. Then these peacocks and peahens are said to be screaming in two scales/pitches. On this single verse mallinAtha sUri comments one full A4 page commentary to establish kAlidAsa's knowledge in music.


मृगद्वन्द्वेषु पश्यन्तौ स्यन्दनाबद्धदृष्टिषु॥ १-४०

parasparākṣisādṛśyamadūrojjhitavartmasu |
mṛgadvandveṣu paśyantau syandanāabaddhadṛṣṭiṣu || 1-40

parasparaakShisaadR^ishyamaduurojjhitavartmasu |
mR^igadvandveSu pashyantau syandanaaabaddhadR^iSTiSu || 1-40


paraspara akshi sAdR^ishyam adUro ujjhita vartmasu | mR^iga dvandeSu pashya.ntau syandana Abaddha dR^iSTiSu || 1-40

1-40. mR^iga dvandeSu= deer, couples; vartmasu= [those that have sidestepped from] pathway; a dUra= not, far; ujjhita= left of; syandana Abaddha dR^iSTiSu= on chariot, fixatedly, having their look; paraspara= each to each; akshi sAdR^ishyam= eyes, similarity; pashya.ntau= on seeing; [jagmatuH= proceeded.]

The pairs of deer that have sidestepped from pathway to give way to the cruising chariot stood not far-flung on roadside, and started to look fixatedly at the chariot and at the chariot-farers; then each one from the pairs looked at the other admiring the similarity in each others eyes, viz. a male deer looked at sudakshiNa's eyes to compare them with his helpmates eyes; while a female deer looked at dilIpa's eyes to check with her helpmate's eyes; sudakshiNa looked at male deer and compared it with the eyes of dilIpa, while dilIpa looked at a female deer and compared its eyes with the eyes of sudakshiNa then both dilIpa and sudakshiNa laughed it off and proceeded further. [1-40]

 Pair of eyes of deer couple o, u.mA; eyes of sudakshiNa, dilIpa oc, u.me; dairghya nailya aruNa chAnchalyAdikam - broadness, blackness, a little redness, nimbleness of eyes c, sA.dha - unsaid; and upama vAchakam - sAdR^ishyam - similarity - c, sA.vA; then this is shrauti - dharma lupta upama. If words like - alike, akin to, are not used, but words like sAdR^isha, sAmya, sama etc., are used it is shrauti upama. A kind of hendiadys if two nouns or adjectives of similar or contingent meaning are used.


श्रेणीबन्धाद्वितन्वद्भिरस्तम्भां तोरणस्रजम्।
सारसैः कलनिर्ह्रादैः क्वचिदुन्नमिताननौ॥ १-४१

śreṇībandhādvitanvadbhirastambhāṁ toraṇasrajam |
sārasaiḥ kalanirhrādaiḥ kvacidunnamitānanau || 1-41

shreNiibandhaadvitanvadbhirastambhaa.m toraNasrajam |
saarasaiH kalanirhraadaiH kvacidunnamitaananau  || 1-41


shreNI bandhAt vitanvadhiH stha.mbhAm toraNa srajam |sArasaiH kala nirhArdraiH kvacit unnamita Ananau || 1-41

1-41. shreNI bandhAt= in series, stringed [cranes in sky]; a + sthabhAm= without, pillars piers, posts; toraNa   srajam= welcome-arch, festoons of flower; vitanvadhiH= [as though] arranging; kala   nirhArdraiH= avyakta madhura dhvanibhiH= having undecipherable yet melodious trills; sArasaiH= [at such] cranes; kvacit= somewhere; unnamita Ananau= a little up raised, with faces; [jagmatuH= proceeded.]

Serially stringed are the cranes on the sky as though they are the arranged festoons on a pierless welcomearch; seeing at such cranes that have undecipherable yet melodious trills, that couple on chariot proceeded with their faces a little upraised. [1-41]


रजोभिस्तुरगोत्कीर्णैरस्पृष्टालकवेष्टनौ॥ १-४२

pavanasyānukūlatvātprārthanāsiddhiśaṁsinaḥ |
rajobhisturagotkīrṇairaspṛṣṭālakaveṣṭanau || 1-42

pavanasyaanukuulatvaatpraarthanaasiddhisha.msinaH |
rajobhisturagotkiirNairaspR^iSTaalakaveSTanau  || 1-42


pavanasya anukUlatvAt prardhanA siddhi sha.mshinaH | rajobhiH turaga utkIrNaiH aspR^iSTa alaka veSTanau || 1-42

1-42. prardhanA siddhi shashinaH= prayer, fruition, denoting; pavanasya   anukUlatvAt = gantavya dik abhimukhAt= [course of] wind, by propitiousness; turaga   utkIrNaiH = by horses, up-strewn; rajobhiH= by dust; a + spR^iSTa= un, touched; alaka= hair-locks [of queen]; veSTanau = headgear [of king]; [iti jagmatuH= thus they proceeded.]

The wind is denoting the fruition of their prayer for its current is aslant their goal, thus the hair-locks of the queen or the headgear of the king are not in wild disarray with the dust up-strewn by the hieing hooves of galloping horses. [1-42]


सरसीष्वरविन्दानां वीचिविक्षोभशीतलम्।
आमोदमुपजिघ्रन्तौ स्वनिःश्वासानुकारिणम्॥ १-४३

sarasīṣvaravindānāṁ vīcivikṣobhaśītalam |
āmodamupajighrantau svaniḥśvāsānukāriṇam || 1-43

sarasiiSvaravindaanaa.m viicivikShobhashiitalam |
aamodamupajighrantau svaniHshvaasaanukaariNam  || 1-43


sarasISu aravindAnAm vIci vikshobha shItalam | Amodam upajighrantau sva nishshvAsa anukAriNam || 1-43

1-43. sarasISu= in lakes; vIci= by ripples; vi kshobha= by much, ruffling; shItalam= cooled; [Urmi samghaTana shItalam]; aravindAnAm= of lotuses; Amodam= parimalam= fragrance; sva= their own; nishshvAsa= suspirations; anukAriNam= imitative [akin to]; upajighrantau= ghrANena gR^ihNantau= while smelling; [iti jagmatuH= thus they proceeded.]

With much ruffled ripples the lotuses in lakes are muchly cooled, and the royal couple proceeded while smelling such a fragrance that is akin to the fragrance of their own suspires. [1-43]

 The longer a lotus wets itself in waves more abundant will be its fragrance even at a long-distance. There will be some fragrance in exhalations of anyone, but if that is on par with lotus's fragrance, that person belongs to uttama jAti lakshaNa best pedigree.


ग्रामेष्वात्मविसृष्टेषु यूपचिह्नेषु यज्वनाम्।
अमोघाः प्रतिगृह्णन्तावर्घ्यानुपदमाशिषः॥ १-४४

grāmeṣvātmavisṛṣṭeṣu yūpacihneṣu yajvanām |
amoghāḥ pratigṛhṇantāvarghyānupadamāśiṣaḥ || 1-44

graameSvaatmavisR^iSTeSu yuupacihneSu yajvanaam |
amoghaaH pratigR^ihNantaavarghyaanupadamaashiSaH|| 1-44


grAmeSu Atma visR^iSTeSu yUpa cihneSu yajvanAm | amoghAH prati gR^ihNantau arghya anupadam AshiSaH || 1-44

1-44. Atma= by themselves; visR^iSTeSu= sva datteSu= endowed, beneficed by themselves to those villagers; yUpa= yaj~nI pashu bandhana dAru visheSaH= sacrificial posts to which sacrificial animals are tied; cihneSu = as landmarks of; grAmeSu= in such villages; amoghAH= sa-phalAH= fruitful; AshiSaH = blessings; yajvanAm= of orchestrators of Vedic-rituals in a scripturally correct manner - authorities on Vedic-rituals; arghya= pujAvidhiH, tadartham dravyam arghyam= oblatory waters, blest waters; anupadam= anupadamanvak - anantaram= after [taking]; prati gR^ihNantau= in their turn, on receiving; [tau jagmatuH= thus they proceeded.]

On seeing sacrificial posts here and there, which are the landmarks of those villages, and which the Royal couple themselves have previously beneficed to those villages for regular Vedic-rituals, that couple paused here and there at those ritual places to receive blest waters and fruitful blessings from the authorities on Vedic-rituals, as they two proceeded further. [1-44]


हैयङ्गवीनमादाय घोषवृद्धानुपस्थितान्।
नामधेयानि पृच्छन्तौ वन्यानां मार्गशाखिनाम्॥ १-४५

haiyaṅgavīnamādāya ghoṣavṛddhānupasthitān |
nāmadheyāni pṛcchantau vanyānāṁ mārgaśākhinām || 1-45

haiya~Ngaviinamaadaaya ghoSavR^iddhaanupasthitaan |
naamadheyaani pR^icChantau vanyaanaa.m maargashaakhinaam  || 1-45


haiya.nga-vInam AdAya ghoSa vR^iddhAn upasthitAn | nAmadheyAni pR^icChantau vanyAnAm mArga shAkhInAm || 1-45

1-45. haiyangavInam= sadyo ghR^itam= fresh butter resulting from milk, milked just yesterday; AdAya= on taking, on bringing; ghoSa vR^iddhAn= villages of cowherds, village elders; upasthitAn= prAptAn= who chanced to come; vanyAnAm= forest born, wild trees; mArga = on pathway; shAkhInAm= spreading branches; nAmadheyAni pR^icChantau = names, on asking; [tau jagmatuH= thus they proceeded.]

Giving an audience to village elders who came there from nearby villages of cowherds bringing fresh butter as a royal present, and who gathered hither and thither on roadside, that royal couple interacted with them by asking about the names of wild trees that are growing on roadside shading the pathway with their branches, and thus they proceeded further. [1-45]

This word haiyangavInam is said to be a peculiar word. hyaH = only yesterday; stana go  doha udbhavam - navanItam; the butter that has come from milk milked just yesterday fresh and sweeter than the old stock.


काप्यभिख्या तयोरासीद्व्रजतोः शुद्धवेषयोः।
हिमनिर्मुक्तयोर्योगे चित्राचन्द्रमसोरिव॥ १-४६

kāpyabhikhyā tayorāsīdvrajatoḥ śuddhaveṣayoḥ |
himanirmuktayoryoge citrācandramasoriva || 1-46

kaapyabhikhyaa tayoraasiidvrajatoH shuddhaveSayoH |
himanirmuktayoryoge citraacandramasoriva  || 1-46


kA api abhibhyA tayoH AsIt vrajatoH shuddha veSayoH | hima nirmuktayoH yoge citrA candramasauH iva || 1-46

1-46. vrajatoH= those who are journeying; shuddha veSayoH= ujjvala naipathyayoH= with brilliant, [royal] costume; tayoH= for those two; hima nirmuktayoH= fog, released from; citrA   candramasauH   iva= Star Citra, Moon, as with; yoge= when in togetherness [sati = while being so]; kA   api= kA pai nir vAcyA= something, even - that cannot be told apart, ineffable; abhibhyA= shobhA = resplendence; AsIt= bechanced.

Then an ineffable resplendence has chanced on them who are journeying dressed in brilliant royal costumes like that of star chitra in togetherness with the moon when released from fog. [1-46]

 Star chitra, moon o, u.mA; sudakshiNa, dilIpa oc, u.me; like - c, sA.vA; chancing of resplendence commonality, sA.dha; brilliant royal attire - o; release from fog - mo; hence the metaphor contains underlying quality of the object analogous to the mirrored object.


तत्तद्भूमिपतिः पत्न्यै दर्शयन्प्रियदर्शनः।
अपि लङ्घितमध्वानं बुबुधे न बुधोपमः॥ १-४७

tattadbhūmipatiḥ patnyai darśayanpriyadarśanaḥ |
api laṅghitamadhvānaṁ bubudhe na budhopamaḥ || 1-47

tattadbhuumipatiH patnyai darshayanpriyadarshanaH |
api la~Nghitamadhvaana.m bubudhe na budhopamaH ||1-47


tat tat bhUmi patiH patnaiH darshayan priya darshanaH | api langhitam adhvAna bubudhe na budha upamaH || 1-47

1-47. priya darshanaH= pleasant, in looks; bhUmi patiH= land, lord -  king; tat tat= that, and that [objects of virtu]; patnaiH darshayan= to wife, while showing; langhitam api  [sudUram] adhvAna= carried on [travelled,] even, [far-way-off] route; na bubudhe= not, aware; [though he is] budhaH upamaH= budhaH saumayam upama= to budha, the Jupiter, similar to [in his awareness, cognisance and gentleness etc.]

That pleasant looking king dilIpa travelled a long way showing this and that object of nature available on roadsides to his wife; though they travelled a long-way-off route like this, he is unaware as to how much they moved past their route, though he is similar to Jupiter in full-awareness of such itineraries, because he lost himself in thought while appreciating and describing those and those objects of nature to his queen. [1-47]


स दुष्प्रापयशाः प्रापदाश्रमं श्रान्तवाहनः।
सायं संयमिनस्तस्य महर्षेर्महिषीसखः॥ १-४८

sa duṣprāpayaśāḥ prāpadāśramaṁ śrāntavāhanaḥ |
sāyaṁ saṁyaminastasya maharṣermahiṣīsakhaḥ || 1-48

sa duSpraapayashaaH praapadaashrama.m shraantavaahanaH |
saaya.m sa.myaminastasya maharSermahiSiisakhaH || 1-48


sa duSprApa yashAH prApat Ashramam shrAnta vAhanaH | sAyam sa.myaminaH tasya mararSeH mahiSI sakhaH || 1-48

1-48. duS prApa= impossible [for others,] to attain; yashAH= renown; shrAnta   vAhanaH = on with overtired, vehicles [rather, horses]; mahiSI sakhaH= queen, accompanied by; saH = he - dilIpa; sAyam= in evening; sa.myaminaH= niyamavat = conscientious sage; tasya  mararSeH = such an, eminent saint's; Ashramam prApat= at hermitage, arrived.

King dilIpa whose renown is unattainable by others has arrived at the hermitage of eminent and conscientious sage vashiShTha accompanied by his wife and along with overtired horses by the end of the day. [1-48]


वनान्तरादुपावृत्तैः समित्कुशफलाहरैः।
पूर्यमाणमदृश्याग्निप्रत्युद्यात्यैस्तपस्विभिः॥ १-४९

vanāntarādupāvṛttaiḥ samitkuśaphalāharaiḥ |
pūryamāṇamadṛśyāgnipratyudyātyaistapasvibhiḥ || 1-49

vanaantaraadupaavR^ittaiH samitkushaphalaaharaiH |
puuryamaaNamadR^ishyaagnipratyudyaatyaistapasvibhiH || 1-49


vana antarAt upAvR^ittaiH samit kusha phala AhAraiH | pUryamANam adR^ishya agni pratyudAtyaiH tapasvibhiH || 1-49

1-49. vana antarAt= from forest, another one, [rather fro nearby woods]; upa   avR^ittaiH = nigh of, drawing; samit kusha phala= fire-sticks for Fire Altar, sacred grass, fruits; AhAraiH = bringing ones, on collecting; adR^ishya= invisible; agni= fire [Ritual fire, vaitAgni]; pratiyudAtyaiH [prati ut yAta= towards them, getting up, going - Ritual Fires are getting up and going towards them in a greeting manner]; tapasvibhiH pUryamANam= by Vedic ascetics, being filled; [Ashramam prApat= at such a hermitage, they arrived.]

A hermitage that is being now filled with Vedic ascetics returning from nearby woods on collecting ritual material sticks of firewood, sacred grass, and fruits etc for that day, while the ritual-fires situated in the threshold of hermitage are welcomingly ushering them in by getting up from their altars and rushing towards them, albeit in an invisible form, as with children rushing towards their father coming home that royal couple approached such a hermitage where the affinity of father and son is maintained [1-49]

 At times kAlidAsa explains intricate points of Veda-s. kAmam pitaram putrAH proSitavantam pratyA dhAvanti - evam etam agnayaH pratyA dhAvanti... 'as with the children rushing towards their homecoming father, the children-like Ritual-fires rushed towards their fatherly Vedic ascetics, as those returning ascetics nourish them with fire...'


अपत्यैरिव नीवारभागधेयोचितैर्मृगैः॥ १-५०

ākīrṇamṛṣipatnīnāmuṭajadvārarodhibhiḥ |
apatyairiva nīvārabhāgadheyocitairmṛgaiḥ || 1-50

aakiirNamR^iSipatniinaamuTajadvaararodhibhiH |
apatyairiva niivaarabhaagadheyocitairmR^igaiH || 1-50


AkIrNam R^iSi patnInAm uTaja dvAra rodhibhiH | apatyaiH iva nIvAra bhAgadheya ucitaiH mR^igaiH || 1-50

1-50. nIvAra bhAgadheya ucitaiH= nIvAra grain [wild rice,] wanting a part of, habituated to seek so; uTaja   dvAra rodhibhiH= cottages, door of, blocking; mR^igaiH= with such a deer; R^iSi   patnInAm   apatyaiH   iva= sages', wives, [own] children, like; AkIrNam= overspread with; [Ashramam   prApat= at such a hermitage, they arrived.]

A hermitage overspread with deer habituated for seeking their part of wild-rice feed when the wives of sages come under the awnings of their cottages winnowing rice, and which deer block and do not leave the doorways until they are fed with handfuls of grain, as though they are the own children of the wives of sages thronging around their mothers towards such a hermitage alive to motherly affection the royal couple has proceeded. [1-50]

 In this, the children - o; deer - oc; overspreading - uq; like, or as though - c, sA.vA; and the blocking of doors and children clinging to the legs of their mothers - is an analogous action seeking their share of eatables. Motherly love of wives of sages for deer, and filial love of deer towards those motherly women is suggestive here.


सेकान्ते मुनिकन्याभिस्तत्क्षणोज्झितवृक्षकम्।
विश्वासाय विहङ्गानामालवालाम्बुपायिनम्॥ १-५१

sekānte munikanyābhistatkṣaṇojjhitavṛkṣakam |
viśvāasāya vihaṅgānāmālavālāmbupāyinam || 1-51

sekaante munikanyaabhistatkShaNojjhitavR^ikShakam |
vishvaaasaaya viha~Ngaanaamaalavaalaambupaayinam  || 3-51


seka ante muni kanyAbhiH tat kshaNa ujjhita vR^ikshakam | visa.mbhrAya vihangAnAm AlavAla a.mbu pAyinam || 1-51

1-51. seka ante= watering the saplings, at the end of; muni kanyAbhiH= by hermit's, young ladies; AlavAla = at base [in troughs]; ambu pAyinam= water, swillers; vihangAnAm= for birds; visambhrAya = for believability, to inculcate fearlessness; tat kshaNa= that, moment [as soon as]; ujjhita= left off [departed from]; vR^ikshakam= having trees [saplings.]

A hermitage where young ladies quickly retraced their steps on watering plants, just to inculcate fearlessness from humankind in birds that are ready to swoop to swill fresh water from troughs of plants, towards such a hermitage that royal couple traced their steps. [1-51]

 The love shown at the birds and trees is indicated. There are many accounts of this in kAlidAsa's Shakuntala, showing gratitude and love to trees and birds. Sir William Jones puts it as: let us give water to those which have passed their flowering time; for our virtue will be the greater when it is wholly disinterested where virtue is primary.


आतपात्ययसंक्षिप्तनीवारासु निषादिभिः।
मृगैर्वर्तितरोमन्थमुटजाङ्गनभूमिषु॥ १-५२

ātapātyayasaṁkṣiptanīvārāsu niṣādibhiḥ |
mṛgairvartitaromanthamuṭajāṅganabhūmiṣu || 1-52

aatapaatyayasa.mkShiptaniivaaraasu niSaadibhiH |
mR^igairvartitaromanthamuTajaa~NganabhuumiSu|| 3-52


Atapa atyaya sa.mkshipta nivArAsu niSAdibhiH | mR^igaiH vartita romandham uTaja a.ngaNa bhUmiSu || 1-52

1-52. Atapa= scorching [of sun]; atyaya= apagame= when backed down, abated; samkshipta= rAshikR^ita= heaped, collected; nivArAsu= in wild grain [stockpiles]; uTaja   angaNa   bhUmiSu= cottage, forefront, on grounds; niSAdibhiH= on squatting down; mR^igaiH = by deer [on their arrival]; vartita= niSpAdita= make happen [start]; ro-mandham= carvita caraNam= munching, chewing.

That royal couple started towards a hermitage where deer, squatting nearby the heaps of wild grain collected and heaped up in the frontages of cottages, leisurely started to ruminate cud when the sun's scorch has abated. [1-52]

In another way, the word niSpAdita also means grain winnowed and readied for use. Then the deer must be munching the readymade grain, instead of cud. C.f. Shakuntala: See under yon trees the hallowed grains which have been scattered on the ground, while the tender female parrots were feeding their unfledged young ill their pendent nest... so sayest SWJ.

पुनानं पवनोद्धूतैर्धूमैराहुतिगन्धिभिः॥ १-५३

abhyutthitāgnipiśunairatithīnāśramonmukhān |
punānaṁ pavanoddhūtairdhūmairāhutigandhibhiḥ || 1-53

abhyutthitaagnipishunairatithiinaashramonmukhaan |
punaana.m pavanoddhuutairdhuumairaahutigandhibhiH


abhyutthita agni pishunaiH atithIn Ashrama unmukhAn | punAnam pavana uddhUtaiH dhUmaiH Ahuti ga.ndhibhiH || 1-53

1-53. dhUmaiH= by fumes; pavana uddhUtaiH Ahuti  gandhibhiH = by wind, upheaved, of oblational items, fragrances [wafting]; abhyutthita= upraised [flaring up]; agni= fire from Altars; pishunaiH= sUcakaiH= indicating [that they are ever flaring]; Ashrama  unmukhAn   atithIn = hermitage, towards [incoming,] guests; punAnam= pavitrI kurvANam= tjey are sanctifying.

Wafted by the wind fumes outgoing from that hermitage are wafting the fragrances of oblational items indicating that ritual-fires are ever ablaze in altars of fire, and those fumes are on the go, as if they are the emissaries of those sacred-fires, just to extend a hallowed welcome to incoming guests, on behalf of those holy fires. [1-53]


अथ यन्तारमादिश्य धुर्यान्विश्रामयेति सः।
तामवारोहयत्पत्नीं रथादवततार च॥ १-५४

atha yantāramādiśya dhuryānviśrāmayeti saḥ |
tāmavārohayatpatnīṁ rathādavatatāra ca || 1-54

atha yantaaramaadishya dhuryaanvishraamayeti saH |
taamavaarohayatpatnii.m rathaadavatataara ca || 3-54


atha ya.ntAram Adishya dhuryAn vishrAmaya iti saH | tAm avAropyat patnIm rathAt avatatAra ca || 1-54

1-54. atha saH= then, he that dilIpa; dhuryAn= dhuram vahati iti dhuryAH= those that carry swiftly - horses; vishrAmaya iti = give rest, thus; Adishya ya.ntAram= on directing; sArathim = charioteer; tAm patnIm= she, his wife; rathAt avAropyat= from chariot, alighted; avatatAra   ca= [he] dismounted, too.

On reaching the hermitage king dilIpa, alighting and helping the queen to alight from the chariot, directed the charioteer to give rest to those fleetly horses. [1-54]


तस्मै सभ्याः सभार्याय गोप्त्रे गुप्ततमेन्द्रियाः।
अर्हणामर्हते चक्रुर्मुनयो नयचक्षुषे॥ १-५५

tasmai sabhyāḥ sabhāryāya goptre guptatamendriyāḥ |
arhaṇāmarhate cakrurmunayo nayacakṣuṣe || 1-55

tasmai sabhyaaH sabhaaryaaya goptre guptatamendriyaaH |
arhaNaamarhate cakrurmunayo nayacakShuSe || 3-55


tasmai sabhyAH sa bhAryAya goptre guptatama indriyAH | arhaNAm arhate ca cakruH munayo naya cakshuSe || 1-55

1-55. sabhyAH= courteous, hospitable; gupta tama indriyAH= atyanta niyatam indriyAH= highly self-controlled; munayaH= saints [of that hermitage]; sa bhAryAya= with, wife [who arrived]; goptre= [their] protector; naya cakshuSe= shAstram eva chakshuH = having scriptures - rather ethics, for his eyes - vision; tasmai= to him, to dilIpa; arhate= prashaste= an exemplary one; arhaNAm= pUjAm= adorations; ca cakruH= also, made [reverently welcomed.]

The courteous and highly self-controlled saints of that hermitage have reverently welcomed dilIpa, because he is their protector, an exemplary king, one who has ethics for his vision and who has now come with his wife. [1-55]


विधेः सायन्तनस्यान्ते स ददर्श तपोनिधिम्।
अन्वासितमरुन्धत्या स्वाहयेव हविर्भुजम्॥ १-५६

vidheḥ sāyantanasyānte sa dadarśa taponidhim |
anvāsitamarundhatyā svāhayeva havirbhujam || 1-56

vidheH saayantanasyaante sa dadarsha taponidhim |
anvaasitamarundhatyaa svaahayeva havirbhujam|| 3-56


vidheH sAyantanasya ante sa dadarsha tapo nidhim | anvAsitam arundhatyA svAhAyA iva havir bhujam || 1-56

1-56. saH= he, dilIpa; arundhatyA= lady  arundhati - vashiShTha's wife; anvAsitam= pashchAt upaveshanena, upAsitam = because she is seated alongside vashiShTha, attending to him; tapaH   nidhim= asceticism, a treasure house for; svAhAyA   [anvAsitam]= with lady svAha devi, [at his side]; haviH   bhujam iva = oblations, eater, like like firegod; sAyantanasya   vidheH   ante= evening [sunset time,] rituals, at the conclusion of rituals; dadarsha= seen/met.

At that time, the treasure house of asceticism, sage vashiShTha, is sitting before ritual-fire performing evening rituals and appeared doubly brilliant, as with firegod whose brilliance will be doubled when in the close proximity of his consort, lady svAhA devi, partaking of her brilliance;  because the wife of that sage vashiShTha, lady arundhati, is sitting in his close proximity who seemed to enrich that sages brilliance with her own then king dilIpa and his wife waited for the conclusion of eventide rituals and met the sage and his wife. [1-56]

 This is said to be the way of kAlidAsa, saying something connected to some rule, without referencing it. The rulebook says that any Vedic ritualist is not to be greeted while he is in performance, as his chain of chanting or attention will be broken. The visitors or others have to wait for the completion of his session. japam homam ca kurvANo na abhivAdyo dvijo bhavet... This lady  svAha is not exactly the consort of firegod, but a suffix to Vedic hymns used at the time of offering each oblation into altar, saying indrAya svAhA... mitrAya svAhA... varuNAya svAhA... called svAhA kAra. Each time when clarified butter is poured into fire with this suffix, svAhA, the tongues of fire will be ablaze, like a flashy bridegroom with his fashionable wife. So the firegod is said to have married to this hymnal suffix, lady svAhA devi. Here firegod -o; vashiShTha - oc; like -cw; vashiShTha joined by arundhati - o; firegod joined by svAha devi - mo. Thereby their combined resplendence etc. are indicated.


तयोर्जगृहतुः पादान्राजा राज्ञी च मागधी।
तौ गुरुर्गुरुपत्नी च प्रीत्या प्रतिननन्दतुः॥ १-५७

tayorjagṛhatuḥ pādānrājā rājñī ca māgadhī |
tau gururgurupatnī ca prītyā pratinanandatuḥ || 1-57

tayorjagR^ihatuH paadaanraajaa raaj~nii ca maagadhii |
tau gururgurupatnii ca priityaa pratinanandatuH || 3-57


tayoH jagR^ihatuH pAdau rAjA rAj~nI ca mAgadhI | tau guruH guru patnI ca prItyA prati na.ndatu || 1-57

1-57. mAgadhI rAj~nI= magadha, princes from - sudakshiNa; rAjA ca= king dilIpa, too; tayoH= their - vashiShTha, arundhati; pAdau jagR^ihatuH= feet, taken - venerated at feet; guru   patnI= mentor's, wife; guruH ca= mentor, also; tau= them two - venerators; prItyA= affectionately; prati nandatu= in turn, gladdened sage and his wife blessed the venerators.

Lady sudakshiNa, the princes from magadha and her husband king dilIpa jointly touched the feet of both vashiShTha and lady arundhati, then both the mentor and his wife in their turn affectionately blessed the venerators. [1-57]


पप्रच्छ कुशलं राज्ये राज्याश्रममुनिं मुनिः॥ १-५८

tamātithyakriyāśāntarathakṣobhapariśramam |
papraccha kuśalaṁ rājye rājyāśramamuniṁ muniḥ || 1-58

tamaatithyakriyaashaantarathakShobhaparishramam |
papracCha kushala.m raajye raajyaashramamuni.m muniH|| 3-58


tam Atithya kriyA shAnta ratha kshobha parishramam | prapacCha kushalam rAjye rAjya Ashramam munim muniH || 1-58

1-58. Atithya kriyA= guestship, formalities - with reception and hospitality; shAnta= lessened; ratha   kshobha parishramam= by chariot, jolting travel, one who is tired - farigued after a long joggling drive; rAjya   Ashramam munim= rAjyam eva Ashramama, tatra munim, muni tulya iti arthaH= in empire, [called a] hermitage, saintlike [king]; tam= him, with dilIpa; muniH= saint vashiShTha; rAjye   kushalam  prapacCha= in kingdom, wellbeing, asked after.

When dilIpa's tiredness caused by the long jolting ride of chariot is lessened with hospitalities, then saint vashiShTha asked after that saintlike king for a hermitage-like empire, about the wellbeing in kingdom. [1-58]


अथाथर्वनिधेस्तस्य विजितारिपुरः पुरः।
अर्थ्यामर्थपतिर्वाचमाददे वदतां वरः॥ १-५९

athātharvanidhestasya vijitāripuraḥ puraḥ |
arthyāmarthapatirvācamādade vadatāṁ varaḥ || 1-59

athaatharvanidhestasya vijitaaripuraH puraH |
arthyaamarthapatirvaacamaadade vadataa.m varaH|| 3-59


atha adharva nidheH tasya vijita ari puraH puraH | arthyAm artha patiH vAcam Adade vadatAm varaH || 1-59

1-59. atha= then; vijita ari puraH= one who conquered, enemies, citadels; vadatAm   varaH= among [sensible] speakers, the best one; artha patiH= riches, lord of - the king; adharva  nidheH = adharva veda, a treasure trove of - vashiShTha; tasy puraH= his, before - in the audience of saint; arthyAm vAcam= meaningful, words; Adade= taken up - began to speak.

Then that conqueror of the citadels of enemies and a best one among sensible speakers, namely king dilIpa, began to speak taking up meaningful words in the audience of the treasure trove of atharva veda, namely vashiShTha. [1-59]

atharva veda's results are said to be instantaneous, while sage vashiShTha is regarded as the composer of some sections in it. Rama took birth only when Sage Rishyasringa conducted a ritual as contained in that Veda.


उपपन्नं ननु शिवं सप्तस्वङ्गेषु यस्य मे।
दैवीनां मानुषीणां च प्रतिकर्ता त्वमापदाम्॥ १-६०

upapannaṁ nanu śivaṁ saptasvaṅgeṣu yasya me |
daivīnāṁ mānuṣīṇāṁ ca pratikartā tvamāpadām || 1-60

upapanna.m nanu shiva.m saptasva~NgeSu yasya me |
daiviinaa.m maanuSiiNaa.m ca pratikartaa tvamaapadaam || 3-60


upapannam nanu shivam saptasu a.ngeSu yasya me | daivInAm mAnuSINAm ca pratikartA tvam ApadAm || 1-60

1-60. saptasu angeSu= in seven, limbs - sevenfold system of empire; shivam   upapannam = serenity, is prevalent; nanu= avadhAraNe= affirmatory expression= Indeed! Yes; yasya = to whom, such like me; m= mine; daivInAm= devebhya AgatanAm durbhiksha AdinAm= god decreed [calamities like earthquakes, famines etc]; mAnuSINAm ca= done by humans [like thievery, unrest etc]; ApdAm= suchlike problems; [h goroH= oh, my mentor]; tvam  prati-kartA = you are, counteracting agent - forestaller.

"Yes! My mentor, when you are there as forestaller of calamities either decreed by gods or done by humans and suchlike, prevalence of serenity in the sevenfold system of my empire is quiet natural... [1-60]

The divisions in sevenfold system of an empire ,sapta-angA-s, are 1] king 2] ministry 3] allies 4] treasury 5] state 6] citadel 7] army


तव मन्त्रकृतो मन्त्रैर्दूरात्प्रशमितारिभिः।
प्रत्यादिश्यन्त इव मे दृष्टलक्ष्यभिदः शराः॥ १-६१

tava mantrakṛto mantrairdūrātpraśamitāribhiḥ |
pratyādiśyanta iva me dṛṣṭalakṣyabhidaḥ śarāḥ || 1-61

tava mantrakR^ito mantrairduuraatprashamitaaribhiH |
pratyaadishyanta iva me dR^iSTalakShyabhidaH sharaaH|| 3-61


tava ma.ntra kR^ito mantraiH dUrAt prashamita aribhiH | pratyAdishyante iva me dR^iSTa lakshya bhidaH sharAH || 1-61

1-61. dUrAt= from distance out of range [for unseen enemies]; prashamita   aribhiH= subdued, enemies; mantra   kR^itaH= mantrAn kR^itavAn= hymns, one who has composed [hymnologist]; tava   mantraiH= with your, hymns [you can]; dR^iSTa   lakshya   bhidaH = seen, target, cleavers; me   sharAH= my, arrows; prati Adishyante iva= return, comes back taking U-turn [rendered frivolous,] as though.

"When your holiness remaining in an out-of -range area are subduing even unseen enemies of mine with missile-like vedic-hymns you have composed, my arrows seem to be taking a U-turn and rendered frivolous, because they can cleave only the seen targets that too within the range... then why serenity should not prevail in my kingdom... [1-61]

A touch of utprekha a magniloqui or gasconaded' exaggeration and the suffix statement of earlier verse can be suffixed here and to later statements of dilIpa, if need be.


हविरावर्जितं होतस्त्वया विधिवदग्निषु।
वृष्टिर्भवति सस्यानामवग्रहविशोषिणाम्॥ १-६२

havirāvarjitaṁ hotastvayā vidhivadagniṣu |
vṛṣṭirbhavati sasyānāmavagrahaviśoṣiṇām || 1-62

haviraavarjita.m hotastvayaa vidhivadagniSu |
vR^iSTirbhavati sasyaanaamavagrahavishoSiNaam || 3-62


haviH Avarjitam hotaH tvayA vidhivat agniSu | vR^iSTiH bhavati sasyAnAm avagraha vishoSiNAm || 1-62

1-62. hotaH= oh, kindler of ritual-fire; tvayA= [when] by you; vidhivat= canonically; agniSu = in fire; Avarjitam haviH= placed suitably [disposing,] oblation; ava-graha= varSha pratibandhaH = stoppage of rains famine; vi-shoSiNAm= highly drying up one - famine; sasyAnAm = for crops a ghastly famine for crops is averted; vR^iSTiH bhavati= rainfall, they are becoming oblations are becoming rain.

"Oh, kindler of ritual-fire, when you are disposing oblations into ritual-fire canonically, they are well disposed to become rainfalls on crops, lest ghastly famines would have dried them up... [1-62]


पुरुषायुष्यजीविन्यो निरातङ्का निरीतयः।
यन्मदीयाः प्रजास्तस्य हेतुस्त्वद्ब्रह्मवर्चसम्॥ १-६३

puruṣāayuṣyajīvinyo nirātaṅkā nirītayaḥ |
yanmadīyāḥ prajāstasya hetustvadbrahmavarcasam || 1-63

puruSaaayuSyajiivinyo niraata~Nkaa niriitayaH |
yanmadiiyaaH prajaastasya hetustvadbrahmavarcasam || 3-63


puruSa AyuSa jIvinyo nirAntakA nirItayaH | yat madIyAH prajAH tasya hetuH tvat brahma varcasam || 1-63

1-63. madIyAH prajAH= my, subjects; puruSa AyuSa jIvinyaH= man's, span of life, living 100 years in kali yuga; nir   ItayaH= without, blights; nir AntakA= not, hindered - fearlessly; iti   yat= this factor, that which is there; tasya= for that; tvat= your; brahma [vrata adhyana sampatti] = brahma's, [owing to practise of scriptural injunctions]; varcasam= resplendence; hetuH= is the reason.

"That which factor of my subjects living to the full span of man's life, that too, unaffected by blights and fears etc is there, that is just by the dint of your resplendent scriptural practices... [1-63]

The blights - any obscure force that is harmful or destructive, and they are six - 1] heavy rainfall, 2] no rainfall causing famines, 3] rodents, 4] swarms of grasshoppers, 5] migratory parrots, and a most peculiar blight - 6] king's continued interference.


त्वयैवं चिन्त्यमानस्य गुरुणा ब्रह्मयोनिना।
सानुबन्धाः कथं न स्युः संपदो मे निरापदः॥ १-६४

tvayaivaṁ cintyamānasya guruṇā brahmayoninā |
sānubandhāḥ kathaṁ na syuḥ saṁpado me nirāpadaḥ || 1-64

tvayaiva.m cintyamaanasya guruNaa brahmayoninaa |
saanubandhaaH katha.m na syuH sa.mpado me niraapadaH|| 3-64


tvayA evam ci.ntamAnasya guruNA brahma yoninA | sAnubandhAH katham na syuH sa.mpado me nirApadaH || 1-64

1-64. brahma yoninA= from brahma, took birth [you, the brainchild of brahma]; guruNA = by mentor; tvayA= by suchlike you; evam cintamAnasya= this way, while you are thinking [good for me]; nir ApadaH= untroubled one; me sampadaH= my, riches; sa anubandhAH= with, continuity [unvarying]; katham= how; na syuH= will not, be there.

"When the brainchild of brahma is my mentor who always thinks about my wellbeing, why should I become a troubled person or my fortunes vary? [1-64]


किन्तु वध्वां तवैतस्यामदृष्टसदृशप्रजम्।
न मामवति सद्वीपा रत्नसूरपि मेदिनी॥ १-६५

kintu vadhvāṁ tavaitasyāmadṛṣṭasadṛśaprajam |
na māmavati sadvīpā ratnasūrapi medinī || 1-65

kintu vadhvaa.m tavaitasyaamadR^iSTasadR^ishaprajam |
na maamavati sadviipaa ratnasuurapi medinii || 3-65


ki.ntu vadhvAm tava vai tasyAm adR^iSTa sadR^isha prajam | na mAm avati sat dvIpA ratna sUH api medinI || 1-65

1-65. ki.ntu= however; tava vadhvAm= your, daughter-in-law [sudakshiNa]; tasyAm= in her; a  + dR^iSTa= un, seen [unforeseeable]; sadR^isha= selfsame; prajam= offspring; mAm= to me; sat = even if; dvIpA= with continents; ratna sUH api= jewels, spawning, though; medinI= earth; na = not; avati= prINAti= gladdens - me; vai= really.

Though I husband whole of the earth, rAjya-lakshmi, and though she spawned various continents and numerous gemstones under my sovereignty, I am not able to glory in her... because this daughter-in-law of yours and gR^iha-lakshmi of mine, namely this queen sudakshiNa, has not yet spawned any selfsame offspring of mine... [1-65]


नूनं मत्तः परं वंश्याः पिण्डविच्छेददर्शिनः।
न प्रकामभुजः श्राद्धे स्वधासंग्रहतत्पराः॥ १-६६

nūnaṁ mattaḥ paraṁ vaṁśyāḥ piṇḍavicchedadarśinaḥ |
na prakāmabhujaḥ śrāddhe svadhāsaṁgrahatatparāḥ || 1-66

nuuna.m mattaH para.m va.mshyaaH piNDavicChedadarshinaH |
na prakaamabhujaH shraaddhe svadhaasa.mgrahatatparaaH || 3-66


nUnam mattaH param va.mshyAH piNDa viCheda darshinaH | na prakAma bhuja shrAddhe svadhA samgraha tatparAH || 1-66

1-66. param mattaH= later, to me; piNDa= obsequial offerings; viCheda= discontinuity ; darshinaH= on foreseeing; vamshyAH= lineage's [manes]; svadhA= a suffix used in hymns while offerings are made to manes, indicative of obsequial eatables; samgraha tatparAH= to store up, interested in [api= even if]; shrAddhe= in annual obsequies; prakAma bhuja= to satiety, feasters; na = not; [bhavanti= they are becoming]; nUnam= definitely.

Simultaneously, my manes without faring sumptuously might be garnering something for a rainy day out of the offerings I make in the annual ceremonies of their beatification... definitely, because they must have foreseen a discontinuity in the obsequial offerings later to me as I am issueless... [1-66]


मत्परं दुर्लभं मत्वा नूनमावर्जितं मया।
पयः पूर्वैः स्वनिःश्वासैः कवोष्णमुपभुज्यते॥ १-६७

matparaṁ durlabhaṁ matvā nūnamāvarjitaṁ mayā |
payaḥ pūrvaiḥ svaniḥśvāsaiḥ kavoṣṇamupabhujyate || 1-67

matpara.m durlabha.m matvaa nuunamaavarjita.m mayaa |
payaH puurvaiH svaniHshvaasaiH kavoSNamupabhujyate|| 3-67


mat param durlabham mattvA nUnam Avarjitam mayA | payaH pUrvaiH sva nishshvAsaiH kavoSNam upabhujyate || 1-67

1-67. mat param= to me, later; durlabham mattvA= impossible, on thinking so; mayA  Avarjitam= by me, doled out; payaH= [libation of] water; pUrvaiH= by manes; sva= their own; nishshvAsaiH= with sighs [of despair]; kavoSNam= a little tepid [on becoming]; upabhujyate= being sipped; nUnam= definitely.

Likewise, though my libation is just with ordinary water, thinking about the impossibility of getting at least that water-oblation later to me, my manes must be sipping water warmed up with their sighs of despair... definite is that... [1-67]


सोऽहमिज्याविशुद्धात्मा प्रजालोपनिमीलितः।
प्रकाशश्चाप्रकाशश्च लोकालोक इवाचलः॥ १-६८

so'hamijyāviśuddhātmā prajālopanimīlitaḥ |
prakāśaścāprakāśaśca lokāloka ivācalaḥ || 1-68

so.ahamijyaavishuddhaatmaa prajaalopanimiilitaH |
prakaashashcaaprakaashashca lokaaloka ivaacalaH || 3-68


saH aham ijyA vishuddha AtmA prajA lopa nimIlitaH | prakAshaH ca aprakAshaH ca loka-alokaH iva acalaH || 1-68

1-68. ijyA vishuddha AtmA= by Vedic-rituals, hallowed, soul [I have]; prajA lopa  nimIlitaH= offspring, lack of, shrunk into myself [beclouded]; saH  aham= such as I am; prakAshaH   ca   a-prakAshaH  ca= luminous, also, non-luminous, also; loka-a-lokaH   acalaH iva = Mt. lokAloka, mountain, as with.

"Though my soul is in a brightly lit aureole as my indebtedness towards gods is discharged on my performing prescribed Vedic-rituals, yet, it is in the midst of gloom since I am still in debt towards my manes owing to the lack of an offspring... such as I am I am both luminous and non-luminous like Mt. loka-aloka... [1-68]

loka-a-loka is the name of a mythical mountain, dividing the visible world from the region of darkness. The Mt. lokaloka is called also Mt. chakravAla is really the wall of clouds that bounds our horizon, all around us. The word literally means ' that which has the world of beings and also the world of no beings. The name has reference to the mythical conception that the lokaloka is a round chain of mountains surrounding like a wall, the earth conceived to be flat like a disk, within which wall the sun and all the heavenly bodies move about, and beyond which pervades entire darkness.     Cf. Matsya-purana nandArgIkar.

This loka-aloka is a visualised mountain-like structure in which this solar system is moving and illuminated by sun or moon. Outside the circular wall of this mountain it will be pitch dark. Inside this mountain-like body one's own soul will be radiant as he has performed five great sacrifices, namely 1] brahma yajna, 2] pitri yajna, 3] deva yajna, 4] bhUta yajna, 5] manuSya yajna  - - sacrifices for the prosperity of 1] Brahma, 2] manes, 3] gods, 4] spirits, 5] humankind. Outside the body of king dilIpa everything  has fallen into oblivion, as he is not seeing the possibility of progeny to continue the rituals to manes. bimba, pratibimba bhAva - shleSa mishropama. The mountain -o; dilIpa - mo; radiance inside and out - c, sA.dha; like - c, sA.vA;.


लोकान्तरसुखं पुण्यं तपोदानसमुद्भवम्।
संततिः शुद्धवंश्या हि परत्रेह च शर्मणे॥ १-६९

lokāntarasukhaṁ puṇyaṁ tapodānasamudbhavam |
saṁtatiḥ śuddhavaṁśyā hi paratreha ca śarmaṇe || 1-69

lokaantarasukha.m puNya.m tapodaanasamudbhavam |
sa.ntatiH shuddhava.mshyaa hi paratreha ca sharmaNe|| 3-69


lokAntara sukham puNyam tapo dAna samudbhavam | sa.ntatiH shuddha va.mshyA hi paratra iha ca sharmaNe || 1-69

1-69. tapaH dAna samudbhavam= from ascesis, endowments, emerging; puNyam= merit; loka    antara   sukham hi= world, another, bliss causing, indeed; shuddha   va.mshyA   sa.ntatiH   tu= immaculate, from lineage, offspring, but; paratra iha ca= otherwhere, here, also; sharmaNe [bhavati]= in complacency, [results in.]

"The merit emerging from out of ascesis and endowments will indeed cause bliss only in other world, but an offspring from an immaculate lineage will result in complacency both here and otherwhere... [1-69]


तया हीनं विधातर्मां कथं पश्यन्न दूयसे।
सिक्तं स्वयमिव स्नेहाद्वन्ध्यमाश्रमवृक्षकम्॥ १-७०

tayā hīnaṁ vidhātarmāṁ kathaṁ paśyanna dūyase |
siktaṁ svayamiva snehādvandhyamāśramavṛkṣakam || 1-70

tayaa hiina.m vidhaatarmaa.m katha.m pashyanna duuyase |
sikta.m svayamiva snehaadvandhyamaashramavR^ikShakam || 3-70


tayA hInam vidhAtaH mAm katham pashyan na dUyase | siktvam svayam iva snehAt vandhyam Ashram vR^ikshakam || 1-70

1-70. hè vidhAtaH= oh, ordainer; tayA= by that [offspring]; hInam= lacking in; snehAt  svayam siktvam= with affection, yourself, watered; vandhyam= unfruitful; Ashram  vR^ikshakam iva= hermitage, plant, like; mAm= me; pashyan- on seeing; katham na  dUyase= how, [you are] not, worried.

How is that, oh, ordainer, you are impassive to see me issueless, as you would surely be otherwise when you behold a young plant of this hermitage that has been personally and affectionately watered by you fails to bear fruit in a proper season...? [1-70]

Here the plant in hermitage - o; dilIpa - oc; worrying - c, sA.dha; like - c, sA.vA;. The lacking part - o; fruitlessness - mo; by you watered - plant, on plant's side; by you nurtured - myself, on dilIpa's side; hence the parison [parallel constructions] is in commonality obtaining in the object and mirrored object.

Does not

my childless state distress thy heart, / As 'twere a tree thou plantedst fruitless, bare ?



असह्यपीडं भगवनृणमन्त्यमवेहि मे।
अरुन्तुदमिवालानमनिर्वाणस्य दन्तिनः॥ १-७१

asahyapīḍaṁ bhagavanṛṇamantyamavehi me |
aruntudamivālānamanirvāṇasya dantinaḥ || 1-71

asahyapiiDa.m bhagavanR^iNamantyamavehi me |
aruntudamivaalaanamanirvaaNasya dantinaH|| 3-71


asahya pIDam bhagavan R^iNam antyam avehi me | aru.ntudam alAnam iva anirvANasya dantinaH || 1-71

1-71. h bhagavan= oh, god; me antyam R^iNam= my, last, debt; a nirvANasya= on who has not taken a plunge dive, bathless; dantinaH= for elephant; aruntudam = arun= vraNam= wound; tudam= lacerating; alAnam= tie-post; iva= like; a sahya pIDam= not, tolerable, agony; avehi= you please know, consider.

"Oh, god, please consider the intolerable agony galling my soul continuously owing to the last uncleared debt of mine, namely the progeny, that which is standing firm like the tie-post of a tusker not only restraining that tied elephant to take bath but continuously galling it... [1-71]

Three debts men owe : this last alone, unpaid, / Torments me, as a shackle binds and pains / The lordly elephant :

Every one that is born has three debts to pay off. He, who learns the Vedas, pays off the debt to sages; he, who conducts vedic rituals, pays off the debt to gods; and he, who begets a son, pays off the debt to the manes. The same applies to the king also, as both the king and elephant have three bounden duties; nirvANa uththAna shayanAni trINi gaja karmANi; vedAdhyayana, yAjana, putrotpatti - manuSya karmANi; for elephant - bathing, moving, sleeping; for a man - study of scriptures, performance of rituals, progeny. The word used for tie-post actually means a rope or chain by which elephants are tied to a post. But its eagerness to take a bath overlooks the object of binding, but to what it is bound.

Here tusker -o; king - oc; like - c, sA.vA;; childless king - o; bathless elephant - mo; pained by shackle of last debt - o; pained by the shackle of rope/chain to post - mo, and the pain is indicated in two different words.


तस्मान्मुच्ये यथा तात संविधातुं तथार्हसि।
इक्ष्वाकूणां दुरापेऽर्थे त्वदधीना हि सिद्धयः॥ १-७२

tasmānmucye yathā tāta saṁvidhātuṁ tathārhasi |
ikṣvākūṇāṁ durāpe'rthe tvadadhīnā hi siddhayaḥ || 1-72

tasmaanmucye yathaa taata sa.mvidhaatu.m tathaarhasi |
ikShvaakuuNaa.m duraape.arthe tvadadhiinaa hi siddhayaH || 3-72


tasmAt mucye yathA tAta sa.mvidhAtum tvam arhasi | ikshvAkUNAm durApe arthe tvat adhInA hi siddhayaH || 1-72

1-72. h tAta= oh, sire; tasmAt= therefore; yathA= as to how; mucye= you get me released [from my last debt]; [tathA= tht way]; sa.mvidhAtum= effectuation; tvam arhasi= you are, apt to do; ikshvAkUNAm= for ikshvaku-s; durApe= duSprApe= unattainable; arthe= purposes, objectives; siddhayaH= [their] achievements; tvat adhInA hi= are in your, wardship, indeed.

"Therefore, oh, sire, it will be apt of you to make happen that which whereby I will be cleared of my debt towards my manes, namely obviating childlessness, since the achievement of unachievable objectives by the dynasts of ikshvaku-s is indeed under your wardship..." Thus king dilIpa entreated sage vashiShTha. [1-72]


इति विज्ञापितो राज्ञा ध्यानस्तिमितलोचनः।
क्षणमात्रमृषिस्तस्थौ सुप्तमीन इव ह्रदः॥ १-७३

iti vijñāpito rājñā dhyānastimitalocanaḥ |
kṣaṇamātramṛṣistasthau suptamīna iva hradaḥ || 1-73

iti vij~naapito raaj~naa dhyaanastimitalocanaH |
kShaNamaatramR^iShistasthau suptamiina iva hradaH || 3-73


iti vij~nApito rAj~nA dhyAnam stimita locanH | kshaNa mAtram R^iSiH tasthau supta mIna iva hradaH || 1-73

73. iti rAj~nA vij~nApitaH= this way, by king, when entreated; R^iSiH= sage vashiShTha; dhyAna  stimita locanH= by thought, quieted, eyes; kshaNa mAtram= for a moment, only; tasthau= became still; supta mIna iva hradaH= slept, fish, like, lake.

When the king entreated the sage vashiShTha in this way, the eyes of that sage are quieted meditatively and remained still for a moment like a stilly lake with slept fish. [1-73]

One moment only sank the Priest in thought, / Like lake that slumbers, having heard the King.

This construct is an extolled one, as both the sleeping of fish and stupor to the thoughts in the lake like mind of sage - are inconceivable. Then, lake - o; sage - oc, mo; quietness - c, sA.dha; like - c, sA.vA - iva.


सोऽपश्यत्प्रणिधानेन सन्ततेः स्तम्भकारणम्।
भावितात्मा भुवो भर्तुरथैनं प्रत्यबोधयत्॥ १-७४

so'paśyatpraṇidhānena santateḥ stambhakāraṇam |
bhāvitātmā bhuvo bharturathainaṁ pratyabodhayat || 1-74

so.apashyatpraNidhaanena santateH stambhakaaraNam |
bhaavitaatmaa bhuvo bharturathaina.m pratyabodhayat || 3-74


so.apashyat praNidhAne sa.ntati sthambha kAraNam | bhAvita AtmA bhvo bhartuH atha enam pratyak bodhayat || 1-74

74. saH= he, vashiShTha; praNidhAnena= contemplatively; bhAvita AtmA= one with sanctified, soul; bhvaH bhartuH= earth's, lord - for king; sa.ntati sthambha kAraNam= progeny, impediment, cause of; apashyat= has discerned; atha enam prati bodhayat= then, to him [king,] in turn, made known.

Then that sage vashiShTha with a sanctified soul contemplatively discerned the cause of impediment in the progeny to king and made it known to the king in his turn. [1-74]

To pious thought the hindrance stood revealed, / And thus the mighty Saint made grave reply :-


पुरा शक्रमुपस्थाय तवोर्वीं प्रति यास्यतः।
आसीत्कल्पतरुच्छायामाश्रिता सुरभिः पथि॥ १-७५

purā śakramupasthāya tavorvīṁ prati yāsyataḥ |
āsītkalpatarucchāyāmāśritā surabhiḥ pathi || 1-75

puraa shakramupasthaaya tavorvii.m prati yaasyataH |
aasiitkalpatarucChaayaamaashritaa surabhiH pathi|| 3-75


purA shakram upasthAya tava urvIm prati yAsyataH | asIt kalpa taru cChAyam AshritA surabhiH pathi || 1-75

1-75. purA= once; shakram upasthAya= indra, on serving; urvIm= to earth; prati  yAsyataH = in turn, journeyed [returning]; tava pathi= your, on way; kalpa taru cChAyam= all-giving, tree, in shade of; AshritA= taking shelter; surabhiH asIt= all-bountiful cow, was there.

"Once, when you were returning from heaven on serving indra, there was the All- bountiful divine cow, namely surabhi, on your way reposing under the shade of All-giving divine tree, namely kalpa-taru..." so sage vashiShTa started to narrate to dilIpa. [1-75]


प्रदक्षिणक्रियार्हायां तस्यां त्वं साधु नाचरः॥ १-७६

dharmalopabhayādrājñīmṛtusnātāmanusmaran |
pradakṣiṇakriyārhāyāṁ tasyāṁ tvaṁ sādhu nācaraḥ || 1-76

dharmalopabhayaadraaj~niimR^itusnaataamanusmaran |
pradakShiNakriyaarhaayaa.m tasyaa.m tva.m saadhu naacaraH || 3-76


dharma lopa bhayAt rAj~nIm R^itu snAtAm anusmaran | pradakshiNa kriya arhAyAm tasyAm tvam sAdhu na AcaraH || 1-76

1-76. R^itu snAtAm= after menstrual, bath; rAj~nIm= about queen; dharma   lopa   bhayAt= sacred obligation, faulting, from fear [fearing whether sacred obligation may be faulty, if he were to meet her on homecoming]; anusmaran= on thinking [whether to meet her or not, and engrossed in such a thought]; pradakshiNa kriya arhAyAm= circumambulation, deed of - one who is worthy to revererntly circumabulate; tasyAm = in her [divine cow] regard; tvam   sAdhu   na   AcaraH= you, respectfully, not, performed.

But you were engrossed in thinking while on way back to home, pondering, 'whether to meet the queen on homecoming, or whether any faulting of sacred obligation will occur in doing so, for she took her bath after menstruation...' and engrossed in such thoughts you did not deport yourself respectfully towards that divine cow, surabhi, in circumambulating her, though she is worthy to be circumabulated by anyone... [1-76]

The poet is suggesting good living in the subtext of one word, 'after the bath of periods.' The concept of this saying will be less explained to students as it contains info about the 'sacred obligation in husband's meeting her wife after menstruation'. Even if she is one's own wife, she should be met on certain days after her monthly periods. Otherwise a blemish occurs, called rajo doSa; R^itu kAla abhigAmI syAt iti niyama ihiH... parisankhyA vidhiH, atra sarvatra parva varjam - amAvAsyAdIni parvANi varjayitvA - ityetat sambadhyate - kallUka bhaT. The period is from day one to sixteenth day. First four days - out of question. In the remaining, eleventh and thirteenth tabooed. In remaining ten - festive days, including no moon and full moon, are to be left out. During the other days, if met on even numbered days, sons take birth, and if on odd numbered days, it is daughters. This is the then family planning and the present day so-called safe, unsafe, and disgusting periods.



अवजानासि मां यस्मादतस्ते नाभविष्यति।
मत्प्रसूतिमनाराध्य प्रजेति त्वां शशाप सा॥ १-७७

avajānāsi māṁ yasmādataste nābhaviṣyati |
matprasūtimanārādhya prajeti tvāṁ śaśāpa sā || 1-77

avajaanaasi maa.m yasmaadataste naabhaviSyati |
matprasuutimanaaraadhya prajeti tvaa.m shashaapa saa  || 3-77


avajAnAsi mAm yasmAt ataH te na bhaviSyati | mat prasUtim anArAdhya prajA iti tvAm shashApa sA || 1-77

1-77. yasmAt= whereby; mAm avajAnAsi= me, you disregard; ataH= thereby; mat  prasUtim = my, daughter; an ArAdhya= without, reverencing; te prajA na bhaviSyati= to you, offspring, not, be there; iti sA tvAm shashApa= thus, she, you, cursed.

Then that sacred cow surabhi cursed you saying, "Because you are neglectful of a mother-like me, you will be distanced from filial affection... and unless you hold my daughter nandini in reverence as reparation for this neglect, your offspring too will be in limbo..." [1-77]


स शापो न त्वया राजन्न च सारथिना श्रुतः।
नदत्याकाशगङ्गायाः स्रोतस्युद्दमदिग्गजे॥ १-७८

sa śāpo na tvayā rājanna ca sārathinā śrutaḥ |
nadatyākāśagaṅgāyāḥ srotasyuddamadiggaje || 1-78

sa shaapo na tvayaa raajanna ca saarathinaa shrutaH |
nadatyaakaashaga~NgaayaaH srotasyuddamadiggaje|| 3-78


sa shApo na tvayA rAjan na ca sArathinA shrutaH | nadati AkAsha ga.ngAyAH srotasi uddama diggaje || 1-78

1-78. h rAjan= oh, king; uddama diggaje= by ruttish, cardinal elephants; AkAsha  gangAyAH   srotasi= celestial, Ganga, torrents; nadati [sati]= strident [being so]; sa  shApaH= that, curse; tvayA na shrutaH= by you, not, heard; na sArathinA ca= not, by charioteer, also.

"Oh, king, while the ruttish cardinal elephants were uproarious in the strident torrents of celestial River ganga that curse became inaudible either to you or to your charioteer... thus, sage vashiShTa continued to narrate to dilIpa. [1-78]


ईप्सितं तदवज्ञानाद्विद्धि सार्गलमात्मनः।
प्रतिबध्नाति हि श्रेयः पूज्यपूजाव्यतिक्रमः॥ १-७९

īpsitaṁ tadavajñānādviddhi sārgalamātmanaḥ |
pratibadhnāti hi śreyaḥ pūjyapūjāvyatikramaḥ || 1-79

iipsita.m tadavaj~naanaadviddhi saargalamaatmanaH |
pratibadhnaati hi shreyaH puujyapuujaavyatikramaH || 3-79


Ipsitam tat avaj~nAnAt viddhi sArgalam AtmanaH | pratibadhnAti hi shreyaH pUjya pUjA vyatikramaH || 1-79

1-79. tat avaj~nAnAt= her, by disregarding; AtmanaH Ipsitam= by you, your ambition; sArgalam = prati-bandham= deterrent; viddhi= know thus; pUjya= venerable ones; pUjA = venerating; vyatikramaH = transgression; shreyaH= for prosperity; pratibadhnAti hi= deters, indeed.

"Know that your disregarding her is the only deterrent of your ambition... transgression in venerating the venerable ones indeed deters one's own prosperity... [1-79]

Hence is thy sin thy scourge ; as Sages teach,/ Scorn of the worthy works the scorner woe. 


हविषे दीर्घसत्रस्य सा चेदानीं प्रचेतसः।
भुजङ्गपिहितद्वारं पातालमधितिष्ठति॥ १-८०

haviṣe dīrghasatrasya sā cedānīṁ pracetasaḥ |
bhujaṅgapihitadvāraṁ pātālamadhitiṣṭhati || 1-80

haviSe diirghasatrasya saa cedaanii.m pracetasaH |
bhuja~Ngapihitadvaara.m paataalamadhitiShThati || 3-80


haviSe dIrgha satrasya sA ca idAnIm pracetasaH | bhuja.nga pihita dvAram pAtAlam adhitiSTati || 1-80

1-80. sA ca idAnIm= she, too, presently; dIrgha satrasya= for a long running, Vedic ritual; pracetasaH haviSe= Rain-god's, for oblatory items [to provide ghee, milk etc]; bhuja.nga   pihita dvAram= by serpents, closed [guarded,] having door; pAtAlam= netherworld; adhitiSTati= abiding in.

"Providing offertories to a long-lasting Vedic-ritual of raingod, varuNa, that divine cow surabhi is presently abiding in the netherworld where huge pack of guarding serpents stopple its entrance,... [1-80]


सुतां तदीयां सुरभेः कृत्वा प्रतिनिधिं शुचिः।
आराधय सपत्नीकः प्रीता कामदुघा हि सा॥ १-८१

sutāṁ tadīyāṁ surabheḥ kṛtvā pratinidhiṁ śuciḥ |
ārādhaya sapatnīkaḥ prītā kāmadughā hi sā || 1-81

sutaa.m tadiiyaa.m surabheH kR^itvaa pratinidhi.m shuciH |
aaraadhaya sapatniikaH priitaa kaamadughaa hi saa|| 3-81


sutAm tadIyAm surabheH kR^itvA pratinidhim shuciH | ArAdhaya sapatnIkaH prItA kAmadughA hi sA || 1-81

1-81. tadIyAm sutAm surabheH = of her, of divine cow, daughter [namely nandini],  of surabhis aka kAmadhenus; kR^itvA pratinidhim= on making, as substitute; shuciH= suddha citta san= hallowed at heart; ArAdhaya sapatnIkaH [patnyA saha vartata]= worship, together with your wife; hi= yasmAt kAraNAt= why because; sA= she [that divine cow kAmadhenu]; prItA= on gladdening; kAma dughA= [your] wishes, milks [through her daughter nandini.]

Make then the daughter of surabhi, namely nandini, her mother's representative and worship her conjointly with your queen with a devout heart... why because, she that surabhi gladdens that way and milks all your wishes through her daughter nandini..." Thus sage vashiShTha advised king dilIpa. [1-81]


इति वादिन एवास्य होतुराहुतिसाधनम्।
अनिन्द्या नंदिनी नाम धेनुराववृते वनात्॥ १-८२

iti vādina evāsya hoturāhutisādhanam |
anindyā naṁdinī nāma dhenurāvavṛte vanāt || 1-82

iti vaadina evaasya hoturaahutisaadhanam |
anindyaa na.ndinii naama dhenuraavavR^ite vanaat|| 3-82


iti vAdina eva asya hotuH Ahuti sAdhanam | anindyA na.ndinI nAma dhenuH avavR^ite vanAt || 1-82

1-82. iti vAdina eva= thus, while discoursing, even; hotuH= havana shIlaH= ritual-minded; asya = his, vashiShTha's; Ahuti sAdhanam= oblatory items, means of; na.ndinI nAma = nandini, named; a+nindyA dhenuH= inviolable [sacrosanct,] cow; dhenuH  vavR^ite  vanAt -  such a cow returned from woods will be refrain up to verse 85.

Even while he is discoursing thus, that ritual-minded vashiShTha's main asset for offertory items, the sacrosanct cow namely nandini, the daughter of surabhi, returned from woods. [1-82]


ललाटोदयमाभुग्नं पल्लवस्निग्धपाटला।
बिभ्रती श्वेतरोमाङ्कं सन्ध्येव शशिनं नवम्॥ १-८३

lalāṭodayamābhugnaṁ pallavasnigdhapāṭalā |
bibhratī śvetaromāṅkaṁ sandhyeva śaśinaṁ navam || 1-83

lalaaTodayamaabhugna.m pallavasnigdhapaaTalaa |
bibhratii shvetaromaa~Nka.m sandhyeva shashina.m navam || 3-83


lalAta udayam Abhugnam pallava snigdha pATalA | bibhrati shveta roma a.nkam sa.ndhya iva shashinam navam || 1-83

1-83. pallava= tender coppery leaflets like; snigdha= satiny; pATalA= light brownish red coloured [tawny complexion]; lalAta udayam= on forehead, born; Abhugnam= ISat vakram= a little crescent; shveta roma a.nkam= whitish, hair, mark; bibhrati= bearing; navam   shashinam    sa.ndhya   iva = with new, moon, vespertine [colour of sky]; avavR^ite vanAt= returned, from woods.

With light tawny and satiny complexion akin to the lightish and softish tawny tender leaflets for a touch, and with a little crescentic mark of whitish hair on her forehead, that sacred cow nandini which looked like the vespertine safron sky wearing the crescentic new-moon, returned from woods. [1-83]

The sunset time sky -o; cow - co; like - c, sA.vA;; bearing white crescentic mark - o; new crescent moon - mo. Though a cow and sky do not look similar in form, the complexions of both cow and sky do resemble. The ochry colour of evening sky, white mark on forehead etc indicate the poetic physique of sky. So are the softish tender leaves, tawniness colour etc are the comparable complexions. This has one full simile and two more with unsaid cw.


भुवं कोष्णेन कुण्डोध्नी मेध्येनावभृथादपि।
प्रस्रवेणाभिवर्षन्ती वत्सालोकप्रवर्तिना॥ १-८४

bhuvaṁ koṣṇena kuṇḍodhnī medhyenāvabhṛthādapi |
prasraveṇābhivarṣantī vatsāalokapravartinā || 1-84

bhuva.m koSNena kuNDodhnii medhyenaavabhR^ithaadapi |
prasraveNaabhivarSantii vatsaaalokapravartinaa|| 3-84


bhuvam koSNena kuNDodhnI medhyena avabhR^ithA api | prasaveNa abhivarSantI vasta Aloka pravartinA || 1-84

1-84. vasta Aloka pravartinA = child [calf,] on seeing, issued forth; prasaveNa = emitted [milk from udder]; koSNena= kincit uSNena= a little lukewarm; avabhR^ithA api= holy bath, ablution after completing a ritual, even than that; medhyena= pavitreNa= sanctifying; bhuvam   abhivarSantI= on earth, showeing [as if anointing with milk]; kuNDodhnI= kuNDam iva UdhaH= whose udder is pot-like.

The warmish milk issuing forth from her pot-like udder at the very sight of her calf is as if anointing the earth and seeing at it is holier than the holy bath taken on completion of a Vedic-ritual, call avabRitha snAnam, such an efficacious cow nandini returned from woods. [1-54]

avabRitha is a ceremony performed by a sacrificer with sixteen officiating priests at the end of a soma sacrifice. The ceremony consists in collecting together all the remnants of the main sacrifice and throwing them into water after having given oblations to varuNa, raingod. This is the time when the sacrificer and his dharmapatni bathe for the first time after the commencement of Vedic ritual. Sacrificers coming out of the river etc after avabRitha bath are considered holy and any blessings given by them at this time, [or, just catching a sight of them] are believed to be peculiarly efficacious. C.f. bodhayana agni SToma sUtra. - KMJ


रजःकणैः खुरोद्धूतैः स्पृशद्भिर्गात्रमन्तिकात्।
तीर्थाभिषेकजां शुद्धिमादधाना महीक्षितः॥ १-८५

rajaḥkaṇaiḥ khuroddhūtaiḥ spṛśadbhirgātramantikāt |
tīrthābhiṣekajāṁ śuddhimādadhānā mahīkṣitaḥ || 1-85

rajaHkaNaiH khuroddhuutaiH spR^ishadbhirgaatramantikaat |
tiirthaabhiSekajaa.m shuddhimaadadhaanaa mahiikShitaH|| 3-85


rajaH kaNaiH khura uddhUtaiH spR^ishadbhiH gAtram antikAt | tIrtha abhiSeka jAm shuddhim AdadhAnA mahIkshitaH || 1-85

1-85. khura uddhUtaiH= by hooves, upheaved; antikAt gAtram spR^ishadbhiH= nearby - at hand, body [of king,] while [dust is] touching; rajaH kaNaiH= with dust particles; mahIkshitaH = for king; tIrtha   abhiSeka  jAm   shuddhim = in holy rivers, taking holy bath, resulting from, depuration; AdadhAnA= kurvANam= bringing about.

When dust particles upheaved by her hooves are sprinkled on the body of the king available close by, it looked as if she is depurating him with that dust-bath which is as good as taking depurative bath in holy rivers; such an efficacious cow nandini returned from woods. [1-85]


तां पुण्यदर्शनां दृष्ट्वा निमित्तज्ञस्तपोनिधिः।
याज्यमाशंसितावन्ध्यप्रार्थनं पुनरब्रवीत्॥ १-८६

tāṁ puṇyadarśanāṁ dṛṣṭvā nimittajñastaponidhiḥ |
yājyamāśaṁsitāvandhyaprārthanaṁ punarabravīt || 1-86

taa.m puNyadarshanaa.m dR^iSTvaa nimittaj~nastaponidhiH |
yaajyamaasha.msitaavandhyapraarthana.m punarabraviit || 3-86


tAm puNya darshanAm dR^iSTvA nimittaj~naH taponidhiH | yAjyam Ashamshita ava.ndhya prArthanam punaH abravIt || 1-86

1-86. nimitta j~naH= portents, knower of - one who has ken into future; taponidhiH= ascesis, cache of; puNya   darshanAm = sanctifying, whose look is cow nandini with an auspicious aura around her; tAm   dR^iSTvA = her [cow], on seeing; Ashamshita= [king] expected to be; a va.ndhya prArthanam = not, to be childless, one praying for that; yAjyam = to the one who can make happen Vedic-rituals - to the king; punaH abravIt= further, said.

On seeing the cow nandini with an auspicious aura around her, that cache of ascesis sage vashiShTha who can ken into future, further said to the administrator of Vedic rituals who is now praying for the obliteration of his childlessness. [1-86]


अदूरवर्तिनीं सिद्धिं राजन् विगणयात्मनः।
उपस्थितेयं कल्याणी नाम्नि कीर्तित एव यत्॥ १-८७

adūravartinīṁ siddhiṁ rājan vigaṇayātmanaḥ |
upasthiteyaṁ kalyāṇī nāmni kīrtita eva yat || 1-87

aduuravartinii.m siddhi.m raajan vigaNayaatmanaH |
upasthiteya.m kalyaaNii naamni kiirtita eva yat|| 3-87


adUra vartinIm siddhim rAjan vigaNaya AtmanaH | upasthitA iyam kalyANI nAmni kIrtita eva yat || 1-87

1-87. h rAjan= oh, king; yat= by which reason; iyam kalyANI= this, propitious cow; nAmni   kIrtita   eva= by name, when being extolled, only; upasthitA= drew nigh; [tat= thereby]; AtmanaH = to you; siddhim= fruition; a dUra vartinIm= not, distantly moving ahead [it is also drawing nigh]; vigaNaya= count upon -  deem it.

Wherefore this propitious cow drew nigh of us just at the very mention of her name, oh, king, therefore you may count that the fruition of your desire is also drawing nigh of you, but not very faraway... [1-87]


वन्यवृत्तिरिमां शश्वदात्मानुगमनेन गाम्।
विद्यामभ्यसनेनेव प्रसादयितुमर्हसि॥ १-८८

vanyavṛttirimāṁ śaśvadātmānugamanena gām |
vidyāmabhyasaneneva prasādayitumarhasi || 1-88

vanyavR^ittirimaa.m shashvadaatmaanugamanena gaam |
vidyaamabhyasaneneva prasaadayitumarhasi | || 3-88


vanya vR^ittiH imAm shashvat Atma anugamanena gAm | vidyAm abhyasanena iva prasAdayitum arhasi || 1-88

1-88. vanya vR^ittiH= of woods, mode of life [becoming a woodlander]; imAm   gAm = this, cow be; shashvat = steadily; Atma anugamanena= by your, following [occupying yourself]; abhyasanena   vidyAm iva= pursuantly, [learning] education, like; prasAdayitum arhasi= to gain her grace, apt of you.

"On becoming a woodlander you occupy yourself in steadily tending her, like gaining education by pursuant learning, and then it will be apt of you to gain her grace in this way... [1-88]


प्रस्थितायां प्रतिष्ठेथाः स्थितायां स्थितिमाचरेः।
निषिण्णायां निषीदास्यां पीताम्भसि पिबेरपः॥ १-८९

prasthitāyāṁ pratiṣṭhethāḥ sthitāyāṁ sthitimācareḥ |
niṣiṇṇāyāṁ niṣīdāsyāṁ pītāmbhasi piberapaḥ || 1-89

prasthitaayaa.m pratiSThethaaH sthitaayaa.m sthitimaacareH |
niSiNNaayaa.m niSiidaasyaa.m piitaambhasi piberapaH || 3-89


prasthitAyAm pratiSTethAH sthitAyAm sthitim AcareH | niSiNNAyAm niSIda asyAm pIta a.mbhasi pibeH apaH || 1-89

1-89. asyAm= of her; prasthitAyAm [satyAm]= starting out [becoming true]; pratiSTethAH = you start off; sthitAyAm sthitim AcareH= on her stopping, stoppage, you do [you stop over, don't hasten her like an animal]; niSiNNAyAm niSIda= on her sitting [reclining,] you recline; pIta a.mbhasi= on drinking, water; apaH pibeH= water, you drink.

"If she starts out you too shall start off, but don't restrain her, if she stops you too shall stop over, but don't hasten her, if she reclines you too shall recline, but don't chasten her, and you shall drink water only after her drinking water is over... [1-89]


वधूर्भक्तिमती चैनामर्चितामा तपोवनात्।
प्रयता प्रातरन्वेतु सायं प्रत्युद्व्रजेदपि॥ १-९०

vadhūrbhaktimatī caināmarcitāmā tapovanāt |
prayatā prātaranvetu sāyaṁ pratyudvrajedapi || 1-90

vadhuurbhaktimatii cainaamarcitaamaa tapovanaat |
prayataa praataranvetu saaya.m pratyudvrajedapi|| 3-90


vadhUH bhaktimatI ca enAm arcitAm AtapovanAt | prayatA prAtaH anvetu sAyam pratyud vrajet api || 1-90

1-90. vadhUH= [our] daughter-in-law [or, your wife]; ca= too; bhakti matI= devout, minded [devoutly]; prayatAb= observantly; arcitAm enAm= let her worship the cow first, then follow it; prAtaH = in mornings; AtapovanAt= all hermitage woodlands; anvetu= anu yetu = follow her; sAyam   api= in evenings, even; pratyud vrajet [prati ut vrajet]= go in front of her and lead her welcomingly.

"Let our daughter-in-law, say your wife lady sudakshiNa too, worship this cow devoutly and observantly; let her follow the cow wherever she goes in all the woodlands of hermitage in mornings; and in evenings let her go forward towards cow to lead her home welcomingly... [1-90]


इत्या प्रसादादस्यास्त्वं परिचर्यापरो भव।
अविघ्नमस्तु ते स्थेयाः पितेव धुरि पुत्रिणाम्॥ १-९१

ityāprasādādasyāstvaṁ paricaryāparo bhava |
avighnamastu te stheyāḥ piteva dhuri putriṇām || 1-91

ityaaprasaadaadasyaastva.m paricaryaaparo bhava |
avighnamastu te stheyaaH piteva dhuri putriNaam  || 3-91


iti AprasAdAt asyAH tvam paricaryAparo bhava | avighnamastu te stheyA pitA iva dhuri putriNAm || 1-91

1-91. iti= this way; tvam= you; AprasAdAt= until [you get her] grace; asyAH pari  caryA   paraH bhava = in her, overall, services, dedicate yourself; te a vighnam astu= for you, no, hindrance, let there be; pitA iva= father, like [your father like, or like any father]; putriNAm= having good sons; dhuri stheyA= in van, you abide.

"This way, you dedicate yourself in her overall services until you get her grace... may there be no obstacles to you, and may you like a worthy father stand in the forefront of those mortals that are blessed with worthy sons... Thus sage vashiShTha advised king dilIpa. [1-91]


तथेति प्रतिजग्राह प्रीतिमान्सपरिग्रहः।
आदेशं देशकालज्ञः शिष्यः शासितुरानतः॥ १-९२

tatheti pratijagrāha prītimānsaparigrahaḥ |
ādeśaṁ deśakālajñaḥ śiṣyaḥ śāsiturānataḥ || 1-92

tatheti pratijagraaha priitimaansaparigrahaH |
aadesha.m deshakaalaj~naH shiSyaH shaasituraanataH  || 3-92


tathA iti pratijagrAha prItimAn sa parigrahaH | Adesham desha kAlaj~naH shiSyaH shAshituH AnataH || 1-92

1-92. desha kAla j~naH= place, time, knower [pragmatic one]; prItimAn= pleased at heart; shiSyaH = as a true disciple [of vashiShTha]; sa parigrahaH= sa patnIka san= along with, wife; AnataH = head bent [reverently]; shAshituH Adesham = ordering sage's, order; tathA iti= [saying] so, be it; pratijagrAha= received [accepted.]

dilIpa being a pragmatic king and a true disciple of vashiShTha is pleased at heart, and he along with his wife reverently accepted the order of sage saying, So be it... [1-92]


अथ प्रदोषे दोषज्ञः संवेशाय विशांपतिम्।
सूनुः सूनृतवाक्स्रष्टुर्विससर्जोर्जितश्रियम्॥ १-९३

atha pradoṣe doṣajñaḥ saṁveśāya viśāṁpatim |
sūnuḥ sūnṛtavāksraṣṭurvisasarjorjitaśriyam || 1-93

atha pradoSe doSaj~naH sa.mveshaaya vishaa.mpatim |
suunuH suunR^itavaaksraSTurvisasarjorjitashriyam|| 3-93


atha pradoSe doSaj~naH sa.mveshAya vishAm patim | sUnuH sUnR^itavAk sraSTuH visasarja Urjita shriyam || 1-93

1-93. atha= then; pradoSe= in late evening; doSa j~naH= wrongs, knower - scholar; sUnR^ita vAk = satya priya vAk= who speaks truthful, pleasant words; sraSTuH sUnuH= Creator's, son - brainchild of brahma, vashiShTha; Urjita shriyam= one on whom fortune is going to dawn - dilIpa; vishAm  patim= peoples, lord - king; sa.mveshAya visasarja= to have sleep, bade.

Then in late evening that scholarly brainchild of brahma who always speaks truthful and pleasant words, namely vashiShTa, bade king dilIpa on whom fortune is going dawn, to retire for the night. [1-93]


सत्यामपि तपःसिद्धौ नियमापेक्षया मुनिः।
कल्पवित्कल्पयामास वन्यामेवास्य संविधाम्॥ १-९४

satyāmapi tapaḥsiddhau niyamāpekṣayā muniḥ |
kalpavitkalpayāmāsa vanyāmevāsya saṁvidhām || 1-94

satyaamapi tapaHsiddhau niyamaapekShayaa muniH |
kalpavitkalpayaamaasa vanyaamevaasya sa.mvidhaam || 3-94


satyAm api tapaH siddhau niyama apekshayA muniH | kalpavit kalpayAmAsa vanyAm eva asya sa.mvidhAnam || 1-94

1-94. kalpavit= vrata caryA prayoga abhij~na= one who knows the practising of vows; muniH = saint; tapaH siddhau= by ascesis, realized [powers to give royal accommodation to king and queen]; satyAm api= true, even; niyama apekshayA= regulations [of vow,] keeping in view; asya = to this [dilIpa]; vanyAm eva= forest produce, only; sa.mvidhAnam= mode of living; kalpayAmAsa= started to arrange.

Himself being the knower of ways and means of vows, besides being a saint, and even though his possessing powers to create anything by virtue of his ascesis is true in creating royal palaces to palanquins from thin air, but by keeping the regulations of vows to be undertaken by dilIpa in view, vashiShTa arranged only for the bare necessities from the forest produce even to this royal couple, like mats, pots, and jute outfits essential for the hermitic mode of living henceforth. [1-94]


निर्दिष्टां कुलपतिना स पर्णशाला-
मध्यास्य प्रयतपरिग्रहद्वितीयः।
संविष्टः कुशशयने निशां निनाय॥ १-९५

nirdiṣṭāṁ kulapatinā sa parṇaśālā-
madhyāsya prayataparigrahadvitīyaḥ |
saṁviṣṭaḥ kuśaśayane niśāaṁ nināya || 1-95

nirdiSTaa.m kulapatinaa sa parNashaalaa-
madhyaasya prayataparigrahadvitiiyaH |
sa.mviSTaH kushashayane nishaaa.m ninaaya || 3-95


nirdiSTAm kulapatinA sa parNashAlAm adhyAsya prayataH parigraha dvitIyaH | tacChiSyAdhyananiveditAvasAnAm sa.mviSTaH kusha shayane nishAam ninAya || 1-95

1-95. saH= he that dilIpa; kulapatinA= muni kula IshvareNa= vice-chancellor of saints community, vashiShTha [where God Brahma is the Chancellor, and where kulapati is still the title given to Vice-chancellors of Indian Univ. baptised by kAlidAsa]; nirdiSTAm  parNashAlAm= determined, in cottage; adhyAsya= on occupying; prayataH= niyataH= rule bound; parigraha= wife; dvitIyaH= as his companion; kusha shayane= on grass, bed - on pallet; sa.mviSTaH= suptaH san= on sleeping [reposing]; tat= his, vashiShTha's; shiSya  adhyana = by disciples, practising [apa rAtra veda paThanam - Vedic hymns at night]; nivedita= made known; avasAnAm nishAam= lateness, of night; ninAya= gamayAmAsa = started to spend the rest of nightly hours.

On occupying a cottage determined by vashiShTha along with his pious wife as his only companion, king dilIpa reposed on a pallet, wither the lateness of that night is made known through the Vedic chants chanted by the disciples of vashiShTha in their practise at the end-session of that day; thus king dilIpa spent the rest of the hours of that night agog for next dawn. [1-95]

This verse suggests as to how kAlidAsa is called a sAkshAtcChiSya 'an evident disciple of Valmiki. This verse has a bearing on the verse in Ramayana, where boys Rama and Lakshmana had to sleep on grass-beds, when travelling with Vishvamitra at Ramayana 1-21-24. tR^iNa shayane anuchite tadA uSitAbhyAm... There Valmiki says that though the boys are 'undeserving to recline on the grass...' they had to. There, Vishvamitra tells some bedtime stories to boys as lullaby, and here the young scholars are chanting Vedic hymns as lulling blessings. This verse has the contrasting depiction of princes and paupers, in anukta anyApadesha somewhat an unsaid transfer of epithets. Here a king is sleeping on a pallet, instead of his royal cushion bed, and he has but one companion, instead of scores of insiders in palace-chambers, and he is listening harsh notes of Vedic chants, instead of lilting background music in those palace-chambers. The only difference is that the queen is with him, instead of retiring to her own palace chambers, which she would do, if she were to be in palace. Humble living makes people to be united.



इति महाकवि कालिदास कृत रघुवंश महाकाव्ये प्रथमः सर्गः॥

iti mahākavi kālidāsa kṛta raghuvaṁśa mahākāvye prathamaḥ sargaḥ ||

Thus this is 1st chapter in Kalidasa's Raghuvamsha, The Outstanding Poem of India



previous introduction contents Next chapter 2
VNK Latha - Nov, 2003
Revised :  Desiraju Hanumanta Rao - May 2010


abbreviations, words used  etc - explained

Krishnarao Mahadeva Joglekar, 1916 - KMJ, or Joglekar

Gopala Raghunath Nandargikar, 1897 GRN

pithy, terse sayings or foots of poem appearing in comment section - from The Story of Raghu's Line by Kalidasa; translated  by P. De Lacy Johnston, Published by Adine House, London, 1902 - De Lacy or Lacy


upama is roughly said as metaphor, transferred epithet, or condensed simile, or expanded simile, or whatever, but not stabilised, as with atishayokti and utpreksha both made to fall under the category of a hyperbole.

u.mA o : upamAna - comparable object; or the object itself.

u.me  oc : upameya - object compared.

sA.dha c: sAdhAraNa dharma: commonality in sharing attributes.

sA. vA cw: sAdharaNa vAcaka: coupula, conjunctional word used.

anu.dha uq : anugAmi dharma : underlying quality of factors.

bimba om, or O: object to be mirrored.

prati-bimba mo: reflected object with mirror symmetry, mirrored object.


shleSa innuendo: lexically mixing, imbibed in; better we use this innuendo= 2 a remark with a double meaning, usu. suggestive; till pundits object.

zeugma : a figure of speech using a verb or adjective with two nouns, to one of which it is strictly applicable while the word appropriate to the other is not used (e.g. with weeping eyes and [sc. grieving] hearts).

syllepsis : a figure of speech in which a word is applied to two others in different senses (e.g. caught the train and a bad cold) or to two others of which it grammatically suits one only (e.g. neither they nor it is working) - but not innuendo, or double meaning.

atishayokti - hybo: hyperbole.

utpreksha - mglq: magniloqui, gasconade.


Out of many mind-boggling Sanskrit poetics, upama is one, and only 23 of its shades are presented here as illustration. Please construe that hero is telling these se ntences to his heroine.