Dynasty of Emperor Raghu
|3 chapter -- 70 verses|
In due time queen Sudakshina gives birth to a glorious son who is named Raghu. The canto has interesting descriptions of the early days of the prince, his cducation, his marriage, and his investiture as Yuva-Raja. or crown-prince. King Dil1pa wishing to perform the Ashwamedha SArifice sets loose a horse under the guardianship of Prince Raghu. The horse is robbed by Indra and Raghu is at a loss how and where to trace him. Nandini, the divine cow, directs him in his search. Indra is found in possession of the animal. A fierce contest ensues in which the prince displays such a valour that Indra, theLord of the Gods, in appreciation of it endows Dilipa with the merit derived from the sacrifice without its being actually performed. On his return Raghu is warmly welcomed by his father who instals him on the ancestral throne, withdraws himself from all the mundane affairs and retires to the woods. - KMJ.
Notes and commentary of Kishanrao Madhavarao Joglekar on this 3rd canto is made available here 0.8 MB pdf for further reading.
अथेप्सितं भर्तुरुपस्थितोदयं सखीजनोद्वीक्षणकौमुदीमुखम्|
निदानमिक्ष्वाकुकुलस्य संततेः सुदक्षिणा दौहृदलक्षणं दधौ॥ ३-१
athepsitaṁ bharturupasthitodayaṁ sakhījanodvīkṣaṇakaumudīmukham|
nidānamikṣvākukulasya saṁtateḥ sudakṣiṇā dauhṛdalakṣaṇaṁ dadhau || 3-1
athepsita.n bharturupasthitodaya.n sakhIjanodvIkShaNakaumudImukham |
nidAnamikShvAkukulasya sa.ntateH sudakShiNA dauhR^idalakShaNa.n dadhau || 3-1
atha Ipsitam bhartuH upasthita udayam sakhI jana udvIkshiNa kaumudI mukham | nidAnam ikshvAku kulasya sa.ntateH sudakshiNA dauhR^idaya lakshaNam dadhau || 3-1
3-1. atha= then [after conceiving]; sudakshiNA; upasthita udayam= prApta phalam= on bechancing, fruition, indicating near emergence of son; Ipsitam bhartuH= what is much desired, by husband; sakhI jana udvIkshiNa= female, friends, for seeing, for their eyes; kaumudI mukham= candrikA prAdurbhAvam= new moonlight, commencement of; [or, kaumudI sukham= moonlight like, pleasant]; nidAnam= mUla kAraNam= source; ikshvAku kulasya sa.ntateH= for Ikshvaku, dynasty's, endlessness; dau hR^idaya = dvi hR^idaya - sva hR^idayena shishu hR^idayena ca= garbha cihnam= pregnancy; lakshaNam= signs of; dadhau= she bore, she showed.
On conceiving sudakshiNa showed the signs of pregnancy indicating the near emergence of a son, a much desired happening for her husband dilIpa, for it is the source to the endlessness to the dynasty of ikshvaku-s, and which happening to her female friends is pleasant like the emergence of new moonlight. [3-1]
शरीरसादादसमग्रभूषणा मुखेन सालक्ष्यत लोध्रपाण्डुना|
तनुप्रकाशेन विचेयतारका प्रभातकल्पा शशिनेव शर्वरी॥ ३-२
śarīrasādādasamagrabhūṣaṇā mukhena sālakṣyata lodhrapāṇḍunā|
tanuprakāśena viceyatārakā prabhātakalpā śaśineva śarvarī || 3-2
sharIrasAdAdasamagrabhUShaNA mukhena sAlakShyata lodhrapANDunA |
tanuprakAshena viceyatArakA prabhAtakalpA shashineva sharvarI || 3-2
sharIra sAdAt asamagra bhUSaNA mukhena sA lakshyata lodhra pANDunA | tanu prakAshena viceya tArakA prabhAta kalpA shashinA iva sharvarI || 3-2
3-2. sharIra sAdAt= body, enfeebled - paleness; a+samagra bhUSaNA= not, fully, decorated; lodhra pANDunA mukhena= Lodhra [flowers,] in whiteness, with such a face; sA= she, sudakshiNa; viceya tArakA= searchable [twinkling,] stars; tanu prakAshena= with a little, shine; shashinA= [upa lakshitA]= with moon, [having]; prabhAta kalpA= dawning, a little; sharvarI iva lakshyata= night, like, looked.
Lady sudakshiNa’s physique is now less ornamented for it is attenuated, face grown pale like the whitened Lodhra flowers and looked almost like a dawning night with pale-faced moon and searchable stars for paled is their twinkling. [3-2]
sudakshiNa - co; night towards dawn - o; emaciation/fading of darkness - c; insufficiently decorated - o; night loosing her decoration called darkness - mo; face's twinkle is dwindling - o; stars are paling and hence searchable - mo; whitened Lodhra flowers - o; paling moon - mo; face -o; moon - mo; like -like. Again Lodhra flower - mo; her palish face - o; lodhram iva pANDu - vigraha vAkya. Multiple parisons - parallel constructions, often in twos or threes
Endnote of this page contains abbreviations used in here.
तदाननं मृत्सुरभि क्षितीश्वरो रहस्युपाघ्राय न तृप्तिमाययौ|
करीव सिक्तं पृषतैः पयोमुचां शुचिव्यपाये वनराजिपल्वलम्॥ ३-३
tadānanaṁ mṛtsurabhi kṣitīśvaro rahasyupāghrāya na tṛptimāyayau|
karīva siktaṁ pṛṣataiḥ payomucāṁ śucivyapāye vanarājipalvalam || 3-3
tadAnana.n mR^itsurabhi kShitIshvaro rahasyupAghrAya na tR^iptimAyayau |
karIva sikta.n pR^iShataiH payomucA.n shucivyapAye vanarAjipalvalam || 3-3
tat Ananam mR^it surabhi kshiti Ishvaro rahasi upAghrAya na tR^iptim Ayayau | karI iva siktam pR^iSataiH payo mucAm shuci vyapAye vana rAji palvalam || 3-3
3-3. kshiti IshvaraH= land, lord - king dilIpa; rahasi= in privacy; mR^it surabhi= clay, fragranced; tat Ananam upAghrAya= that, face [of sudakshiNa]; shuci vyapAye= grISma avasAne= summer, at end; payaH mucAm= water, releasers - clouds; pR^iSataiH= with raindrops; siktam= wetted; vana rAji palvalam= forest, ranges, swaths of; [upAghrAya= on smelling]; karI iva= elephant, like; tR^iptim na Ayayau= satisfaction, not, got; garbhiNInAm mR^id bhakshaNam loka prasiddham eva | etena dohada Akhyam garbha lakshaNam sUcitam.
King dilIpa derived no satisfaction on smelling the face of sudakshiNa that is with the fragrance of clay, like an elephant that unsatisfyingly smells swaths in forest that are just wetted with a few raindrops drizzled by the endtime clouds of summer. [3-3]
King dilIpa - o, u.me; kingly elephant - co, u.mA; smelling - c; like - cw; her face - o; swaths of forests - mo; fragrance of clay- c; anudheya sAdR^isha. Eating clay or suchlike things is common to pregnant women, and it is also common that an elephant cannot be satisfied with a few raindrops.
दिवं मरुत्वानिव भोक्ष्यते भुवं दिगन्तविश्रान्तरथो हि तत्सुतः|
अतोऽभिलाषे प्रथमं तथाविधे मनो बबन्धान्यरसान्विलङ्घ्य सा॥ ३-४
divaṁ marutvāniva bhokṣyate bhuvaṁ digantaviśrāntaratho hi tatsutaḥ ||
ato'bhilāṣe prathamaṁ tathāvidhe mano babandhānyarasānvilaṅghya sā || 3-4
diva.n marutvAniva bhokShyate bhuva.n digantavishrAntaratho hi tatsutaH |
ato.abhilAShe prathama.n tathAvidhe mano babandhAnyarasAnvila~Nghya sA || 3-4
divam marutvAn iva bhokshyate bhuvam diganta vishrAnta ratho hi tat sutaH | ato.abhilASe prathamam tathAvidhe mano babandha anya rasAn vila.nghya sA || 3-4
3-4. hi= yasmAt kAraNAt= for which reason - wherefore; dik anta vishrAnta rathaH= quarters, at end of, taking rest, chariot - one whose chariot stops for rest at the farthest end of quarters - an absolute emperor on entire earth - cakravarty; tat= that sort of; sutaH= son; marutvAn divam iva= Indra, on heavens, like; bhuvam bhokshyate= earth, who can enjoy; ataH= therefore; prathamam = primarily; sA= she; tathA vidhe= in such kinds [of objects]; abhilASe= in such interestedness; manaH babandha= her heart, fixed; anya rasAn vila.nghya= other, relishes, on discarding; dauhR^ida hetukasya mR^id bhakshaNasya putra bhoga sUcanArtham utprekshitam.
Wherefore she wished her son to become an absolute emperor whose conquering chariot would stop for rest only at the farthest limits of the quarters, she therefore set her heart primarily on such kinds of objects of her relish, discarding all the other relishes, only to beget such a son enjoying whole of the earth, like Indra enjoying all heavens. [3-4]
Prospective son - o; Indra - co; enjoyment - c; like - cw; earth - o; heavens -mo; anugAmitva bimba pratibimba mishraNa
न मे ह्रिया शंसति किंचिदीप्सितं स्पृहावती वस्तुषु केषु मागधी|
इति स्म पृच्छत्यनुवेलमादृतः प्रियासखीरुत्तरकोसलेश्वरः॥ ३-५
na me hriyā śaṁsati kiṁcidīpsitaṁ spṛhāvatī vastuṣu keṣu māgadhī|
iti sma pṛcchatyanuvelamādṛtaḥ priyāsakhīruttarakosaleśvaraḥ || 3-5
na me hriyA sha.nsati ki.ncidIpsita.n spR^ihAvatI vastuShu keShu mAgadhI |
iti sma pR^icChatyanuvelamAdR^itaH priyAsakhIruttarakosaleshvaraH || 3-5
na me hriyA sha.mshati ki.ncit Ipsitam spR^ihAvatI vastuSu keSu mAgadhI | iti sma pR^icChati anuvelam AdR^itaH priyA sakhIH uttara kosaleshvara || 3-5
3-5. mAgadhI= princess from magadha, sudakshiNa; hriyA= with shyness; ki.ncit= whatever; Ipsitam= that which is desired; me na sha.mshati= to me, not, telling; keSu vastuSu spR^ihAvatI = in which, items, she is wishing to have [- you tell me, I will arrange for them]; iti anuvelam in this way, time and again; AdR^itaH= considerately; uttara kosala Ishvara= North, Kosala's, lord - dilIpa; priyA sakhIH = with [his beloved's] dear friends; pR^icChati sma = asking, he is.
"This princess from magadha is not informing me her likes and dislikes for the nonce as she is abashed, hence, oh, lady's maids, you may get a wind of her requirements and tell me, so that they can be arranged forthwith...” in this way dilIpa, the king of North kosala, started to ask the lady’s maids of is beloved wife's, repeatedly and considerately. [3-5]
उपेत्य सा दोहददुःखशीलतां यदेव वव्रे तदपश्यदाहृतम्|
न हीष्टमस्य त्रिदिवेऽपि भूपतेरभूदनासाद्यमधिज्यधन्वनः॥ ३-६
upetya sā dohadaduḥkhaśīlatāṁ yadeva vavre tadapaśyadāhṛtam|
na hīṣṭamasya tridive'pi bhūpaterabhūdanāsādyamadhijyadhanvanaḥ || 3-6
upetya sA dohadaduHkhashIlatA.n yadeva vavre tadapashyadAhR^itam |
na hIShTamasya tridive.api bhUpaterabhUdanAsAdyamadhijyadhanvanaH || 3-6
upetya sA dohada duHkha shIlatAm yat eva vavre tat apashyat AhR^itam | na hi iSTam asya tridive api bhUpateH abhUt anAsAdyam adhijya dhanvanaH || 3-6
3-6. sA= she; dohada= pregnancy's [fourth month or so]; duHkha shIlatAm= troublesome, properties [fourth month period wishing to eat sour, harsh, bitter items etc]; upetya= on entering; yat vavre= whatever, wanted; tat AhR^itam= that, be brought; apashyat= she used to see, he used to get; eva= that way; hi= why because; adhijya dhanvanaH= tautened bowstring – with an upraised bow, archer; asya bhUpateH iSTam= to him, that king, chosen [items] tridive api= in heaven, even; an+AsAdyam= not, obtainable; na abhUt= not, became; etat ca patnI manoratha pUraNam akaraNe dR^iSTa doSa sambhavAt.
On entering the troublesome period of early pregnancy lady sudakshiNa used to gain access to whatever item she wanted, because there is nothing unobtainable for her husband, king dilIpa, even if it were to be in heaven, when he stands forward readying his bow. [3-6]
क्रमेण निस्तीर्य च दोहदव्यथां प्रचीयमानावयवा रराज सा|
पुराणपत्रापगमादनन्तरं लतेव संनद्धमनोज्ञपल्लवा॥ ३-७
krameṇa nistīrya ca dohadavyathāṁ pracīyamānāvayavā rarāja sā|
purāṇapatrāpagamādanantaraṁ lateva saṁnaddhamanojñapallavā || 3-7
krameNa nistIrya ca dohada vyadhAm pracIyamAna avayavA rarAja sA | purANa patra apagamAt antaram latA iva sanaddha manoj~na pallavA || 3-7
3-7. sA= she, sudakshiNa; krameNa= progressively; dohada vyadhAm ca= fourth month, problems, also; nistIrya= on passing over; pracIyamAna= puSyamANa= on fattening, recouping; avayavA satI= limbs, she is; purANa patra apagamAt antaram= old, leaves, on shedding off; sanaddha= sanjAta manoj~na pallavA= emerged, pleasant, tender leaves; latA iva= climbeer plant, like; rarAja= shone forth - freshened.
Lady sudakshiNa’s limbs became puffy after progressively passing through the problems of early pregnancy, and she looked freshened like a climber plant with newly emerging tender leaves after shedding old leaves. [3-7]
Her passing over the problems of early pregnancy - o; plant's passing over the problem of old leaves - co, mo; recouping of limbs tissue - o; plant recouping new leaves - mo; shine forth -c; like - cw; anugAmitva, bimba pratibimba, mishraNa rUpa - upama
निधानगर्भामिव सागराम्बरां शमीमिवाभ्यन्तरलीनपावकाम्|
नदीमिवान्तःसलिलां सरस्वतीं नृपः ससत्त्वां महिषीममन्यत॥ ३-९
nidhānagarbhāmiva sāgarāmbarāṁ śamīmivābhyantaralīnapāvakām|
nadīmivāntaḥsalilāṁ sarasvatīṁ nṛpaḥ sasattvāṁ mahiṣīmamanyata || 3-9
nidhAnagarbhAmiva sAgarAmbarA.n shamImivAbhyantaralInapAvakAm |
nadImivAntaHsalilA.n sarasvatI.n nR^ipaH sasattvA.n mahiShImamanyata || 3-9
nidhAna garbhAm iva sAgarA a.mbarAm shamIm iva abhyantara lIna pAvakAm | nadIm iva antaH salilAm sarasvatIm nR^ipaH sa sattvAm mahISIm amanyata || 3-9
3-9. nR^ipaH= king; amanyata= regarded; sa sattvAm= with, a being inside - pregnant lady; mahISIm = of queen; nidhAna garbhAm= treasure, in stomach; ocean; sAgarA a.mbarAm iva= ocean, waistband, like - i.e., the earth with ocean at its circumference as a waistband; abhyantara lIna pAvakAm= inside, wrapped up in, sacred fire; shamIm iva= Shami tree, like; antaH salilAm sarasvatIm nadIm iva= inside [underground,] having water, Saraswati, [disappeared] river, like; etena - garbha sthitaH shishoH sArvabhaumattvam, tesasvittvam, pavitrattvam ca vivakshitam.
The king dilIpa esteemed the enceinte queen as if she were the seagirt earth holding a treasure trove in her entrails, or the sacred shamI tree with fire dormant inside, or the sacred River saraswati with her streams flowing underground. [3-9]
By three parisons the poet is suggesting the emperorship of the impregnated boy on whole of the earth, his personal resplendence like that of sacred fire, and his sacrosanctity like that of sacred river saraswati.
Firegod who bore the vivifying principle of shiva felt its effects very keenly and found a consuming fire through his whole body. To save himself from this he entered the shami tree, which he is ever afterwards said to have made his permanent abode. Another legend is that pArvati under the influence of strong passion reposed on a trunk of this tree whereby, says Monier Williams: 'an intense heat was generated in the interior of the wood, which ever after broke into a sacred flame on the- slightest attrition.' shami and ashvattha wood is rubbed against each other to produce the sacred fire at a sacrifice. The saraswati looses itself in the sandy desert and is supposed to flow underground i.e., her waters are concealed from the sight of men. Perhaps, this is what the poet has in mind here. The mahA bhASya has a legendary account of this disappearance. The Rain-god carried off a lady called bhadra, the wife of a brAhmaNa, named utattya. The husband requested the river saraswati to disappear and make the tract an arid one. This the river did and Rain-god restored bhadra to her husband; but the river never reappeared on the surface. [KMJ] For more details please see M.R. Kale's edition.
u.ma - 3: earth, shami tree, saraswati River; u.me - only one: sudakshiNa; with a worthwhile being inside womb - o; mirrored objects - 3: treasure trove, enwrapped fire, underground sacred water; cw - like, like, like - three; bimba prati bimba bhAvApanna sAdhAraNa dharma sahita tri shrauti bahu upama - telling three comparable objects, each differing with the other, to one compared object - bahu upama.
प्रियानुरागस्य मनः समुन्नतेर्भुजार्जितानां च दिगन्तसंपदाम्|
यथाक्रमं पुंसवनादिकाः क्रिया धृतेश्च धीरः सदृशीर्व्यधत्त सः॥ ३-१०
priyānurāgasya manaḥ samunnaterbhujārjitānāṁ ca digantasaṁpadām|
yathākramaṁ puṁsavanādikāḥ kriyā dhṛteśca dhīraḥ sadṛśīrvyadhatta saḥ || 3-10
priyAnurAgasya manaH samunnaterbhujArjitAnA.n ca digantasa.npadAm |
yathAkrama.n pu.nsavanAdikAH kriyA dhR^iteshca dhIraH sadR^ishIrvyadhatta saH || 3-10
priya anurAgasya manaH samunnate bhuja ArjitAnAm ca diga.nta sa.mpadAm | yathA kramam pu.msavan AdikAH kriyA dhR^iteH ca dhIraH sadR^ishIH vyadhatta saH || 3-10
3-10. dhIraH saH= sagacious, king dilIpa; priya anurAgasya= for his beloved queen, in dearness; manaH samunnate= with his heart's, loftiness; bhuja ArjitAnAm= by own arms, earned; dik a.nta sa.mpadAm ca= quarters, at end of, riches, also; dhR^iteH ca= with happiness [in begetting a son]; sadR^ishIH= befitting [to his delight]; pu.msavana= pumsavana - a bay boy ritual, to be performed on knowing the sex of offspring, without any ultrasound tests; adikAH kriyA= an other, rituals; yathA kramam= as per, consequence; vyadhatta= performed.
That sagacious king dilIpa consequentially performed various rituals associated with advanced pregnancy beginning with pumsavana - first of the several ceremonies that are performed on a woman’s manifesting unmistakable signs of pregnancy; squaring with the magnanimity of his heart; seemly to his love for his beloved queen; consistent with the riches he personally acquired from all quarters of compass, and meetly to his own happiness in begetting a son. [3-10]
तयोपचाराञ्जलिखिन्नहस्तया ननन्द पारिप्लवनेत्रया नृपः॥ ३-११
tayopacārāñjalikhinnahastayā nananda pāriplavanetrayā nṛpaḥ || 3-11
surendramAtrAshritagarbhagauravAtprayatnamuktAsanayA gR^ihAgataH |
tayopacArA~njalikhinnahastayA nananda pAriplavanetrayA nR^ipaH || 3-11
surendra mAtrA Ashrita garbha gauravAt prayatna mukta AsanayA gR^ihAgataH | tayo upacAra a.njali khinna hastayA nana.nda pAriplava netrayA nR^ipaH || 3-11
3-11. gR^iha AgataH nR^ipaH= to home [to queen's palace,] having come, king; sura indra= surendrANAm = loka pAlAnAm= deities presiding over quarters of earth; mAtrA= amshaiH= attributes of, markings; Ashrita= anupraviSTa= having entered, ensconced; garbha gauravAt= womb's, weightiness; prayatna mukta AsanayA= with effort, releasing, sea [to welcome him]; upacAra = in greeting; a.njali= to adjoin palms; khinna hastayA= weakened [hence shaky,] hands; pAriplava netrayA= cancala akshyA= fluttering, eyed one [in glancing at him]; tayA= of her; nana.nda= [king] is overjoyed.
Whenever the king visited the palace-chambers of queen sudakshiNa, he is overjoyed to behold her effortful rising from her seat in welcoming him, hands shaky in greeting him, glances fluttery in glancing him, all this owing to the weightiness of her womb in which all the markings of all the deities presiding over all the quarters of earth are ensconced. [3-11]
कुमारभृत्याकुशलैरनुष्ठिते भिषग्भिराप्तैरथ गर्भभर्मणि|
पतिः प्रतीतः प्रसवोन्मुखीं प्रियां ददर्श काले दिवमभ्रितामिव॥ ३-१२
kumārabhṛtyākuśalairanuṣṭhite bhiṣagbhirāptairatha garbhabharmaṇi|
patiḥ pratītaḥ prasavonmukhīṁ priyāṁ dadarśa kāle divamabhritāmiva || 3-12
kumArabhR^ityAkushalairanuShThite bhiShagbhirAptairatha garbhabharmaNi |
patiH pratItaH prasavonmukhI.n priyA.n dadarsha kAle divamabhritAmiva || 3-12
kumAra bhR^ityA kushalaiH anuSTHite biSagbhiH AptaiH ratha garbha dharmaNi | patiH pratItaH prasava unmukhIm priyAm dadarsha kAle dinam abhritAm iva || 3-12
3-12. atha= then; kumAra bhR^ityA kushalaiH= infant-rearing, the science of infant-rearing, experts - gynaecologists and paediatricians; AptaiH biSagbhiH = trusted ones, physicians; garbha= womb's; bharmaNi [or, bharmANi] anuSTHite sati= nourishment, being done [by doctors]; kAle = in season, or, after summer; prasava unmukhIm= to deliver, ready to; priyAm= at his beloved queen; abhritAm dinam iva= clouded, vault of heaven, like; patiH= husband, dilIpa; pratItaH san= delightedly, even though; [ellipted: sUrya Atapita janaH iva = a sun scorched person, like]; dadarsha = observed.
As with a sun-scorched person impatiently observing the vault of heaven overcast with clouds ready to shower at the right season after summer, dilIpa though delighted to descry his beloved queen sudakshiNa with well-maintained womb taken care of by the trusted and expert gynaecologists and paediatricians and ready to deliver, he has become impatient because she is yet to deliver. [3-12]
The king longing for son - o; sun scorched person - co; seeing delightedly - c; like -cw; ready to deliver a child - o; ready to deliver a shower - mo; beloved wife - o; beloved sky with clouds - mo.
ग्रहैस्ततः पञ्चभिरुच्चसंस्थितैरसूर्यगैः सूचितभाग्यसंपदम्|
असूत पुत्रं समये शचीसमा त्रिसाधना शक्तिरिवार्थमक्षयम्॥ ३-१३
grahaistataḥ pañcabhiruccasaṁsthitairasūryagaiḥ sūcitabhāgyasaṁpadam ||
asūta putraṁ samaye śacīsamā trisādhanā śaktirivārthamakṣayam || 3-13
grahaistataH pa~ncabhiruccasa.nsthitairasUryagaiH sUcitabhAgyasa.npadam |
asUta putra.n samaye shacIsamA trisAdhanA shaktirivArthamakShayam || 3-13
grahaiH tataH pa.ncabhiH ucca sa.msthitaiH asUrya gaiH sUcita bhAgya sa.mpadam | asUta putram samaye shacI samA tri sAdhanA shaktiH iva artham akshayam || 3-13
3-13. tataH= afterwards; shacI samA= Shachi Devi [Indra's consort,] a coequal of; [sA= she, sudakshiNa]; samaye= on time, at tenth month; ucca sa.msthitaiH= in the ascendant positions, each planet enter respectively the Zodiacal signs of meSa, simha, karka, mIna, tulA, vR^iSabha, kanyA; a sUrya gaiH= not, to sun, going - nearing the sun the planet will be powerless, when any of the planets is near the sun that is said to merge and is powerless or technically astamaya; pa.ncabhiH grahaiH = with five, planets; sUcita bhAgya sa.mpadam= indicated, fortune, wealth of; putram= son; tri sAdhanA shaktiH= triple, exercisable, powers - prabhu shakti - capacity to govern, utsAha shakti - kingly enthusiasm, mantra shakti - power to conduct himself and follow good counsel; a kshayam= not, dwindling, unlessened; artham iva= fortune, like; asUta= delivered.
Afterwards, just as the triple kingly power - viz., kingly governance, kingly enthusiasm, and kingly comportment in conducting himself and in following good counsel - brings an unlessened wealth of kingcraft, the queen sudakshiNa who at that time resembled the consort of Indra, namely lady shachi devi, delivered a male child with that triple-kingly-power after the full period of pregnancy, while the unlessening fortune of that boy is indicated by five auspicious stars in ascendant positions without unlessened power because those stars have not yet gone sunward at that time. [3-13]
Detailed commentary will be there for this from the viewpoint of astronomy. It is said that if one planet is in the ascendant at nativity it confers happiness, two make him respected, three make him almost equal to a ruler, four make him a king and five make him quite a divine being. This is to establish the lead man of this poem as a divine being.
दिशः प्रसेदुर्मरुतो ववुः सुखाः प्रदक्षिणार्चिर्हविरग्निराददे|
बभूव सर्वं शुभशंसि तत्क्षणं भवो हि लोकाभ्युदयाय तादृशाम्॥ ३-१४
diśaḥ prasedurmaruto vavuḥ sukhāḥ
babhūva sarvaṁ śubhaśaṁsi tatkṣaṇaṁ
bhavo hi lokābhyudayāya tādṛśām || 3-14
dishaH prasedurmaruto vavuH sukhAH
babhUva sarva.n shubhasha.nsi tatkShaNa.n
bhavo hi lokAbhyudayAya tAdR^ishAm || 3-14
dishaH praseduH maruto vapuH sukhAH pradakshiNa arciH haviH Adade | babhUva sarvam shubha sha.mshi tatkshaNam bhavo hi loka abhydayAya tAdR^ishAm || 3-14
3-14. tat kshaNam= that, moment - instantly; dishaH praseduH= directions, rendered serene; marutaH sukhAH vapuH= air, comfortably, breezed; agniH pradakshiNa arciH san= Ritual-fire, clockwise moving, with flames, being so; haviH Adade= oblations, received; [ittham= in this way]; sarvam shubha sha.mshi babhUva= everything, wellbeing, indicating, became; [tathA hi= likewise]; tAdR^ishAm= suchlike [great men's]; bhavaH= birthing; loka abhyuidayAya hi= world's, welfare, indeed; tato devAH api santuSTA iti arthaH; arthAntara nyAsAlankAra.
On the birth of that boy all the directions instantly became serene, air breezed comfortably, and the Ritual-fires swirled clockwise to receive oblations, in this way everything indicated the wellbeing of anything, likewise birth of suchlike great men indeed indicates the welfare of world, isn't so! [3-14]
अरिष्टशय्यां परितो विसारिणा सुजन्मनस्तस्य निजेन तेजसा|
निशीथदीपाः सहसा हतत्विषो बभूवुरालेख्यसमर्पिता इव॥ ३-१५
ariṣṭaśayyāṁ parito visāriṇā sujanmanastasya nijena tejasā|
niśīthadīpāḥ sahasā hatatviṣo babhūvurālekhyasamarpitā iva || 3-15
ariShTashayyA.n parito visAriNA sujanmanastasya nijena tejasA |
nishIthadIpAH sahasA hatatviSho babhUvurAlekhyasamarpitA iva || 3-15
ariSTa shayyam parito visAriNA sujanmanaH tasya nijena tejasAa | nishIdha dIpAH sahasA hata tviSaH babhUvuH Alekhya samarpitA iva || 3-15
3-15. ariSTa= sUtika shayyam= lying-in, childbed; paritaH visAriNA= around, diffused; su janmanaH = good, birthed one, nobleman; tasya nijena tejasAa= his, own, by resplendence; sahasA = in a trice; hata tviSaH= marred, of their radiance; nishIdha dIpAH= nightly, lamps; Alekhya sam arpitA iva babhUvuH= in a painting, picturised, as though, they became. This parison is identified as a concocted simile by ancients, and identified as utpreksha, hyperbole by later time critics.
The radiance of nightly lamps around the childbed has become deficient in a trice before the personal resplendence of newborn nobleman that diffused around that bed, and they looked as though the picturisation of static lamps on a canvas. [3-16].
जनाय शुद्धान्तचराय शंसते कुमारजन्मामृतसंमिताक्षरम्|
आदेयमासीत्त्रयमेव भूपतेः शशिप्रभं छत्रमुभे च चामरे॥ ३-१६
janāya śuddhāntacarāya śaṁsate kumārajanmāmṛtasaṁmitākṣaram|
ādeyamāsīttrayameva bhūpateḥ śaśiprabhaṁ chatramubhe ca cāmare || 3-16
janAya shuddhAntacarAya sha.nsate kumArajanmAmR^itasa.nmitAkSharam |
AdeyamAsIttrayameva bhUpateH shashiprabha.n Chatramubhe ca cAmare || 3-16
janAya shuddhA.nta carAya sha.msate kumAra janma amR^ita sammitAksharam | Adeyam AsIt trayam eva bhUpateH shashi prabham cChatram ubhe ca cAmare || 3-16
3-16. bhUpateH= for king dilIpa; amR^ita sammita aksharam= nectar, mingled, words; kumAra janma= of son's, birth; sha.msate= telling, announcing; shuddha a.nta= flawless, interiors - inside queen's palace-chamber; carAya janAya= moving, people - chambermaids; shashi prabham cChatram= moon, white, parasol; ubhe cAmare ca= two, fur-fans, also; trayam eva= three [items,] only; a deyam= un, affordable; AsIt= they became, remained; cChatra AdInAm rAj~naH prathAna angatvAt itui bhAvaH.
Only three items remained unaffordable to the king to be given away to the chambermaids of queen's chamber who announced the birth of a son with nectarean words, because those two items are the unalienable moon-white royal parasol, and two royal fur-fans; but for them he doled out anything handy. [3-16]
The words of chambermaids - o; nectarine in taste - oc; c - unsaid; commingled - cw- dharma lupta arthi upama ; moonshine like parasol - unsaid; parasol's brightness - co; brightness - c, also unsaid; shashinaH prabhA, shashi prabhA - shashi prabha iva yasya tt = shashi prabhA - upamAna pUrva pada bahuvrIhi both unsaid - upamAna dharma lupta - tri lupta umapa .
निवातपद्मस्तिमितेन चक्षुषा नृपस्य कान्तं पिबतः सुताननम्|
महोदधेः पूर इवेन्दुदर्शनाद्गुरुः प्रहर्षः प्रबभूव नात्मनि॥ ३-१७
nivātapadmastimitena cakṣuṣā nṛpasya kāntaṁ pibataḥ sutānanam|
mahodadheḥ pūra ivendudarśanādguruḥ praharṣaḥ prababhūva nātmani || 3-17
nivAtapadmastimitena cakShuShA nR^ipasya kAnta.n pibataH sutAnanam |
mahodadheH pUra ivendudarshanAdguruH praharShaH prababhUva nAtmani || 3-17
nivAta padma stimitena cakshuSA nR^ipasya kA.ntam pibataH suta Ananam | mahodadheH pUra iva i.ndu darshanAt guruH praharSaH prababhUva na Atmani || 3-17
3-17. ni vAta= without, wind - at a windless place; padma= lotus [like]; stimitena cakshuSA= fixated [unwinking, unwavering] with eyes; kA.ntam suta Ananam= loveable, son's, face; pibataH= while drinking, devouring [take in greedily with the eyes or ears - devoured book after book]; nR^ipasya guruH praharSaH= king's, high, pleasure; i.ndu darshanAt= moon, by sighting; mahA udadheH= great, ocean's; guru pUra iva= high, tide, like; Atmani= in himself, within ocean; na pra babhUva= not, well, became.
When the king devoured the loveable face of his son with his unwinking and unwavering eyes that are like the unswerving lotuses in a windless pool, his high pleasure became uncontainable, like the uncontainable high tide of a great ocean within that ocean on sighting the moon. [3-17]
The high pleasure of dilIpa - o; high tide of ocean - oc; uncontainability - commonality; like - cw; dilIpa devouring son's face - o; ocean devouring moon's face - mo; guru, heightened - tide or pleasure - ubhaya anvyayi, common uq; - anugAmitva, bimba prati bimba, aupacArika, shleSa mishraNa The parison is between dilIpa - great ocean; son's face - moon's face; high pleasure - high tide.
स जातकर्मण्यखिले तपस्विना तपोवनादेत्य पुरोधसा कृते|
दिलीपसूनुर्मणिराकरोद्भवः प्रयुक्तसंस्कार इवाधिकं बभौ॥ ३-१८
sa jātakarmaṇyakhile tapasvinā tapovanādetya purodhasā kṛte|
dilīpasūnurmaṇirākarodbhavaḥ prayuktasaṁskāra ivādhikaṁ babhau || 3-18
sa jAtakarmaNyakhile tapasvinA tapovanAdetya purodhasA kR^ite |
dilIpasUnurmaNirAkarodbhavaH prayuktasa.nskAra ivAdhika.n babhau || 3-18
saH jAta karmaNi alikhe tapasvinA tapovanAt etya purodhasA kR^ite | dilIpa sUnuH maNi Akara udbhavaH prayukta sa.mskAra iva adhikam babhau || 3-18
3-18. saH dilIpa sUnuH= he, dilIpa's, son; tapasvinA purodhasA= by ascetic, priest - vashiShTa; tapo vanAt etya= from ascetic woods, having coming; alikhe jAta karmaNi kR^ite sati= all, birth time, purificatory rites, on performing; prayukta sa.mskAra = having, refined - (1) the purificatory ceremonies with regard to whom had been gone through; (2) diamonds etc., subjected to grinding and polishing; Akara udbhavaH= mine, born; maNi iva= gem, like; adhikam babhau= highly, brightened.
On the arrival of family priest vashiShTa from ascetic woods all the purifactory birth time rituals in respect of dilIpa's son have been completed, and on performing those rituals that boy brightened like a polished gem born in a mine. [3-18]
A gem born in mine - oc; son of dilIpa -o; brightening up - c, uq; like - cw; sanctified with Vedic rituals - o; gem subjected to grinding and polishing - mo; dilIpa - o; mine of gems - mo.
सुखश्रवा मङ्गलतूर्यनिस्वनाः प्रमोदनृत्यैः सह वारयोषिताम् ।
न केवलं सद्मनि मागधीपतेः पथि व्यजृम्भन्त दिवौकसामपि॥३-१९
sukhaśravā maṅgalatūryanisvanāḥ pramodanṛtyaiḥ saha vārayoṣitām|
na kevalaṁ sadmani māgadhīpateḥ pathi vyajṛmbhanta divaukasāmapi ||3-19
sukhashravA ma~NgalatUryanisvanAH pramodanR^ityaiH saha vArayoShitAm|
na kevala.n sadmani mAgadhIpateH pathi vyajR^imbhanta divaukasAmapi ||3-19
sukha shravA ma.ngala tUrya nisvanAH pramoda nR^ittaiHJ saha vAra yoSitAm | na kevalam sadmani mAgadhi pateH pathi vyajR^i.mbhanta divaukAm api || 3-19
3-19. sukha shravA= entertaining, to listen; ma.ngala tUrya nisvanAH= auspicious, trumpets', sounds; vAra yoSitAm= of courtesan, girls; pramoda nR^ittaiH saha= delightful [sweet-sounding,] dances, along with; mAgadhi pateH= princess of magadhi, sudakshiNa's, husband; sadmani kevalam na= in his palace, just, not; divaukAm pathi api= heavean dwellers, routes, also - even in skys; vyajR^i.mbhanta= spread over.
The entertaining sounds of auspicious trumpets, along with the sweet-sounds of dance bands of courtesan dancers not only filled the palace of the husband of the princess from magadha, namely dilIpa, but spread heavenward also. [3-19]
न संयतस्तस्य बभूव रक्षितुर्विसर्जयेद्यं सुतजन्महर्षितः|
ऋणाभिधानात्स्वयमेव केवलं तदा पितॄणां मुमुचे स बन्धनात्॥ ३-२०
na saṁyatastasya babhūva rakṣiturvisarjayedyaṁ sutajanmaharṣitaḥ|
ṛṇābhidhānātsvayameva kevalaṁ tadā pitṝṇāṁ mumuce sa bandhanāt || 3-20
na sa.myata stanya bahUva rakshituH vivarjayet yam suta janma harSitaH | R^iNa abhidhAnAt svayam eva kevalam tadA pitR^INam mumuce sa ba.ndhanAt || 3-20
3-20. suta janma harSitaH san= son's, by birth, gladdened he is; yam vivarjayet= whom, to be released; rakshituH tasya= being the protector, king, to him; sa.myata na bahUva= prisoner, not, there; ki.ntu= besides; tadA= at that time; saH= he himself; pitR^INam= of manes; R^iNa abhi dhAnAt = indebtedness, named so; ba.ndhanAt= from such a captivity; svayam eva= himself, thus; kevalam mumuce= just, got release.
Gladdened by the birth of a son the king dilIpa wished to set any prisoner free, but at that time he had no such prisoner whom he might release because his rule is crime free, besides, he himself got the release from the filial captivity called the indebtedness towards his manes. [3-20]
श्रुतस्य यायादयमन्तमर्भकः तथा परेषां युधि चेति पार्थिवः|
अवेक्ष्य धातोर्गमनार्थमर्थविच्चकार नाम्ना रघुमात्मसम्भवम्॥ ३-२१
tathā pareṣāṁ yudhi ceti pārthivaḥ|
nāmnā raghumātmasambhavam || 3-21
tathA pareShA.n yudhi ceti pArthivaH |
nAmnA raghumAtmasambhavam || 3-21
shrutasya yAyAt ayam a.ntam arbhakaH tathA pareSAm yudhi ca iti pArthivaH | avekshya dhAtoH gamanArtham arthavit cakAra nAmnA raghum Atma sa.mbhavam || 3-21
3-21. artha vit pArthivaH= meanings, knower, king; ayam arbhakaH= this, boy; shrutasya a.ntam= learning, end of - the end in one case it conveys the idea of complete mastery of learning; yAyAt= will go, advances; tathA yudhi= likewise, in battles; pareSAm ca= others', enemies, also; antam yayAt = ending, elimination, he goes ahead; iti= that type of; dhAtoH= by the root meaning of a word; gamana artham avekshya= 'going', meaning, on foreseeing; Atma sa.mbhavam= his own, son; nAmnA= by name; raghum= raghu; cakAra= made, named him.
The king being the knower of meanings of words foresaw that "this boy can go ahead with all learning, likewise he will go ahead with the elimination of all of his enemies in battles..." and thus with that sort of thinking he named his son as 'raghu', where the root of the word raghu gives the meaning of 'going’, rather a dynamist… [3-21]
This verse indicates kAlidAsa's grammatical expertise. The root aghi raghi laghi gatiH arthA; in which the syllable la becomes ra as per rule vAla mUla laghvalam angulInAm vA lo ratvam Apadyate, and hence raghu means one who advances, marches ahead.
Thinking that the boy was destined to go to the other end “of learning and (also of martial proficiency) in his wars with his enemies, the king, skilled in the art of wordiness, called him raghu—a word formed from a root meaning the act of going. – Nandargikar
Feeling that the babe would go to the end of the shruti learning, Veda-s etc., as well as feeling that the babe would go the end of the shruta, the customary learning, and also accomplish the destruction of his enemies in battle, the king who was proficient in the meaning of words made his son distinguishable by the name raghu knowing that the root-meaning of that word implied ‘motion.’ KMJ
पितुः प्रयत्नात्स समग्रसंपदः शुभैः शरीरावयवैर्दिने दिने|
पुपोष वृद्धिं हरिदश्वदीधितेरनुप्रवेशादिव बालचन्द्रमाः॥ ३-२२
pituḥ prayatnātsa samagrasaṁpadaḥ śubhaiḥ śarīrāvayavairdine dine|
pupoṣa vṛddhiṁ haridaśvadīdhiteranupraveśādiva bālacandramāḥ || 3-22
pituH prayatnAtsa samagrasa.npadaH shubhaiH sharIrAvayavairdine dine |
pupoSha vR^iddhi.n haridashvadIdhiteranupraveshAdiva bAlacandramAH || 3-22
pituH prayatnAt sa samagra sa.mpadaH shubhaiH sharIra avayavaiH dine dine | pupoSa vR^iddhim haridashva dIdhiteH anupraveshAt iva bAla ca.ndramAH || 3-22
3-22. saH= he that boy raghu; samagra sa.mpadaH= aggregate, of wealth – his father; pituH prayatnAt= father's, endeavour - assiduity; shubhaiH sharIra avayavaiH= excellent, body, parts - limbs; harit ashva= green, horses one who rides them, the sun; dIdhiteH= with his sunrays; anupraveshAt bAla ca.ndramAH iva= by radiation, young, moon, like; dine dine= day, by day; vR^iddhim pupoSa= full growth, fostered.
That boy raghu who as the prospective emperor is fostered to full growth of his bodily limbs under the assiduity of his father dilIpa who by himself is an aggregate of all sorts of wealth, like the young moon burgeoning day by day in bright fortnight with the irradiation of the rays of the rider of chariot drawn by seven green horses, namely the sun. [3-22]
As by the reflection of the sun's rays, the young moon waxes ( larger and larger ) every day, so the little prince throve in all his handsome limbs of the body, under the care of his sire who had all the treasures at hi& command. - Nandargikar
Under the assiduity of the father dilIpa, who was the possessor of all varieties of happiness, he, the son raghu, grew up from day to day by the development of the limbs of his body just like the young moon grows in the size by the infusion of the rays of the driver of green horses. - KMJ
उमावृषाङ्कौ शरजन्मना यथा यथा जयन्तेन शचीपुरन्दरौ|
तथा नृपः सा च सुतेन मागधी ननन्दतुस्तत्सदृशेन तत्समौ॥ ३-२३
umāvṛṣāṅkau śarajanmanā yathā yathā jayantena śacīpurandarau|
tathā nṛpaḥ sā ca sutena māgadhī nanandatustatsadṛśena tatsamau || 3-23
umAvR^iShA~Nkau sharajanmanA yathA yathA jayantena shacIpurandarau |
tathA nR^ipaH sA ca sutena mAgadhI nanandatustatsadR^ishena tatsamau || 3-23
umA vR^iSA.nkau shara janmanau yathA yathA jayantena shacI purandarau | tathA nR^ipaH sA ca sutena mAgadhI na.ndatuH tat sadR^ishena tat samau || 3-23
3-23. umA= goddess pArvati; vR^iSa a.nkau= bull, who has ensign of that bull - shiva; yathA= as with; shara janmanA= in reeds, birthed - kumAra; shacI purandarau= shaci devi, indra; yathA jayantena = as with, jayanta; tathA= likewise; tat samau= their, equals – royal couple to celestial pairs; sA mAgadhI ca= she, magadha princes, sudakshiNa; nR^ipaH ca= king dilIpa, also; tat sadR^ishena sutena= their [kumAra, jayanta,] similar, with son; na.ndatuH= are delighted; mAla upamA – chained simile – yat ekasaya upamAnam bahu dR^ishyate.
As with the couple shiva- pArvati gladdened to have their son kumAra; as with the pair indra- shaci devi pleased to have their son jayanta; king dilIpa who is no less than shiva, or indra; and his wife sudakshiNa who also is no less than pArvati devi or shachi devi, are also pleased likewise to have their son raghu, a boy coequal of those celestial boys, namely kumAra, or jayanta. [3-23]
As Parvati and -Sankara, on whose flag was the Sign of a and as Indra and Sachi, his wife, wore delighted to have Jayanta as their son, so the king and the Magadha-princess - no way inferior to either of them were delighted to have the little prince ( as their heir ) of equal footing both with Kumara and Jayanta. -- N
As uma and shiva were pleased with kArtikeya, or as sachi and purandara were delighted with jayanta, in the same way the king and the magadha princess equal to each of the above pairs were overjoyed at the boy who was like those viz., kArtikeya and jayanta. -- KMJ
रथाङ्कनाम्नोरिव भावबन्धनं बभूव यत्प्रेम परस्पराश्रयम्|
विभक्तमप्येकसुतेन तत्तयोः परस्परस्योपरि पर्यचीयत॥ ३-२४
rathāṅkanāmnoriva bhāvabandhanaṁ babhūva yatprema parasparāśrayam|
vibhaktamapyekasutena tattayoḥ parasparasyopari paryacīyata || 3-24
rathA~NkanAmnoriva bhAvabandhana.n babhUva yatprema parasparAshrayam |
vibhaktamapyekasutena tattayoH parasparasyopari paryacIyata || 3-24
rathA.nga nAmno iva bhAva ba.ndham babhUva yat prema paraspara Ashrayam | vibhakatam api eka sutena tat tayoH parasparasya upari paryacIyata || 3-24
3-24. ratha a.nga nAmnaH= chariot, wheel, like named - round birds, Cakravaka birds [symbolic for unearned love]; iva= as with; tayoH bhAva ba.ndham= among those two [dilIpa, sudakshiNa,] love, bind; paraspara Ashrayam= mutually, dependent; yat prema babhUva= which, love, was there; tat = that love; eka sutena vibhakatam api= by one, son, shared, even though; parasparasya upari paryacIyata= each other, on, augmented.
Like a pair of cAkravAka birds the royal couple are bind and dependant by their mutual love, and although their only son shares that love and affection it is now further augmented through that son alone. [3-24]
The affection which subsisted between them and which had fettered their hearts increased in its intensity toward each other though divided by their only son, like that of the male and female cAkravAka birds. – N
The love which was mutually entertained by the royal pair like that of the chArvAka pair and which was held fast by a peculiar feeling of the mind in each other’s heart although now shared mainly by the son. - J
These cAkravAka birds will never pair with other birds of their feather, and legendarily every night these bird couples are separated which makes their mutual love stronger every day.
उवाच धात्र्या प्रथमोदितं वचो ययौ तदीयामवलम्ब्य चाङ्गुलिम्|
अभूच्च नम्रः प्रणिपातशिक्षया पितुर्मुदं तेन ततान सोऽर्भकः॥ ३-२५
uvāca dhātryā prathamoditaṁ vaco yayau tadīyāmavalambya cāṅgulim|
abhūcca namraḥ praṇipātaśikṣayā piturmudaṁ tena tatāna so'rbhakaḥ || 3-25
uvAca dhAtryA prathamodita.n vaco yayau tadIyAmavalambya cA~Ngulim |
abhUcca namraH praNipAtashikShayA piturmuda.n tena tatAna so.arbhakaH || 3-25
uvAca dhAtryA prathama uditAni yat yayau tadIyAm avalambya ca a.ngulim | abhUta ca namraH praNipAta shikshayA pituH mudam tena tatAna saH arbhakaH || 3-25
3-25. saH arbhakaH= he, that boy; dhAtryA= by nurse; prathama uditAni uvAca= firstly, said, taught, words spoke [parroted]; tadIyAm a.ngulim avalambya yayau ca= her, finger, holding, walked [tottered,] also; praNipAta shikshayA= bending respectfully, by its training; namraH ca abhUt= to pay respects, also, he used to; iti yat= this is, what that is there; tena= by it, by such boyish acts; pituH mudam tatAna= father's, gladness, multiplied.
That boy raghu parroted out the first words taught by his nurse, he even tottered holding her proffered finger, he paid respects bending respectfully as taught by her, and hence with such training and boy's grasping powers the gladness of his father dilIpa is multiplied. [3-25]
तमङ्कमारोप्य शरीरयोगजैः सुखैर्निषिञ्चन्तमिवामृतं त्वचि|
उपान्तसंमीलितलोचनो नृपश्चिरात्सुतस्पर्शरसज्ञतां ययौ॥ ३-२६
tamaṅkamāropya śarīrayogajaiḥ sukhairniṣiñcantamivāmṛtaṁ tvaci|
upāntasaṁmīlitalocano nṛpaścirātsutasparśarasajñatāṁ yayau || 3-26
tama~NkamAropya sharIrayogajaiH sukhairniShi~ncantamivAmR^ita.n tvaci |
upAntasa.nmIlitalocano nR^ipashcirAtsutasparsharasaj~natA.n yayau || 3-26
tam a.nkam Aropya sharIra yogajaiH sukhaiH niSi.nca.ntam iva amR^itam tvaci | upA.nta samIlIta locanaH nR^ipaH cirAt suta sparsha rasaj~natAm yayau || 3-26
3-26. sharIra yogajaiH sukhaiH= by body, with contact, derived pleasure; tvaci amR^itam niSi.nca.ntam iva [sthitam]= skin, with nectar, drenching, as though [when king is]; tam= him, the boy; a.nkam Aropya= on flank, thigh, on ascending, placing; nR^ipaH= king; upA.nta= edges of eyes; samIlIta locanaH san= drooping, with eyes he is; cirAt= after a long, long time; suta sparsha rasaj~natAm yayau= son's, by touch [by nestling], pleasurable sensation, he went into.
The king felt that his body is drenching with nectar when he derived pleasure of body contact of his son, as such placing the boy on his lap that king after a long, long time went into a pleasurable sensation in which the pleasure of the touch of a son could be perceived by the nestling and cuddling him with half closed eyes. [3-26]
अमंस्त चानेन परार्ध्यजन्मना स्थितेरभेत्ता स्थितिमन्तमन्वयम्|
स्वमूर्तिभेदेन गुणाग्र्यवर्तिना पतिः प्रजानामिव सर्गमात्मनः॥ ३-२७
amaṁsta cānena parārdhyajanmanā sthiterabhettā sthitimantamanvayam|
svamūrtibhedena guṇāgryavartinā patiḥ prajānāmiva sargamātmanaḥ || 3-27
ama.nsta cAnena parArdhyajanmanA sthiterabhettA sthitimantamanvayam |
svamUrtibhedena guNAgryavartinA patiH prajAnAmiva sargamAtmanaH || 3-27
ama.msta ca Asane sa paryArtha janmanA sthiteH abhettA sthitima.ntam anvayam | sva mUrti bhedena guNAgra vartinA patiH prajAnAm iva sargam AtmanaH || 3-27
3-27. sthiteH abhettA= maryAdA pAlakaH= prudence, not a trangessor of - follower of; saH= he that king dilIpa; paryArtha janmanA= utkR^iSta janmanA= glorious, by birth; guNa agra vartinA= education, humbleness etc., attributes, unique, one with such conduct; sva mUrti bhedena= his own [Brahma's,] form, different one [namely Vishnu]; anena= by him, by raghu; anvayam= lineage; prajAnAm patiH= peoples', creator - Brahma; AtmanaH sargam iva= his own, creation, as though; sthitima.ntam ama.msta ca= stable, deemed, also.
dilIpa who had always been a prudent king now considered his lineage derived continuity by the glorious birth of raghu, just as brahma, the creator of beings, would deem that his creation is stable owing to him who in his incarnations manifests himself as a selfsame of brahma and stands unique in his conduct with his attributes like education, humbleness, and compassion, namely viShNu. [3-27]
As the lord of all creatures considers the preservation of his creation secured by the incarnation ( lit. modification ) of his own self (in the shape of Vishnu) possessed of the principal quality, so did the preserver of the hereditary traditions and customs feel the continuance of his line certain by reason of this prince of noble descent. – N
He who has never transgressed prescribed limits, namely king dilIpa, now considered his race to have derived a continuity by the exalted birth of him, his scion, namely raghu; just as the lord of created beings feels his creation to be well-preserved by Him, namely viShNu, who manifests himself in another form, say incarnation, and stands foremost by the possession of the best quality. - J
स वृत्तचूलश्चलकाकपक्षकैरमात्यपुत्रैः सवयोभिरन्वितः|
लिपेर्यथावद्ग्रहणेन वाङ्मयं नदीमुखेनेव समुद्रमाविशत्॥ ३-२८
sa vṛttacūlaścalakākapakṣakairamātyaputraiḥ savayobhiranvitaḥ|
liperyathāvadgrahaṇena vāṅmayaṁ nadīmukheneva samudramāviśat || 3-28
sa vR^ittacUlashcalakAkapakShakairamAtyaputraiH savayobhiranvitaH |
liperyathAvadgrahaNena vA~Nmaya.n nadImukheneva samudramAvishat || 3-28
sa vR^itta caulaH cala kAka pakshakaiH amAtya putraiH savayobhiH anvitaH | lipeH yathAvat grahaNena vA~Nmayam nadI mukhena iva samudram Avishat || 3-28
3-28. vR^itta caulaH= on completion, tonsure ceremony; saH= he, raghu; cala kAka pakshakaiH= swinging, crow's, wings - black curly hair on temples; sa vayobhiH amAtya putraiH= with, equal age, ministers', sons; anvitaH san= along with; lipeH yathAvat grahaNena= alphabets, properly, on learning; vA~Nmayam= shabdajAtam= realm of letters; nadI mukhena= by river's, mouth; [kaschin makara Adi= some crocodiles, or so; grahaNe= to capture knowledge]; [vA~Nmaya] samudram = [vast education] ocean of – ocean like education; iva= like; Avishat= entered.
When the chaula ceremony, tonsure-ceremony, required for any young scholar has been performed on raghu with black curly hair-locks swinging onto his temples, and when river-mouth-like cursive alphabetical writing has been learnt, he entered the vast oceanic realm of letters along with the sons of his father’s ministers who are his compeers, as a crocodile would enter the ocean through the mouth of a river. [3-28]
अथोपनीतं विधिवद्विपश्चितो विनिन्युरेनं गुरवो गुरुप्रियम्|
अवन्ध्ययत्नाश्च बभूवुरत्र ते क्रिया हि वस्तूपहिता प्रसीदति॥ ३-२९
athopanītaṁ vidhivadvipaścito vininyurenaṁ guravo gurupriyam|
avandhyayatnāśca babhūvuratra te kriyā hi vastūpahitā prasīdati || 3-29
athopanIta.n vidhivadvipashcito vininyurena.n guravo gurupriyam |
avandhyayatnAshca babhUvuratra te kriyA hi vastUpahitA prasIdati || 3-29
atha upanItam vidhivat vipashcito vinunyuH enam guravo guru priyam | avandhya yatnAH ca babhUvuH atra te kriyA hi vastu upahitA prasIdati || 3-29
3-29. atha= afterwards; vidhivat upanItam= pocedurally, whose thread-ceremony is over; guru priyam= to preceptors, one who is liked; enam= him, raghu; vipashcitaH guravaH vinunyuH = proficient, teachers, trained him; te= they, teachers; atra= in the matter of his education; a vandhya= not, unavailingly; yatnAH ca= effortful, also; babhUvuH= their effort became, resulted in; [tathA= likewise]; kriyA= effort; vastu upahitA= in receptacle, receiver, when reposed in, made; prasIdati hi= bears fruit, indeed.
Afterwards, on the completion of sacred-thread ceremony of raghu, his proficient teachers who have a liking for him have trained him which effort has not resulted in an unavailing manner, as any availing effort made in respect of proper receiver indeed bears fruit. [3-29]
धियः समग्रैः स गुणैरुदारधीः क्रमाच्चतस्रश्चतुरर्णवोपमाः|
ततार विद्याः पवनातिपातिभिर्दिशो हरिद्भिर्हरितामिवेश्वरः॥ ३-३०
dhiyaḥ samagraiḥ sa guṇairudāradhīḥ kramāccatasraścaturarṇavopamāḥ|
tatāra vidyāḥ pavanātipātibhirdiśo haridbhirharitāmiveśvaraḥ || 3-30
dhiyaH samagraiH sa guNairudAradhIH kramAccatasrashcaturarNavopamAH |
tatAra vidyAH pavanAtipAtibhirdisho haridbhirharitAmiveshvaraH || 3-30
dhiyaH samagraiH saguNaiH udAra dhIH kramAt catasra catuH arNava upamAH | tatAra vidyAH pavana AtipAtibhiH disha haridbhiH haritAm iva Ishvara
3-30. udAra dhIH= highly, intellectual; saH= he [raghuH= that raghu]; pavana AtipAtibhiH = gust, outdistancing; samagraiH= comprehensive; dhiyaH guNaiH= with intellectual, prowess; catuH arNava upamAH= four, oceans, simile to; catasra vidyAH= four, kinds of education; haritAm Ishvara= [like] directions, lord of - Sun; pavana AtipAtibhiH= wind, outdistancing; haridbhiH= with green horses; catasra disha iva= four, quarters, like; kramAt tatAra= progressively, crossed over, got through.
That highly intellectual raghu progressively got through the four kinds of oceanic educations with his comprehensive intellectual prowess that can outdistance the speed of any gust, like the Sun outdistancing the speed of wind while cruising all the four directions in his chariot drawn with green horses. [3-30]
Raghu, of sublime genius, by dint of all his intellectual faculties gradually got across the four lores resembling the four oceans, as the lord of the quarters ( the sun ) passes over the ( four ) directions by means of his bay horses, surpassing the Wind ( in speed ). -N
The four ocean-like educations to kings are 1] anvIkshakI - in that sAnkhya shAstra said by kapila, yoga said by patanjali, nyAya shAstra-s of gautama, brahma are parts; 2] trayi vidya - Rik, Yaju, SAma Veda-s, their ancillaries like Atharva Veda, shiksha, vyAkaraNa etc., purANa, itihAsa, smR^iti-s ; 3] vArtA - agriculture science as said by parAshara; animal husbandry, livestock sciences as said by shAlihotra, art and trading, business, economics as said by videha rAja; 4] daNDa nIti - sAma, dAna, bheda, daNDa - and their upAya , ideation, the arts of political science. This indicates the poet's thoroughness with kingcraft.
In this verse the parisons are between raghu - Sun; four educations - four oceans - four quarters; raghu speedy mental faculties - speedy gusts, and still speedy horses of Sun. In this verse one shrauti pUrNa upama; two dharma lupta upama-s; two vAcaka lupta upama-s are there.
त्वचं च मेध्यां परिधाय रौरवीमशिक्षतास्त्रं पितुरेव मन्त्रवत्|
न केवलं तद्गुरुरेकपार्थिवः क्षितावभूदेकधनुर्धरोऽपि सः॥ ३-३१
tvacaṁ ca medhyāṁ paridhāya rauravīmaśikṣatāstraṁ pitureva mantravat ||
na kevalaṁ tadgururekapārthivaḥ kṣitāvabhūdekadhanurdharo'pi saḥ || 3-31
tvaca.n ca medhyA.n paridhAya rauravImashikShatAstra.n pitureva mantravat |
na kevala.n tadgururekapArthivaH kShitAvabhUdekadhanurdharo.api saH || 3-31
tvacam ca medhyAm paridhAya rauravIm ashikshyata astram pituH eva ma.ntravat | na kevalam tad guruH eka pArthivaH kshitau abhUt eka dhanurdharo api saH || 3-31
3-31. medhyAm rauravIm tvacam ca= pious, black striped deer's, skin, also; paridhAya= wrapping around; ma.ntravat= sa mantrakam= with hymns; astram= Agnekam Adi astram= Fire missiles etc; pituH eva ashikshyata= father, alone, trained; tat guruH= that, father [dilIpa]; eka pArthivaH kevalam na= one, king, just, not; kshitau= on earth; saH eka dhanurdharaH api abhUt= he, one [unique,] archer, even, he is.
Further, on wrapping round the pious skin of black striped deer he learnt the usage of missiles with concerned hymns, like Fire-missile etc from his father, for his father dilIpa is not just a learned one in kingcraft but he is even a unique archer of missiles and their rocketry hymns. [3-31]
महोक्षतां वत्सतरः स्पृशन्निव द्विपेन्द्रभावं कलभः श्रयन्निव|
रघुः क्रमाद्यौवनभिन्नशैशवः पुपोष गाम्भीर्यमनोहरं वपुः॥ ३-३२
mahokṣatāṁ vatsataraḥ spṛśanniva dvipendra
bhāvaṁ kalabhaḥ śrayanniva ||
pupoṣa gāmbhīryamanoharaṁ vapuḥ || 3-32
mahokShatA.n vatsataraH spR^ishanniva dvipendra
bhAva.n kalabhaH shrayanniva |
pupoSha gAmbhIryamanohara.n vapuH || 3-32
mahokshatAm vatsa taraH spR^ishan iva dvipendra bhAvam kalabhaH shrayan iva | raghuH kramAt yauvana bhinna shaishavaH pupoSa gA.mbhIrya manoharam vapuH || 3-32
3-32. raghuH kramAt= raghu, steadily; yauvana bhinna shaishavaH san= by youthfulness, bested, adolescence; mahAn ukshatAm= mahA vR^iSabha= [an impetuous] bull's build; spR^ishan = on touching, on attaining; vatsa taraH iva= vasta tara udyama iva= calf, major, like - like an impulsive major elephant, young elephant; dvipa indra bhAvam shrayan= elephant, best, air of, sheltering, donning; kalabhaH iva= young elephant, like; gA.mbhIrya manoharam vapuH pupoSa= majestic, pleasing, physique, nurtured into.
As a calf attains the build of an impetuous bull, or a calf of elephant donning the build of an impulsive young elephant, raghu steadily attained a majestic and pleasing build when his adolescence is bested by his youthfulness. [3-32]
अथास्य गोदानविधेरनन्तरं विवाहदीक्षां निरवर्तयद्गुरुः|
नरेन्द्रकन्यास्तमवाप्य सत्पतिं तमोनुदं दक्षसुता इवाबभुः॥ ३-३३
athāsya godānavidheranantaraṁ vivāhadīkṣāṁ niravartayadguruḥ|
narendrakanyāstamavāpya satpatiṁ tamonudaṁ dakṣasutā ivābabhuḥ || 3-33
athAsya godAnavidheranantara.n vivAhadIkShA.n niravartayadguruH |
narendrakanyAstamavApya satpati.n tamonuda.n dakShasutA ivAbabhuH || 3-33
atha asya go dAna vidheH ana.ntaram vivAha dIkshAm niravartayat guruH | narendra kanyAH tam avApya sat patim tamoinudam daksha sutA iva AbabhuH || 3-33
3.33. atha =then; guruH asya= father, his, raghu's; go dAna vidheH ana.ntaram= hair, donation, procedure, after - the ceremony of cutting the hair for the first time after the period of celibacy. Mr. Pandit has his remark on this; he says the word 'go' may be taken in its usual sense 'a cow'; and the ceremony may perhaps be 'the giving of cows to Brahmans; but we would rather go with mallinatha [KMJ]; vivAha dIkshAm= one who gets married, undertakes in the presence of the preceptor, the elders and the sacred fire to conduct himself in life according to certain rules - pledged marriage; niravartayat= performed, caused him to take such a marital vow; atha= afterwards – by which; narendra kanyAH = kings' daughters - princesses; tamaH nudam= darkness, one who removes - moon like; tam= him, raghu; daksha sutAH= daksha prajApati's, daughters - say, rohiNi et al stars; tamonudam iva= moon, like; sat patim= good, husband; avApya AbabhuH = on getting, shone forth.
Then raghu's father caused him to take up the marital vow after the function of trimming the head hair past the period of celibacy is over, by which some princesses obtaining him who is an expeller of gloom as their good husband shone forth like the daughters of daksha-prajApati, namely rohiNi et al twenty-seven stars on marrying the dispeller of darkness, namely the moon.
Then after the ceremony of cropping the hair (godAna), his royal father celebrated his marriage ceremony; and the pretty princesses obtaining him for their virtuous husband, looked as though they were the daughters of daksha married to the moon (lit. the remover of darkness). –N
युवा युगव्यायतबाहुरंसलः कवाटवक्षाः परिणद्धकंधरः|
वपुःप्रकर्षादजयद्गुरुं रघुस्तथापि नीचैर्विनयाददृश्यत॥ ३-३४
yuvā yugavyāyatabāhuraṁsalaḥ kavāṭavakṣāḥ pariṇaddhakaṁdharaḥ|
vapuḥprakarṣādajayadguruṁ raghustathāpi nīcairvinayādadṛśyata || 3-34
yuvA yugavyAyatabAhura.nsalaH kavATavakShAH pariNaddhaka.ndharaH |
vapuHprakarShAdajayadguru.n raghustathApi nIcairvinayAdadR^ishyata || 3-34
yuvA yuga vyAyata bAhuH a.msalaH kavATa vakshAH pariNaddha ka.ndharaH | vapuH prakarSAt ajayat gurum raghuH tathA api nIcaiH vinayAt adR^ishyata || 3-34
3.34. yuvA= youthful; yuga= crossbar or yoke like arms; vyAyata bAhuH= long, arms; a.msalaH= with muscular shoulder joints; kavATa vakshAH = with door-shutter like, chest; pariNaddha ka.ndharaH= with thickset, neck; raghuH= raghu; vapuH prakarSAt= by bodily, fineness; gurum ajayat= his father, he excelled; tathA api= that way, even - albeit; vinayAt nIcaiH adR^ishyata= by his humbleness, as a humble one, he looked like - presented himself.
Long are his arms like cart-yoke, muscular are his shoulder-joints, broad is his chest like door-shutter, neck thickset - with such a bodily fineness that youthfulraghu excelled his father, albeit he presented himself humble with all his natural modesty. [3-34]
ततः प्रजानां चिरमात्मना धृतां नितान्तगुर्वीं लघयिष्यता धुरम्|
निसर्गसंस्कारविनीत इत्यसौ नृपेण चक्रे युवराजशब्दभाक्॥ ३-३५
tataḥ prajānāṁ ciramātmanā dhṛtāṁ nitāntagurvīṁ laghayiṣyatā dhuram ||
nisargasaṁskāravinīta ityasau nṛpeṇa cakre yuvarājaśabdabhāk || 3-35
tataH prajAnAm ciram AtmanA dhR^itAm nitAnta gurvIm laghayiSyatA dhuram | nisarga sa.mskAra vinItaH iti asau nR^ipeNa cakre yuvarAja shabda bhAk || 3-35
3-35. tataH= then; AtmanA ciram dhR^itAm= by him, for long time, borne; nitAnta gurvIm = heavy, burden; prajAnAm dhuram= people's, burden - burden of kingship; laghayiSyatA = wishing to lessen; nR^ipeNa= by king dilIpa; asau= he is, raghu is; nisarga sa.mskAra vinItaH= by his comportment, by edification, modest one; iti= thus by that reason; yuva rAja= Prince, Regent; shabda= word, title; bhAk= one who attained that title; cakre= made him so.
Then the king dilIpa who is desirous to lessen the long sustained and extremely heavy burden of kingship, made raghu as Prince Regent as he is worthy to have that title, for he is a modest one by his comportment and edification. [3-35]
The ancient custom of installing a young prince on the throne along with the monarch during the life time of the latter had a great significance apart from the religious notion that the throne was not to be allowed to remain vacant. It had a political importance and it trained the young prince to actual administration; it also served to keep him well engaged. The young prince was styled the Yuvaraja. The custom has gradually disappeared and is not at all countenanced at the present day in India [i.e., by 1916 - KMJ].
नरेन्द्रमूलायतनादनन्तरं तदास्पदं श्रीर्युवराजसंज्ञितम्|
अगच्छदंशेन गुणाभिलाषिणी नवावतारं कमलादिवोत्पलम्॥ ३-३६
narendramūlāyatanādanantaraṁ tadāspadaṁ śrīryuvarājasaṁjñitam|
agacchadaṁśena guṇābhilāṣiṇī navāvatāraṁ kamalādivotpalam || 3-36
narendramUlAyatanAdanantara.n tadAspada.n shrIryuvarAjasa.nj~nitam |
agacChada.nshena guNAbhilAShiNI navAvatAra.n kamalAdivotpalam || 3-36
narendra mUla AyatanAt ana.ntaram tat Aspadam shrIH yuvarAja saj~nitam | agacChat a.mshena guNa abhilASiNI nava navatAram kamalAt iva utpalam || 3-36
3-36. guNa = vinayAdi, saurabhAdi= qualities of humbleness, freshness etc; abhilASiNI shrIH= one who desires them [wonts them,] Lady Fortune of Kingdom; nara indra= people's, lord - king's; mUla AyatanAt= from basic, seat -from the hub of activity; ana.ntaram= sannihitam= proximate; yuvarAja saj~nitam= crown prince, designated as; tat= that raghu's; Aspadam= sthAnam= seat; kamalAt= from [full blown] lotus; nava avatAram utpalam iva= to new, incarnate [born,] lotus, like; a.mshena agacChat= by vestige, became manifest, drifted; striyoH yUni ra~njanta iti bhAvaH= women take delight in youth – is the idea.
As is her wont to delight in the freshers with qualities like youthful freshness and humbleness etc the Lady Fortune of Kingdom, rAjya lakshmi, vestigially drifted from her mainstay, the basic seat of the king dilIpa, to the proximately situated seat of raghu that is designated as the seat of the crown prince, as with the bloom of lotus that vestigially manifests itself on the new born lotus available nearby. [3-36]
विभावसुः सारथिनेव वायुना घनव्यपायेन गभस्थिमानिव|
बभूव तेनातितरां सुदुःसहः कटप्रभेदेन करीव पार्थिवः॥ ३-३७
vibhāvasuḥ sārathineva vāyunā ghanavyapāyena gabhasthimāniva|
babhūva tenātitarāṁ suduḥsahaḥ kaṭaprabhedena karīva pārthivaḥ || 3-37
vibhAvasuH sArathineva vAyunA ghanavyapAyena gabhasthimAniva |
babhUva tenAtitarA.n suduHsahaH kaTaprabhedena karIva pArthivaH || 3-37
vibhAvasuH sArathinA iva vAyunA ghana vyapAyena gabhasthimAn iva | babhUva tena atitarAm sudussahaH kaTa prabhedena karI iva pArthivaH || 3-37
3-37. sArathinA= sahAyabhUtena= with charioteer [lexically, but here this word is used as a companion in sahAyabhUta artha]; vAyunA= by wind; vibhAvasuH iva= fire, like - vibhA, [prabhA] vasu [dhanam] yasya saH; ghana vyapAyena [sArathinA]= clouds, on going away, clearing - after rainy season [with post rainy season - sharat as friend]; gabhasthimAn iva= sun, like kaTa= temples; prabhedena= sphoTanam= by opening those temples; karI iva= [kingly] elephant, like; pArthivaH= dilIpaH= dilIpa the king; tena= raghuNA= by raghu, raghu's help; atitarAm= exceedingly - tara tama are the terminations of comparative and superlative degrees; su duH sahaH= atyanta a sahyo babhUavaH= intolerable to other kings, invulnerable; babhUva= he became.
King dilIpa became invulnerable with the help of crown prince raghu as with the fire when associated with his companion wind, as with the sun when associated with his companion post-rainy season’s cloudless sky, thus that king became practically unassailable like a kingly elephant with its associated feature of opening of its temples exuding rut, which at such times becomes practically unassailable. [3-37]
नियुज्य तं होमतुरंगरक्षणे धनुर्धरं राजसुतैरनुद्रुतम्|
अपूर्णमेकेन शतक्रतूपमः शतं क्रतूनामपविघ्नमाप सः॥ ३-३८
niyujya taṁ homaturaṁgarakṣaṇe dhanurdharaṁ rājasutairanudrutam|
apūrṇamekena śatakratūpamaḥ śataṁ kratūnāmapavighnamāpa saḥ || 3-38
niyujya ta.n homatura.ngarakShaNe dhanurdhara.n rAjasutairanudrutam |
apUrNamekena shatakratUpamaH shata.n kratUnAmapavighnamApa saH || 3-38
niyujya tam homa tura.nga rakshaNe dhanur dharam rAja sutaiH anudrutam | apUrNam ekena shata kratu upamaH shatam kratUnAm apavighnam ApaH saH || 3-38
3-38. shata kratu upamaH= one with hundred, rituals - Indra, in simile; saH= he that king dilIpa; rAja sutaiH= with kings, sons - other princes; anu drutam= anu gatam= following raghu; dhanur dharam= bow, wielder - formidable archer; tam= him, that raghu, the prince; homa tura.nga rakshaNe= ritual, horse, in safeguarding; niyujya= entrusted; ekena= with one [ritual]; a pUrNam= in, completed; kratUnAm shatam= rituals, hundred; apa vighnam [yathA tathA]= without, hindrances [as they would be]; ApaH= attained, completed rituals.
King dilIpa maintaining parity with indra because he has unimpededly completed hundred Vedic-rituals but one, and intending to conduct hundredth ritual he has now entrusted the safeguarding ritual horse of hundredth ritual to the formidable archer prince raghu, followed by other princes.
The ritual horse is to be released one year prior to ritual proper, duly safeguarded by warriors. Opposing kings shall not catch it. For details on this please refer to verse 1-14-1 of Valmiki Ramayana in Bala Kanda. "Indra is supposed to be the only one who has performed a hundred sacrifices no one else being able to carry them through. Indra is very jealous on this point since he who performs hundred sacrifices will get into his place - the throne of Indra." [KMJ]
ततः परं तेन मखाय यज्वना तुरंगमुत्सृष्टमनर्गलं पुनः|
धनुर्भृतामग्रत एव रक्षिणां जहार शक्रः किल गूढविग्रहः॥ ३-३९
tataḥ paraṁ tena makhāya yajvanā turaṁgamutsṛṣṭamanargalaṁ punaḥ|
dhanurbhṛtāmagrata eva rakṣiṇāṁ jahāra śakraḥ kila gūḍhavigrahaḥ || 3-39
tataH para.n tena makhAya yajvanA tura.ngamutsR^iShTamanargala.n punaH |
dhanurbhR^itAmagrata eva rakShiNA.n jahAra shakraH kila gUDhavigrahaH || 3-39
tataH param tena makhAya yajvinA tura.ngam utsR^iSTam anargalam punaH | dhanur bhR^ItAm agrata eva rakshiNAm jahAra shakraH kila gUDha vigrahaH || 3-39
3-39. tataH param= there after - after achieving 99th ritual; yajvinA tena= who performed ritual, by him, by dilIpa; punaH= again; makhAya utsR^iSTam= for the sake of ritual, released; anargalam= na asti argalA yasya tam= apratibandham, svaira gatam= freely let off; tura.ngam= horse; dhanuH bhR^ItAm agrata eva= bow, wielding, guards, before, only; shakraH= Indra; gUDha vigrahaH = tirohita dehAH= with unperceived, physique - invisibly; rakshiNAm= rakshatAm= that which being safeguarded, ritual horse; jahAra= stole; kila= kila iti aitihye= kila - is a legendary saying meaning= so they say.
After achieving ninety-nine rituals king dilIpa once more released horse for performing hundredth ritual, and when that horse is let off freely indra stole it warily and invisibly before the eyes of bowmen guards, so they say. [3-39]
विषादलुप्तप्रतिपत्ति विस्मितं कुमारसैन्यं सपदि स्थितं च तत्|
वसिष्ठधेनुश्च यदृच्छयागता श्रुतप्रभावा ददृशेऽथ नन्दिनी॥ ३-४०
viṣādaluptapratipatti vismitaṁ kumārasainyaṁ sapadi sthitaṁ ca tat|
vasiṣṭhadhenuśca yadṛicchayāgatā śrutaprabhāvā dadṛśe'tha nandinī || 3-40
viShAdaluptapratipatti vismita.n kumArasainya.n sapadi sthita.n ca tat |
vasiShThadhenushca yadR^IcChayAgatA shrutaprabhAvA dadR^ishe.atha nandinI || 3-40
viSAda lupta pratipatti vismitam kumAra sainyam sapadi sthitam ca tat | vashiSTa dhenuH ca yadR^IcChayA AgatA shruta prabhAvA dadR^ishe atha nandinI || 3-40
3-40. tat kumAra sainyam= that, young man [Raghu's,] army; sapadi= immediately; viSAda= by set-back; lupta= lost; pratipatti= kartavya j~nAnam= sense of activity; vismitam sat= taken aback; sthitam ca= is stock-still, also; atha= then; shruta prabhAvA= [much] heard, of influence-renowned; yadR^IcChayA= by chance; AgatA= arrived; vashiSTa dhenuH nandinI= vashiShTha's, cow, nandini; dadR^ishe ca= appeared, also; dvau ca kArA avilambi sUcakA - in a trice - the repletion of word ca is indicative of almost simultaneous action of coming and appearing.
Then the army of that young man raghu immediately lost the sense of activity by this set-back and when all are thus taken aback and stock-still there the cow of vashiShTa, namely nandini, whose potential is well-known, appeared in a trice. [3-40]
तदङ्गनिष्यन्दनजलेन लोचने प्रमृज्य पुण्येन पुरस्कृतः सताम्|
अतीन्द्रियेष्वप्युपपन्नदर्शनो बभूव भावेषु दिलीपनन्दनः॥ ३-४१
tadaṅganiṣyandanajalena locane pramṛjya puṇyena puraskṛtaḥ satām|
atīndriyeṣvapyupapannadarśano babhūva bhāveṣu dilīpanandanaḥ || 3-41
tada~NganiSyandanajalena locane pramR^ijya puNyena puraskR^itaH satAm |
atIndriyeShvapyupapannadarshano babhUva bhAveShu dilIpanandanaH || 3-41
tat a.nka niSya.ndana jalena locane pramR^ijya puNyena puraskR^itaH satAm | atIndriyeSu api upapanna darshino babhUva bhAveSu dilIpa na.ndanaH || 3-41
3-41. satAm= by high-minded people; puraskR^itaH= pUjitaH= esteemed; dilIpa na.ndanaH = dilIpa's, son - raghu; puNyena= sacred; tat= of her, the cow; a.nga niSya.ndana jalena= from body, flowed, water - with cow's urine; locane pramR^ijya= eyes, on dabbing [with admiration to cow]; ati indriyeSu api bhAveSu= beyond corporeal, even, senses; upapanna darshinaH= sampannaH sAkshAtkAra shaktiH= he is endued with, perception [in revelational knowledge]; babhUva= he became.
raghu, the son of dilIpa, whom the high-minded people admire, admiringly dabbed his eyes with the sacred water flowed from the body of the cow, and thereby he is endued with perception of objects that are even beyond corporeal senses. [3-41]
By this supramundane perception accorded by all-according cow, kAma dhenu he can see the disappeared horse or invisible Indra. KMJ says, "Prof. Ray's remark on the apparent abrupt introduction of the sacred cow on the scene is interesting. He purports to say that the celestial cow is introduced to overreach the endeavours of the divine Indra to remain concealed."
स पूर्वतः पर्वतपक्षशातनं ददर्श देवं नरदेवसंभवः|
पुनः पुनः सूतनिषिद्धचापलं हरन्तमश्वं रथरश्मिसंयुतम्॥ ३-४२
sa pūrvataḥ parvatapakṣaśātanaṁ
dadarśa devaṁ naradevasaṁbhavaḥ|
punaḥ punaḥ sūtaniṣiddhacāpalaṁ
harantamaśvaṁ ratharaśmisaṁyutam || 3-42
sa pUrvataH parvatapakShashAtana.n dadarsha deva.n naradevasa.nbhavaH |
punaH punaH sUtaniShiddhacApala.n harantamashva.n ratharashmisa.nyutam || 3-42
saH pUrvataH parvata paksha shAtanam dadarsha devam nara deva sa.mbhavaH | punaH punaH sUta niSiddha cApalam hara.ntam ashvam ratha rashmi sa.myutam || 3-42
3-42. nara deva sa.mbhavaH= people's, lord's, son - king dilIpa's son; saH= he that raghu; punaH punaH= again, again repeatedly; sUta= by charioteer; niSiddha= repressed; cApalam= restiveness, of a horse, refusing to advance etc; ratha rashmi sa.myutam= with chariot's, bridals - rope, tied; ashvam= horse; hara.ntam= stealing; parvata paksha shAtanam= mountain s', wings, clipper of; devam= at god, Indra; pUrvataH dadarsha= in eastern direction, seen.
Prince raghu has then seen in the eastern direction the god who is the clipper of the wings of mountains, namely Indra, appropriating the horse towing it by tying to the backend of his chariot with a rope while indra's charioteer is continuously repressing the restiveness of that horse. [3-42]
शतैस्तमक्ष्णामनिमेषवृत्तिभिर्हरिं विदित्वा हरिभिश्च वाजिभिः|
अवोचदेनं गगनस्पृशा रघुः स्वरेण धीरेण निवर्तयन्निव॥ ३-४३
śataistamakṣṇāmanimeṣavṛttibhirhariṁ viditvā haribhiśca vājibhiḥ|
avocadenaṁ gaganaspṛśā raghuḥ svareṇa dhīreṇa nivartayanniva || 3-43
shataistamakShNAmanimeShavR^ittibhirhari.n viditvA haribhishca vAjibhiH |
avocadena.n gaganaspR^ishA raghuH svareNa dhIreNa nivartayanniva || 3-43
shataiH tam akshNAm animeSa vR^ittibhiH harim viditvA haribhiH ca vAjibhiH | avocat enam gagana spR^ishA raghuH svareNa dhIreNa nivartayan iva || 3-43
3-43. raghuH= raghu; tam= ashva hartAram= him, the stealer of horse; a + nimeSa vR^ittibhiH = without, winking, property; akshNAm shataiH= with eyes, hundred - one with so many eyes, Indra; haribhiH vAjibhiH ca= with greenish, horses, also; harim= as Indra; viditvA= on knowing; gagana spR^ishA= sky, touching - skyrocketing; dhIreNa svareNa= with thunderous, voice; nivartayan iva= to turn him back - to recall him, as if; enam avocat= to him, said.
On knowing that stealer of horse as indra, by that god’s feature of hundreds of eyes that have no winking property on their lids, and even by his greenish horses, raghu said to him in a skyrocketing and thunderous voice, as if recalling him. [3-43]
मखांशभाजां प्रथमो मनीषिभिस्त्वमेव देवेन्द्र सदा निगद्यसे|
अजस्रदीक्षाप्रयतस्य मद्गुरोः क्रियाविघाताय कथं प्रवर्तसे॥ ३-४४
makhāṁśabhājāṁ prathamo manīṣibhistvameva devendra sadā nigadyase|
ajasradīkṣāprayatasya madguroḥ kriyāvighātāya kathaṁ pravartase || 3-44
makhA.nshabhAjA.n prathamo manIShibhistvameva devendra sadA nigadyase |
ajasradIkShAprayatasya madguroH kriyAvighAtAya katha.n pravartase || 3-44
makha a.msha bhAjAm prathamo manISibhiH tvam eva devendra sadA nigadyase | ajasra dIkshA prayatasya mat guroH kriyA vighAtAya katham pravartase || 3-44
3-44. hè devendra= oh, Devendra - lord of gods; manISibhiH= wise men; tvam eva= you, alone; makha= rituals; a.msha= part of oblation; bhAjAm = bhujAm= devAnAm= partakers; prathamaH = [you are the] chief one; sadA nigadyase= always, said to be; tathA api= even then; ajasra dIkshA= nitya dIkshAyAm= in continuous observation of rituals; prayatasya= one who is endeavouring; mat guroH= my, father's; kriyA vighAtAya= Vedic ritual, in detriment; katham pravartase= how, you endeavour.
"Oh, devendra, wise men always say that you are the chief partaker in the oblations of Vedic rituals, even then how you endeavour to the detriment to the Vedic ritual of my father who endeavours for the continuous observation of those rituals… [3-44]
त्रिलोकनाथेन सदा मखद्विषस्त्वया नियम्या ननु दिव्यचक्षुषा|
स चेत्स्वयं कर्मसु धर्मचारिणां त्वमन्तरायो भवसि च्युतो विधिः॥ ३-४५
trilokanāthena sadā makhadviṣastvayā
niyamyā nanu divyacakṣuṣā|
sa cetsvayaṁ karmasu dharmacāriṇāṁ
tvamantarāyo bhavasi cyuto vidhiḥ || 3-45
trilokanAthena sadA makhadviShastvayA niyamyA nanu divyacakShuShA |
sa cetsvaya.n karmasu dharmacAriNA.n tvamantarAyo bhavasi cyuto vidhiH || 3-45
tri loka nAthena sadA makha dviSaH tvayA niyamyA nanu divya cakshuSA | sa cet svayam karmasu dharma cAriNAm tvam a.ntarAyo bhavasi cyuto vidhiH || 3-45
3-45. tri loka nAthena= by three, worlds, lord of - while you, Indra are; divya cakshuSA= with divine, eyes, with divine sight; tvayA= by you; makha dviSaH= Vedic ritual, haters - adversaries; sadA niyamyA nanu= always, to be curbed, assuredly; saH= such as you are; tvam= you [alone]; dharma cAriNAm karmasu= righteous, people's, in works; svayam= personally; a.ntarAyaH bhavasi cet = impediment, you become, if; vidhiH= anuSThAnam= religious routine; cyutaH [bhavet]= fallen - irredeemable, [it will be.]
"Assuredly, you always have to curb the adversaries of Vedic rituals by observing with divine sight, but if you yourself become an impediment in the religious routine of righteous people, that institution becomes irredeemable… [3-45]
तदङ्गमग्र्यम् मघवन्महाक्रतोरमुं तुरंगं प्रतिमोक्तुमर्हसि|
पथः श्रुतेर्दर्शयितार ईश्वरा मलीमसामददते न पद्धतिम्॥ ३-४६
tadaṅgamagryam maghavanmahākratoramuṁ turaṁgaṁ pratimoktumarhasi|
pathaḥ śruterdarśayitāra īśvarā malīmasāmadadate na paddhatim || 3-46
tada~Ngamagryam maghavanmahAkratoramu.n tura.nga.n pratimoktumarhasi |
pathaH shruterdarshayitAra IshvarA malImasAmadadate na paddhatim || 3-46
tat a.ngam agryam maghavan mahAkratoH amum tura.ngam pratimoktum arhasi | pathaH suceH darshayitAraH IshvarAH malImasAm dadate na paddhatim || 3-46
3-46. hè maghavan= oh, Indra; tat= therefore; mahA kratoH a.ngam= ashvamedhasya = for a unique ritual, requisite; agryam= primary; amum tura.ngam= this, horse; pratimoktum arhasi= to release, apt of you; [tathA hi= like that]; suceH pathaH darshayitAraH= clean, paths, those that show themselves observant of clean paths - followers of proper behaviour; IshvarAH= mahAntaH= ennobled ones; malImasAm= offensive - improper; paddhatim= ways – methods, behaviour; na dadate= not, will give - will not betoken improper behaviour to others.
"Oh, Indra, therefore it will be apt of you to release this horse, the primary requisite of unique Horse ritual of my father… by the way, the ennobled ones observing proper behaviour by themselves will not betoken improper behaviour to others…” So said raghu to Indra. [3-46]
इति प्रगल्भं रघुणा समीरितं वचो निशम्याधिपतिर्दिवौकसाम्|
निवर्तयामास रथं सविस्मयः प्रचक्रमे च प्रतिवक्तुमुत्तरम्॥ ३-४७
iti pragalbhaṁ raghuṇā samīritaṁ vaco niśamyādhipatirdivaukasām|
nivartayāmāsa rathaṁ savismayaḥ pracakrame ca prativaktumuttaram || 3-47
iti pragalbha.n raghuNA samIrita.n vaco nishamyAdhipatirdivaukasAm |
nivartayAmAsa ratha.n savismayaH pracakrame ca prativaktumuttaram || 3-47
iti pragalbham raghuNA samIritam vaco nishamya adhipatiH divaukasAm | nivartayAmAsa ratham sa vismayaH pracakrame ca prativaktum uttaram || 3-47
3-47. iti raghuNA= thus, by raghu; samIritam= clearly said- forthrightly; pragalbham vacaH nishamya= candid, word, on hearing; divaukasAm adhipatiH= for celestials, lord - Indra; sa vismayaH san = with, [some] amazement, he is; ratham nivartayAmAsa= chariot, started to turn around; uttaram= reply; prati vaktum= to him, to say - tried to reply him; pracakrame ca= started, also.
On hearing the candid words forthrightly said by raghu, the lord of heaven-dwellers, namely Indra, is somewhat amazed and started to turn around his chariot, and even started to reply him. [3-47]
यदात्थ राजन्यकुमार तत्तथा यशस्तु रक्ष्यं परतो यशोधनैः|
जगत्प्रकाशं तदशेषमिज्यया भवद्गुरुर्लङ्घयितुं ममोद्यतः॥ ३-४८
yadāttha rājanyakumāra tattathā yaśastu rakṣyaṁ parato yaśodhanaiḥ|
jagatprakāśaṁ tadaśeṣamijyayā bhavadgururlaṅghayituṁ mamodyataḥ || 3-48
yadAttha rAjanyakumAra tattathA yashastu rakShya.n parato yashodhanaiH |
jagatprakAsha.n tadasheShamijyayA bhavadgururla~Nghayitu.n mamodyataH || 3-48
yat Attha rAjanya kumAra tat tathA yashaH tu rakshyam parato yasho dhanaiH | jagat prakAsham tat asheSam ijyayA bhavat guru la.nghayitum mama udyataH || 3-48
3-48. hè rAjanya kumAra= oh, king's, son - prince; yat Attha= what, you said; tat tathA= that, that will be - it is correct; [kim tu= more so]; yashaH dhanaiH= fame, wealthy - that have fame as their wealth; parataH= from others - from contenders; yashaH rakshyam tu = that renown, is taken care of [isn't it]; tu= but; bhavat guru= your, father; jagat prakAsham= in worlds, well-known; a sheSam= not, limiting - entirely; mama= mine; tat= that - that fame-wealth of mine; ijyayA la.nghayitum udyataH= by [this] ritual, override, he is attempting by this 99th ritual.]
"What you have said is correct, oh, prince, more so, those that have renown as their only wealth, they have to take care of that wealth-like renown from their contenders, isn't it... but, your father is attempting to override the world-renowned fame of mine in its entirety, with this ritual. [3-48]
हरिर्यथैकः पुरुषोत्तमः स्मृतो महेश्वरस्त्र्यम्बक एव नापरः|
तथा विदुर्मां मुनयः शतक्रतुं द्वितीयगामी न हि शब्द एष नः॥ ३-४९
hariryathaikaḥ puruṣottamaḥ smṛto maheśvarastryambaka eva nāparaḥ|
tathā vidurmāṁ munayaḥ śatakratuṁ dvitīyagāmī na hi śabda eṣa naḥ || 3-49
hariryathaikaH puruShottamaH smR^ito maheshvarastryambaka eva nAparaH |
tathA vidurmA.n munayaH shatakratu.n dvitIyagAmI na hi shabda eSha naH || 3-49
hariH yathA eka puruSottamaH smR^ito maheshvaraH tryambaka eva na aparaH | tathA viduH mAm munayaH shatakratum dvitIya gAmI na hi shabdaH eSa naH || 3-49
3-49. yathA hariH eka eva= as, Vishnu, one, only; puruSottamaH smR^itaH= Supreme Person, is recalled as; [yathA= as]; tryambaka [eva]= Shiva, [alone]; maheshvaraH= Sublime Ruler; [smR^itaH= recalled as] na aparaH [tathA] na smR^itaH= none, another, [like that,] not, celebrated; tathA= likewise; munayaH mAm shatakratum viduH= sages, me, as one with hundred rituals, they know me; naH eSa shabdaH= not, this, nomenlature; dvitIya gAmI= to second - another person, they go - it is not applicable to others; na hi= not, in any way.
"As the title Supreme Person finds acceptance only with viShNu; the title Supreme Ruler only with shiva; thus the sages find acceptance of title of shata-kratu - One with Thousand-Vedic-Rituals - only with me… whereof this nomenclature of mine is inapplicable to others, not in any way. [3-49]
Indra is also called as sha-kra which is the earliest abbreviated initials of shata-kratu; sha [shata] + kra [kratu].
अतोऽयमश्वः कपिलानुकारिणा पितुस्त्वदीयस्य मयापहारितः|
अलं प्रयत्नेन तवात्र मा निधाः पदं पदव्यां सगरस्य संततेः॥ ३-५०
alaṁ prayatnena tavātra mā nidhāḥ
padaṁ padavyāṁ sagarasya saṁtateḥ || 3-50
ato.ayamashvaH kapilAnukAriNA pitustvadIyasya mayApahAritaH |
ala.n prayatnena tavAtra mA nidhAH pada.n padavyA.n sagarasya sa.ntateH || 3-50
ataH ayam ashvaH kapila anusAriNA pituH tvadIyasya mayA apahAritaH | alam prayatnena tava atra mA nidhAH padam padavyAm sagarasya sa.ntateH || 3-50
3-50. ataH= therefore; tvadIyasya pituH= your, father's; ayam ashvaH= this, horse; kapila anusAriNA= sage Kapila, one who is following - in the example; mayA= by me; apahAritaH= is stolen; atra tava prayatnena alam= in that [matter,] your, attempt, is enough; sagarasya sa.ntateH padavyAm = king Sagara's, sons', path - in the style of; padam mA nidhAH= step, you do not, place - set foot.
"Therefore I had to appropriate this horse of your father in the example of sage kapila, whereby you need not set your foot in the matter of this hose like the sons of emperor sagara, wherefore enough is your attempt in this matter of horse." So said indra to raghu. [3-50]
Valmiki Ramayana, Bala Kanda, Ch 38 to 40 may be referred for full episode of Sage kapila and sons of king sagara.
ततः प्रहास्यापभयः पुरन्दरं पुनर्बभाषे तुरगस्य रक्षिता|
गृहाण शस्त्रं यदि सर्ग एष ते न खल्वनिर्जित्य रघुं कृती भवान्॥ ३-५१
tataḥ prahāsyāpabhayaḥ purandaraṁ punarbabhāṣe turagasya rakṣitā|
gṛhāṇa śastraṁ yadi sarga eṣa te na khalvanirjitya raghuṁ kṛtī bhavān || 3-51
tataH prahAsyApabhayaH purandara.n punarbabhAShe turagasya rakShitA |
gR^ihANa shastra.n yadi sarga eSha te na khalvanirjitya raghu.n kR^itI bhavAn || 3-51
tataH prahasyA apabhayaH purandaram punar babhASe turagasya rakshitA | gR^ihANa shastram yadi sarga eSa te na khalu anirjittya raghum kR^itI bhavAn || 3-51
3-51. tataH= then; turagasya rakshitA= horse's, champion - raghu; prahasyA= laughed off; apa bhayaH san= removed, fear - fearless, he is; punaH purandaram babhASe= again, to Indra, spoke; eSa te sargaH yadi= this is, your, resolve, if; shastram gR^ihANa= weapon, you take up; bhavAn raghum= you, raghu; a+ nir jittya= without, completely, conquering; kR^itI= accomplished [in your resolve]; na khalu= not, definitely.
Then that champion of ritual horse raghu laughed off and dauntlessly spoke to indra again, “If that be thy resolve, then take up thy arms, thou must not consider thyself successful until thou hast really conquered raghu…” [3-51]
स एवमुक्त्वा मघवन्तमुन्मुखः करिष्यमाणः सशरं शरासनम्|
अतिष्ठदालीढविशेषशोभिना वपुःप्रकर्षेण विडम्बितेश्वरः॥ ३-५२
sa evamuktvā maghavantamunmukhaḥ kariṣyamāṇaḥ saśaraṁ śarāsanam|
atiṣṭhadālīḍhaviśeṣaśobhinā vapuḥprakarṣeṇa viḍambiteśvaraḥ || 3-52
sa evamuktvA maghavantamunmukhaH kariShyamANaH sashara.n sharAsanam |
atiShThadAlIDhavisheShashobhinA vapuHprakarSheNa viDambiteshvaraH || 3-52
saH evam uktA maghavantam unmukhaH kariSyamANaH sa sharam shara Asanam | atiSTat AlIDha visheSa shobhinA vapuH prakarSeNa viDa.mbita IshavaH || 3-52
3-52. saH= he, raghu; unmukhaH san= raising his face, he is; maghavantam evam uktA= to Indra, that way, on speaking; shara Asanam= arrow's, seat - bow; sa sharam kariSya - mANaH = with, bow, while making - fixing bow on string; AlIDha = by bowman's posture named AlIDha; visheSa= by that particularity; shobhinA= shining forth; vapuH prakarSeNa= by body's, height; viDa.mbita IshavaH= anukR^ita pinAkI= replicating, Shiva with bow called Pinaki; atiSTat= he is there.
On speaking to indra in this way, raghu with his face upraised, readying arrow on bow, maintaining body posture of an archer in placing right leg forward in a slightly curved position and left leg remaining stretched behind, shone forth by the height of his body as a replica of shiva, the wielder of bow called pinAki. [3-52]
The word AlIDha used here is indifferent sense to the one used in Ch 2, 37 verse when said astraiH alliDham by missiles, touched, hurt.
रघोरवष्टम्भमयेन पत्रिणा हृदि क्षतो गोत्रभिदप्यमर्षणः|
नवाम्बुदानीकमुहूर्तलाञ्छने धनुष्यमोघं समधत्त सायकम्॥ ३-५३
raghoravaṣṭambhamayena patriṇā hṛdi
moghaṁ samadhatta sāyakam || 3-53
raghoravaShTambhamayena patriNA hR^idi kShato gotrabhidapyamarShaNaH |
navAmbudAnIkamuhUrtalA~nChane dhanuShyamogha.n samadhatta sAyakam || 3-53
raghoH avaSTa.mbhamayena patriNA hR^idi kshato gotrabhid api amarSaNaH | nava a.mbuda anIka muhUrta lA.nChane dhanuSi amogham samadhatta sAyakm || 3-53
3-53. raghoH= raghu's; avaSTa.mbhamayena= sthambhana rUpeNa= paralysing, defiant reply [i.e., you vanquish me to become accomplished etc]; patriNA hR^idi kshataH= by arrow, at heart, struck; gotrabhid api= Indra, even; amarSaNaH= embittered, enraged; nava a.mbuda anIka = in new, clouds, cluster of; muhUrta= for a little while; lA.nChane= [that remains as] hallmark; dhanuSi= in bow - in rainbow; amogham sAyakm= unfailing, arrow; samadhatta= joined, fixed on bowstring.
Before all else, that defiant reply of raghu challenging indra struck the chest of the mountain-splitting god, namely indra, like an arrow, whereby indra is embittered and fixed an unfailing arrow on his bow, which bow is wonted to remain on the cluster of new clouds for a little while since it is the hallmark of indra, namely the rainbow. [3-53]
दिलीपसूनोः स बृहद्भुजान्तरं प्रविश्य भीमासुरशोणितोचितः|
पपावनास्वादितपूर्वमाशुगः कुतूहलेनेव मनुष्यशोणितम्॥ ३-५४
dilīpasūnoḥ sa bṛhadbhujāntaraṁ praviśya bhīmāsuraśoṇitocitaḥ|
papāvanāsvāditapūrvamāśugaḥ kutūhaleneva manuṣyaśoṇitam || 3-54
dilIpasUnoH sa bR^ihadbhujAntara.n pravishya bhImAsurashoNitocitaH |
papAvanAsvAditapUrvamAshugaH kutUhaleneva manuShyashoNitam || 3-54
dilIpa sUnoH sa bR^ihat bhuja a.ntaram pravishya bhIma asura shoNita ucitaH | vapau anAsvAdita pUrvam AshugaH kutUhalena iva manuSya shoNitam || 3-54
3-54. bhIma asura shoNita ucitaH= ghastly, demons, blood, fond of - addicted to, habituated to; saH= that; Ashu gaH= quick, goer - arrow; dilIpa sUnoH= dilIpa's, son's; bR^ihat bhuja a.ntaram= broad, shoulders, in between - chest; pravishya= entered; an AsvAdita= un, tasted; pUrvam= earlier; manuSya shoNitam= human, blood; kutUhalena iva= inquisitively - capriciously, as though; vapau= drank.
That arrow of indra that is hitherto habituated to the blood of ghastly demons has now entered the broad chest of raghu and capriciously started to swill the human blood which hitherto is untasted by it. [3-54]
हरेः कुमारोऽपि कुमारविक्रमः सुरद्विपास्फालनकर्कशाङ्गुलौ|
भुजे शचीपत्रविशेषकाङ्किते स्वनामचिह्नं निचखान सायकम्॥ ३-५५
hareḥ kumāro'pi kumāravikramaḥ suradvipāsphālanakarkaśāṅgulau|
bhuje śacīpatraviśeṣakāṅkite svanāmacihnaṁ nicakhāna sāyakam || 3-55
hareH kumAro.api kumAravikramaH suradvipAsphAlanakarkashA~Ngulau |
bhuje shacIpatravisheShakA~Nkite svanAmacihna.n nicakhAna sAyakam || 3-55
hareH kumAro api kumAra vikramaH sura dvipa AsphAlana karkasha a.ngulau | bhuje shacI patra visheSaka a.nkite sva nAma cihnam nicakhAna sAyakam || 3-55
3-55. kumAra vikramaH= Kumara, Kartikeya's, with valour; kumAraH api= young man - raghu, even; sura dvipa= celestial, elephant - Airavata; AsphAlana= by patting; karkasha= became rough; a.ngulau= [arm] having fingers shacI= Sachi Devi - Indra's consort; patra visheSaka = visheSa racana= erasable leafy tattoo, typical painting; a.nkite= that contain, bear the marks; hareH bhuje= Indra's, on arm; sva nAma cihnam= his own, name, inscribed; sAyakam nicakhAna= arrow, stuck.
Even that young man raghu who vies in valour with kumAra, the commander of celestial army, with an arrow inscribed with his name stuck the arm of indra, which arm has rough fingers roughened by patting celestial elephant, namely airavata, and which arm bears the typical marks of erasable leafy tattoos imprinted from the cheeks of his consort shachi-devi. [3-55]
The erasable tattoo-like leafy designs are women's cosmetics painted either on face, palms or chest. Supposing that shachi-devi got her face painted like that and she rested her face on the arm of Indra and thus a part of that design on her face is rubbed on the arm of Indra, thus Indra's arm is with that imprinted cosmetic. Now, when raghu stuck his arrow on that arm, Indra's irritation is heightened because the arrow struck the arm that severed like a pillow to his consort shachi-devi.
जहार चान्येन मयूरपत्रिणा शरेण शक्रस्य महाशनिध्वजम्|
चुकोप तस्मै स भृशं सुरश्रियः प्रसह्य केशव्यपरोपणादिव॥ ३-५६
jahāra cānyena mayūrapatriṇā śareṇa śakrasya mahāśanidhvajam|
cukopa tasmai sa bhṛśaṁ suraśriyaḥ prasahya keśavyaparopaṇādiva || 3-56
jahAra ca anyena mayUra patriNA shareNa shakrasya mahA ashani dhvajam | cukopa tasmai sa bhR^isham sura shriyaH prasahya kesha vyaparopaNAt iva || 3-56
3-56. mayUra patriNA= having peacock's, feathers; anyena shareNa= with another, arrow; shakrasya= Indra's; mahA ashani dhvajam= supreme, thunderbolt, flagstaff; jahAra ca= struck down; saH= he that Indra; sura shriyaH= gods', goddess of fortune; prasahya= balAtkR^itya= forcibly; kesha= head hair; vyaparopaNAt= avataraNAt= to bring down, cut off; iva= as though; tasmai= on him, on raghu; bhR^isham cukopa= highly, enraged [at raghu.]
And raghu struck down the supreme flagstaff of thunderbolt of Indra with another arrow that has peacock feathers as its fins, by this indra felt as though the hairdo of svarga-shrI, the goddess of fortune of gods is cut off, and thus he is highly enraged at raghu. [3-56.]
बभूव युद्धं तुमुलं जयैषिणोरधोमुखैरूर्ध्वमुखैश्च पत्रिभिः॥ ३-५७
babhūva yuddhaṁ tumulaṁ jayaiṣiṇor
adhomukhairūrdhvamukhaiśca patribhiḥ || 3-57
tayoH upAnta sthita siddha sainikam garutmat ashI viSa bhIma darshanaiH | babhUva yuddham tumulam jaya eSiNoH atho mukhaiH Urthva mukhaH ca patribhiH || 3-57
3-57. jaya eSiNoH= victory, desiring; tayoH= between those two - Indra, raghu; garutmat= like divine eagle Garuda; ashI viSa= in fangs, venom [those that have] snakes; bhIma darshanaiH= frightening [arrows,] to look at; athaH mukhaiH= down, faced - downwards; Urthva mukhaH ca= up, faced - upwards, also; patribhiH= with arrows; upAnta sthita siddha= nearby - there about, staying - stood motionless, with siddha-s; sainikam= [also with] soldiers; tumulam yuddham babhUva= tumultuous, war, occurred.
Between those two who desired victory over the other, namely indra and raghu, there occurred a tumultuous fight with frightful arrows that flew up and down between sky and earth like winged serpents, or like the mutually chasing eagles and snakes, and with this the onlookers, namely the celestials like siddha-s, chAraNa-s et al on indra's side on sky, and the soldiers, and other princes following the ritual horse, on raghu's side on earth, stood motionless there about. [3-57]
अतिप्रबन्धप्रहितास्त्रवृष्टिभिस्तमाश्रयं दुष्प्रसहस्य तेजसः|
शशाक निर्वापयितुं न वासवः स्वतश्च्युतं वह्निमिवाद्भिरम्बुदः॥ ३-५८
āśrayaṁ duṣprasahasya tejasaḥ|
śaśāka nirvāpayituṁ na vāsavaḥ svataścyutaṁ
vahnimivādbhirambudaḥ || 3-58
atiprabandhaprahitAstravR^iShTibhistamAshraya.n duShprasahasya tejasaH |
shashAka nirvApayitu.n na vAsavaH svatashcyuta.n vahnimivAdbhirambudaH || 3-58
ati prabandha prahita astra vR^iSTibhiH tam Ashrayam duS.hprasahya tejasaH | shashAka nirvApayitum na vAsavaH svataH cyutam vahnim iva adbiH a.mbudaH || 3-58
3-58. vAsavaH= Indra; ati prabandha= highly, perpetual; prahita astra= projected, missile; vR^iSTibhiH= even with such showers [of missiles]; duS.hprasahya [duS pra sahya] tejasaH =impossible to tolerate, in energy; Ashrayam= repository of - a repository of highly invincible energy - raghu; tam= him, raghu; a.mbudaH= cloud; adbiH= with water; svataH cyutam= from it, fallen - showered; vahnim iva= fire - thunder, as though; nirvApayitum= to extinguish; na shashAka= not, capable.
Though indra projected highly perpetual showers of missiles he is unable to extinguish raghu for raghu is a repository of highly invincible energy, like a cloud that cannot extinguish the flame of lightning with its own shower of water, though both the flash of lightning and rainwater have emanated from the very same cloud. [5-58]
A king takes birth with the factors of the presiding deities, presiding over the eight quarters of world, in which Indra is also included. For more details please see Valmiki Ramayana, Aranya Kanda 3-1-19. Hence raghu is becoming invincible with this, and with the blessing of Nandini, the all-according cow of Vashishta.
ततः प्रकोष्ठे हरिचन्दनाङ्किते प्रमथ्यमानार्णवधीरनादिनीम्|
रघुः शशाङ्कार्धमुखेन पत्रिणा शरासनज्यामलुनाद्बिडौजसः॥ ३-५९
tataḥ prakoṣṭhe haricandanāṅkite pramathyamānārṇavadhīranādinīm|
raghuḥ śaśāṅkārdhamukhena patriṇā śarāsanajyāmalunādbiḍaujasaḥ || 3-59
tataH prakoShThe haricandanA~Nkite pramathyamAnArNavadhIranAdinIm |
raghuH shashA~NkArdhamukhena patriNA sharAsanajyAmalunAdbiDaujasaH || 3-59
tataH prakoSTe hari ca.ndana a.nkite pramathyamAna arNava dhIra nAdinIm | raghuH sashA.nka artha mukhena patriNA sharAsana jyAm alunAt biDa ojasaH || 3-59
5-59. tataH raghuH= then, raghu; hari ca.ndana a.nkite = with [heavenly] yellow, sandal paste, daubed with; prakoSTe= on forearm - wrist of Indra; pra mathya mAna= while being churned; arNava = ocean's; dhIra nAdinIm= gambhIram vadati= resonantly, sounding; biDa ojasaH= clipper of mountain wings - Indra's; sharAsana jyAm= bow's, bowstring; sashA.nka artha mukhena= moonlike, half, faced - with crescent barbed; patriNA= with arrow; alunAt= cut off.
Then raghu with a crescent headed arrow cut off the bowstring of indra's bow, which bow remaining in the handgrip of indra’s forearm daubed with heavenly sandal paste so far emitted resonant sounds like Milk-Ocean when that ocean was churned for ambrosia. [3-59]
स चापमुत्सृज्य विवृद्धमत्सरः प्रणाशनाय प्रबलस्य विद्विषः|
महीध्रपक्षव्यपरोपणोचितं स्फुरत्प्रभामण्डलमस्त्रमाददे॥ ३-६०
sa cāpamutsṛjya vivṛddhamatsaraḥ praṇāśanāya prabalasya vidviṣaḥ|
mahīdhrapakṣavyaparopaṇocitaṁ sphuratprabhāmaṇḍalamastramādade || 3-60
sa cApamutsR^ijya vivR^iddhamatsaraH praNAshanAya prabalasya vidviShaH |
mahIdhrapakShavyaparopaNocita.n sphuratprabhAmaNDalamastramAdade || 3-60
saH cApam utsR^ijya vivR^iddha matsaraH praNAshanAya prabalasya vidviSaH | mahIdhra paksha vyaparopaNa ucitam sphurat prabhA maNDalam astram Adade || 3-60
3-60. vivR^iddha matsaraH= with aggravated, rancour; saH= he that Indra; cApam utsR^ijya= bow, discarding; prabalasya vidviSaH= for aggravating, enemy's; praNAshanAya= for [aiming at] complete elimination; mahI dhra= earth bearing ones - mountains; paksha= wings; vyaparopaNa ucitam= for disembarkation - for clipping, habituated; sphurat= sparklingly; prabhA maNDalam= with fulgent, halo; astram= missile - thunderbolt; Adade= he took.
As rancour is aggravating that Indra discarded his bow, and aiming at the complete elimination of that aggravating enemy raghu, he took up thunderbolt which is habituated to clip the wings of mountains, and which has a sparklingly fulgent halo around it. [3-60]
रघुर्भृशं वक्षसि तेन ताडितः पपात भूमौ सह सैनिकाश्रुभिः|
निमेषमात्रादवधूय च व्यथां सहोत्थितः सैनिकहर्षनिस्वनैः॥ ३-६१
raghurbhṛśaṁ vakṣasi tena tāḍitaḥ papāta bhūmau saha sainikāśrubhiḥ ||
nimeṣamātrādavadhūya ca vyathāṁ sahotthitaḥ sainikaharṣanisvanaiḥ || 3-61
raghurbhR^isha.n vakShasi tena tADitaH papAta bhUmau saha sainikAshrubhiH |
nimeShamAtrAdavadhUya ca vyathA.n sahotthitaH sainikaharShanisvanaiH || 3-61
raghu bhR^isham vakshasi tena tADitaH papAta bhUmau saha sainika ashrubhiH | nimeSa mAtrAt avadhUya ca vyadhAm saha utthitaH sainika harSa nisvanaiH || 3-61
3-61. raghu= raghu; tena= by it [thunderbolt]; bhR^isham vakshasi tADitaH san = severely, on chest, hit, he is; sainika ashrubhiH saha= soldiers', tears, along with; bhUmau papAta= on earth, fell down; nimeSa mAtrAt= in a minute's, gap; vyadhAm avadhUya= pain, shaking off; sainika harSa nisvanaiH saha= soldiers', joyous, applause, along with; utthitaH ca= got up, also.
raghu is severely hit with that thunderbolt on his chest and fell on the earth along with the tears of soldiers, but shaking off that pain he instantaneously got up along with the joyous applause of the same soldiers. [3-61]
तथापि शस्त्रव्यवहारनिष्ठुरे विपक्षभावे चिरमस्य तस्थुषः|
तुतोष वीर्यातिशयेन वृत्रहा पदं हि सर्वत्र गुणैर्निधीयते॥ ३-६२
tathāpi śastravyavahāraniṣṭhure vipakṣabhāve ciramasya tasthuṣaḥ|
tutoṣa vīryātiśayena vṛtrahā padaṁ hi sarvatra guṇairnidhīyate || 3-62
tathApi shastravyavahAraniShThure vipakShabhAve ciramasya tasthuShaH |
tutoSha vIryAtishayena vR^itrahA pada.n hi sarvatra guNairnidhIyate || 3-62
tathA api shasatra vyavahAra niSThure vipaksha bhAve sthiram asya tasthuSaH | tutoSa vIrya atishayena vR^itra hA padam hi sarvatra guNaiH nidhIyate || 3-62
3-62. tathA api= then, even; shastra vyavahAra niSThure= in missiles, affairs, cruel - in the face of use of missiles that are cruel; vipaksha bhAve sthiram= in hostile, attitude, firmly; tasthuSaH= who is abiding; asya vIrya atishayena= by his [Raghu's,] valour, excellence; vR^itra hA= demon Vritta, killer - Indra; tutoSa= is gladdened; tathA hi= that way; guNaiH sarvatra padam nidhIyate= with [good] merits, everywhere, foot, can be placed - a way in will be there for those with merits.
Even then, that killer of demon vritA, namely indra, is gladdened with raghu for the excellence of his valour, and for his firm abiding in a hostile attitude even in the face of cruel usage of missiles… by the way, everywhere there will be a way in for the meritorious, isn’t so... [3-62]
असङ्गमद्रिष्वपि सारवत्तया न मे त्वदन्येन विसोढमायुधम्|
अवेहि मां प्रीतमृते तुरङ्गमात्किमिच्छसीति स्फुटमाह वासवः॥ ३-६३
asaṅgamadriṣvapi sāravattayā na me tvadanyena visoḍhamāyudham|
avehi māṁ prītamṛte turaṅgamātkimicchasīti sphuṭamāha vāsavaḥ || 3-63
asa~NgamadriShvapi sAravattayA na me tvadanyena visoDhamAyudham |
avehi mA.n prItamR^ite tura~NgamAtkimicChasIti sphuTamAha vAsavaH || 3-63
asa.ngam adriSu api sAravattayA na me tvat anyena visoDham Ayudham | avehi mAm prItamn R^ite tura.ngamAt kim icChasi iti sphuTam Aha vAsavaH || 3-63
3-63. sAravattayA= with intrinsic energy; adriSu api asa.ngam= mountains, in [the matter of,] unimpeded; me Ayudham= my, weapon; tvat anyena= you, apart from; na visoDham= not, capable to bear it; ataH= thereby; mAm prItam avehi= me, pleased, you know; tura.ngamAt R^ite= horse, leaving off - except horse; kim icChasi= what, you want; iti sphuTam Aha vAsavaH= thus, clearly, said, Indra [to raghu.]
"With its intrinsic energy my weapon is unimpeded even in the matter of shattering mountains, and apart from you none could bear the brunt of it, thereby you may know that I am pleased with you and you may choose anything from me, excepting the ritual horse." Thus Indra said to raghu in clear terms. [3-63]
ततो निषङ्गादसमग्रमुधृतं सुवर्णपुङ्खद्युतिरञ्जिताङ्गुलिम्|
नरेन्द्रसूनुः प्रतिसंहरन्निषुं प्रियंवदः प्रत्यवदत्सुरेश्वरम्॥ ३-६४
priyaṁvadaḥ pratyavadatsureśvaram || 3-64
tato niSha~NgAdasamagramudhR^ita.n suvarNapu~Nkhadyutira~njitA~Ngulim |
narendrasUnuH pratisa.nharanniShu.n priya.nvadaH pratyavadatsureshvaram || 3-64
tato niSa.ngAt asamagram udhR^itam suvarNa pu.nkha dyuti ranjita a.ngulim | narendra sUnuH pratisa.mharan iSum priyam vadam prati avadat sureshvaram || 3-64
3-64. tataH= then; niSa.ngAt= from quiver; a + samagram= not, completely; udhR^itam = drawn out; suvarNa pu.nkha dyuti ranjita a.ngulim iSum= golden, feathered end, tinged, fingers, arrow - the arrow with golden hind part, that is tingeing his fingers with gold colour; pratisa.mharan= restoring to quiver; narendra sUnuH= king's, son; priyam vadam= pleasing, speaking [raghu]; sureshvaram prati= to lord of gods, towards; avadat= spoke.
While the fingers of that prince are still on the helve of an arrow half drawn from quiver, spreading the golden umbrage of that helve onto those fingers, that prince on hearing what Indra had to say slid that arrow back into quiver and replied indra with these pleasing words. [3-64]
अमोच्यमश्वं यदि मन्यसे प्रभो ततः समाप्ते विधिनैव कर्मणि|
अजस्रदीक्षाप्रयतः स मद्गुरुः क्रतोरशेषेण फलेन युज्यताम्॥ ३-६५
amocyamaśvaṁ yadi manyase prabho tataḥ samāpte vidhinaiva karmaṇi|
ajasradīkṣāprayataḥ sa madguruḥ kratoraśeṣeṇa phalena yujyatām || 3-65
amocyamashva.n yadi manyase prabho tataH samApte vidhinaiva karmaNi |
ajasradIkShAprayataH sa madguruH kratorasheSheNa phalena yujyatAm || 3-65
amocyam ashvam yadi manyase prabho tataH samApte vidhinaiva karmaNi | ajasra dIkshA prayataH saH mat guruH krato asheSeNa phalena yujyatAm || 3-65
3-65. hè prabho= oh, lord; ashvam= horse; a mocyam= not, to be released; manyase= you deem; yadi= if; tataH= in that case; ajasra dIkshA prayataH= continuous, ritual vow, engrossed in; saH= such as he is; mat guruH= my, father's; vidhinA eva karmaNi samApte sati= procedurally, thus, ritual, when completed, it becomes - as and when this ritual is completed; kratuH a+sheSeNa phalena= [that] ritual's, without, remnant, - complete fruit, result; yujyatAm= be adjoined - be given.
"In case you deem that the horse is unreleasable, oh, lord, let my father get the complete result of ritual as if it had been carried through in due form because he is continually engrossed in ritual vows. [3-65]
यथा स वृत्तान्तमिमं सदोगतस्त्रिलोचनैकांशतया दुरासदः|
तवैव संदेशहराद्विशांपतिः शृणोति लोकेश तथा विधीयताम्॥ ३-६६
yathā sa vṛttāntamimaṁ sadogatastrilocanaikāṁśatayā durāsadaḥ|
tavaiva saṁdeśaharādviśāṁpatiḥ śṛṇoti lokeśa tathā vidhīyatām || 3-66
yathA sa vR^ittAntamima.n sadogatastrilocanaikA.nshatayA durAsadaH |
tavaiva sa.ndeshaharAdvishA.npatiH shR^iNoti lokesha tathA vidhIyatAm || 3-66
yathA sa vR^ittA.ntam imam sado gataH trilocana eka a.mshatayA durAsadaH | tava eva sa.ndesha harAt vishAm patiH shR^iNoti lokesha tathA vidhIyatAm || 3-66
3-66. [kim ca= further more]; sado [sadasi] gataH= in assemblage of ritual, staying; trilocana eka a.mshatayA= of three-eyed one, being one part; durAsadaH= unapproachable one; saH vishAm patiH= he, that worlds', lord [my father, dilIpa]; yathA imam vR^ittA.ntam= as to how, this, episode [to be communicated to him]; tava sa.ndesha harAt eva shR^iNoti= by your, messenger, he listens; hè lokesha= oh, lord of worlds; tathA vidhIyatAm= that way, it may be ordained.
"Furthermore, my father amidst the assemblage of Vedic ritual is presently unapproachable without a horse as he is now identifiable with the three-eyed-god shiva insofar as the high dudgeon is concerned… as such oh, lord of worlds, I request you to arrange it in such a manner that my father may hear of this present occurrence by your own messenger… [3-66]
तथेति कामं प्रतिशुश्रुवान्रघोर्यथागतं मातलिसारथिर्ययौ|
नृपस्य नातिप्रमनाः सदोगृहं सुदक्षिणासूनुरपि न्यवर्तत॥ ३-६७
tatheti kāmaṁ pratiśuśruvānraghoryathāgataṁ mātalisārathiryayau|
nṛpasya nātipramanāḥ sadogṛhaṁ sudakṣiṇāsūnurapi nyavartata || 3-67
tatheti kAma.n pratishushruvAnraghoryathAgata.n mAtalisArathiryayau |
nR^ipasya nAtipramanAH sadogR^iha.n sudakShiNAsUnurapi nyavartata || 3-67
tathA iti kAmam pratishushruvAn raghoH yathA Agatam mAtali sArathiH yayau | nR^ipasya na atipramanAH sado gR^iham sudakshiNA sUnauH api nivartayata || 3-67
3-67. mAtali sArathiH= mAtali, one who has as charioteer - Indra; raghoH kAmam tathA iti= Raghu's, wish, 'so be it', thus [agreeing]; pratishushruvAn= on promising; yathA Agatam yayau= as has come, went away; sudakshiNA sUnauH api= sudakshiNa's, son - raghu, even; na ati pra manAH san= not, much, too, happy at heart, he is; nR^ipasya sado gR^iham nivartayata= king's, assemblage, house -hall, returned to.
Agreeing to the wish of raghu and promising that it will happen in the desired way, Indra, who has mAtali as his charioteer, went away as he came; and raghu, the son of sudakshiNa, returned to the ritual assembly hall of the king, but not much elated. [3-67]
तमभ्यनन्दत्प्रथमं प्रबोधितः प्रजेश्वरः शासनहारिणा हरेः|
परामृशन्हर्षजडेन पाणिना तदीयमङ्गं कुलिशव्रणाङ्कितम्॥ ३-६८
tamabhyanandatprathamaṁ prabodhitaḥ prajeśvaraḥ śāsanahāriṇā hareḥ|
parāmṛśanharṣajaḍena pāṇinā tadīyamaṅgaṁ kuliśavraṇāṅkitam || 3-68
tamabhyanandatprathama.n prabodhitaH prajeshvaraH shAsanahAriNA hareH |
parAmR^ishanharShajaDena pANinA tadIyama~Nga.n kulishavraNA~Nkitam || 3-68
tam abhyana.ndat prathamam prabodhitaH prajeshvara shAsana hAriNA hareH | paramR^ishan harSa jaDena pANinA tadIyam a.ngam kulisha vraNA a.nkitam || 3-68
3-68. hareH shAsana hAriNA= by Indra's, order, carrier - by messenger; prathamam prabodhitaH= firstly, informed; prajA Ishvara= people's, lord - dilIpa; harSa jaDena pANinA= with happiness, chilled through, with palm; kulisha vraNA a.nkitam= thunderbolt, wounds, touched by - affected by; tadIyam a.ngam= his [Raghu's,] body; paramR^ishan= while patting; tam abhyana.ndat= him, congratulated.
dilIpa, the lord of people, on already hearing the happening through the messenger of indra received raghu, and patted his body wounded by thunderbolt with his palm that is chilled through his own happiness while congratulating his son in a said and unsaid manner. [3-68]
इति क्षितीशो नवतिं नवाधिकां महाक्रतूनां महनीयशासनः|
समारुरुक्षुर्दिवमायुषः क्षये ततान सोपानपरम्परामिव॥ ३-६९
iti kṣitīśo navatiṁ navādhikāṁ mahākratūnāṁ mahanīyaśāsanaḥ|
samārurukṣurdivamāyuṣaḥ kṣaye tatāna sopānaparamparāmiva || 3-69
iti kShitIsho navati.n navAdhikA.n mahAkratUnA.n mahanIyashAsanaH |
samArurukShurdivamAyuShaH kShaye tatAna sopAnaparamparAmiva || 3-69
iti kshitIsho navatim nava adhikAm mahAkratUnAm mahanIya shAsanaH | samArurakshuH divam AyuSaH kshaye tatAna sopAna para.mparAm iva || 3-69
3-69. iti= thus; mahanIya shAsanaH= one who has celebratory, rulership - indomitable rulership; kshiti IshaH= land, lord of - king dilIpa; mahA kratUnAm= of great, [horse] rituals; nava adhikAm navatim= by nine, more than, nine - ninety-nine; AyuSaH kshaye= lifetime, at end of; divam samArurakshuH san= to heavens, desiring to ascend, he is; sopAna para.mparAm iva= steps, flight of, like; tatAna= augmented, conducted many rituals.
Thus king dilIpa with an indomitable rulership conducted ninety-nine Vedic Horse rituals as though they will become a flight of stairs for him who wished ascendancy to heaven at the end of lifetime. [3-69]
अथ स विषयव्यावृत्तात्मा यथाविधि सूनवे
नृपतिककुदं दत्त्वा यूने सितातपवारणम्|
मुनिवनतरुच्छायां देव्या तया सह शिश्रिये
गलितवयसामिक्ष्वाकूणामिदं हि कुलव्रतम्॥ ३-७०
atha sa viṣayavyāvṛttātmā yathāvidhi sūnave
nṛpatikakudaṁ dattvā yūne sitātapavāraṇam|
munivanatarucchāyāṁ devyā tayā saha śiśriye
galitavayasāmikṣvākūṇāmidaṁ hi kulavratam || 3-70atha sa viShayavyAvR^ittAtmA yathAvidhi sUnave
atha sa viSaya vyAvR^itta AtmA yathAvidhi sUnave nR^ipati kakudam dattvA yUne sita Atapa vAriNam | muni vana taru cChAyAm devyA tayA saha shishriye galita vayasAm ikshvAkUNAm idam hi kula vratam || 3-70
3-70. atha= afterwards; viSaya vyAvR^itta AtmA= from objects of worldly pleasures, reversed, with soul; saH= he dilIpa; yathA vidhi= as per, custom; yUne sUnave= for young, son; nR^ipati kakudam= kingly, emblem; sita Atapa vAriNam= white, sunshine, stopper - umbrella, royal parasol; dattvA= having given; tayA devyA saha= with her, with lady sudakshiNa, along with; muni vana taru cChAyAm= sages', woods', tree's, shade; shishriye= took shelter; galita vayasAm = slipped, age - when age is on the wane; ikshvAkUNAm idam kula vratam hi= for Ikshvaku-s, this is, familial, practise, indeed.
Afterwards, when his inner-self is reversed from the objects of worldly pleasures dilIpa customarily gave the kingly emblem, the white royal parasol, to his young son raghu, while he himself took shelter under the shades of trees in the woodlands of sages along with his lady sudakshiNa, and indeed when the age is on the wane this is this is the familial practise of ikshvaku-s. [3-70]
इति कालिदास कृत रघुवंश महाकाव्ये तृतीयः सर्गः
iti kālidāsa kṛta raghuvaṁśa mahākāvye tṛtīyaḥ sargaḥ
|previous chapter 2||contents||Next: chapter 4|
|VNK Latha - Nov, 2003|
|Revised : Desiraju Hanumanta Rao - May 2010|
Krishnarao Mahadeva Joglekar, 1916 - KMJ, or Joglekar
Gopala Raghunath Nandargikar, 1897 GRN
pithy, terse sayings or foots of poem appearing in comment section - from The Story of Raghu's Line by Kalidasa; translated by P. De Lacy Johnston, Published by Adine House, London, 1902 - De Lacy or Lacy
upama is roughly said as metaphor, transferred epithet, or condensed simile, or expanded simile, or whatever, but not stabilised, as with atishayokti and utpreksha both made to fall under the category of a hyperbole.
u.mA o : upamAna - comparable object; or the object itself.
u.me oc : upameya - object compared.
sA.dha c: sAdhAraNa dharma: commonality in sharing attributes.
sA. vA cw: sAdharaNa vAcaka: coupula, conjunctional word used.
anu.dha uq : anugAmi dharma : underlying quality of factors.
bimba om, or O: object to be mirrored.
prati-bimba mo: reflected object with mirror symmetry, mirrored object.
shleSa innuendo: lexically mixing, imbibed in; better we use this innuendo= 2 a remark with a double meaning, usu. suggestive; till pundits object.
zeugma : a figure of speech using a verb or adjective with two nouns, to one of which it is strictly applicable while the word appropriate to the other is not used (e.g. with weeping eyes and [sc. grieving] hearts).
syllepsis : a figure of speech in which a word is applied to two others in different senses (e.g. caught the train and a bad cold) or to two others of which it grammatically suits one only (e.g. neither they nor it is working) - but not innuendo, or double meaning.
atishayokti - hybo: hyperbole.
utpreksha - mglq: magniloqui, gasconade.
Out of many mind-boggling Sanskrit poetics, upama is one, and only 23 of its shades are presented here as illustration. Please construe that hero is telling these se ntences to his heroine.
1] candra iva mukham manoj~nam = Like moon your face is heart-pleasing - upama alankAra.
2] candra iva mukham mukham iva candraH - That moon is like your face, and your face is like that moon - upameya upamA alankAra.
3] mukham iva mukham = face is face - ananvaya alankAra.
4] mukham iva candraH - moon is like your face - pratIpa alankAra
5] candram dR^iSTvA mukham smarAmi - on seeing I reminisce your face - smaraNa alankAra
6] mukham eva candraH - your face is moon alone - rUpaka alankAra
7] mukha candreNa tApaH shAmayati - on seeing moonlike face of yours, fervidity is lessening - pariNAma alankAra
8] kim idam mukham? uta aho! candraH - is this your face or that moon? - sandeha alankAra.
9] candra iti cakorAH tvat mukham anudhAvanti - thinking your face is moon songbirds are after it - bhrAntimat alankAra
10] candra iti cakorAH, kamala iti bhramarAH tvat mukhe ra~njanti - thinking your face to be moon, songbirds and bees [wish to take] delight in it.
11] camdro ayam, na mukham - this is moon, but not a face - apahnava
12] idam nUnam candraH - this is definitely the moon - utpreksha
13] candro ayam bhUpatiH - this king is the moon - atishayokti
14] mukhena candra kamale nirjite - moon or lotus is conquered by your face - tulya yogitA alankAra
15] nishi candraH tvat mukham ca hR^iSyati - night's moon delights your face - dIpaka alankAra
16] tvat mukha eva aham rajyAmi, candra eva cakoro rajyate - I take delight in your face, while songbirds take delight in that moon - prati vastu upama
17] divi candro yathA, bhuvi tathA tvat mukham bhAti - as to how the moon shines in the sky, thus your face shines forth on the earth - dR^iSTAnta alankAra
18] mukham candra shriyam bhibharti - your face is bearing the shine of that moon - nidarshana alankAra
19] niSkalankam mukham candrAt atiricyate - immaculate face of yours is surpassing that moon - vyatireka alankAra
20] tvat mukheva saha nishAsu candro hR^iSyati - along with your face, moon is also delightful in nights - saha ukti alankAra
21] mukham netra a.nka ruciram, smita jyostno upashobhitam - your face is delightful with eyes called its embellishments, and with moonshine like smiles - samAsa ukti alankAra
22] abjena tvat mukham tulyam hariNA hitasaktinA - your face vies with moon who has a deer in him, [or, your face vies with rising sun with lotus...] abhanga sabhanga shleSa alankAra
23] mukhasya puirataH candro niSprabhaH - before your face moon is loosing his shine a prastuta prashamsha.
desiraju hanumanta rao, August 09
desirajuhrao at yahoo.com