mahAkavi kAlidAsa
Dynasty of Emperor Raghu
8th chapter -- 95 verses


Raghu retires to a hermitage to prepare himself to be freed from this worldly life. After some years of meditation and penance his soul is released from body and attains union with Supreme Spirit. Last rites and ceremonies are performed on the body of the father by the dutiful son Aja. In course of time Indumati, the queen of Aja, gives birth to a son who is named Dasharatha. One day while the wife and husband, Aja and Indumati, are amusing themselves in the palace garden a garland of celestial flowers suddenly falls upon the wife from heaven which brings her life to an end. The picture of lamentation of the husband Aja is highly pathetic. The body of the queen is consigned to the flames and the bereaved husband Aja later spends eight pensive and moody years for the sake of his son Dasharatha, whereafter Aja leaves this mundane world.


Notes and commentary of Kishanrao Madhavarao Joglekar on this 8th canto  1.85 MB pdf is made available here for further reading.



अथ तस्य विवाहकौतुकम् ललितम् बिभ्रत एव पार्थिवः|
वसुधामपि हस्तगामिनीमकरोदिन्दुमतीमिवापराम्॥ ८-१

atha tasya vivāhakautukam lalitam bibhrata eva pārthivaḥ|
vasudhāmapi hastagāminīmakarodindumatīmivāparām || 8-1

atha tasya vivAhakautukam lalitam bibhrata eva pArthivaH |
vasudhAmapi hastagAminImakarodindumatImivAparAm || 8-1


atha tasya vivAha kautukam lalitam bibhrata eva pArthivaH  vasudhAm api hasta gAminIm akarot indumatIm iva aparAm

8-1. atha pArthivaH= thereafter, the king - Aja; lalitam= charming, delightful; vivAha kautukam = auspicious marriage-thread; dyed yellow with turmeric and worn by the bride and bridegroom round their wrists before the commencement of the actual marriage ceremony. It is to be kept on wrists as long as the pair observes celibacy; but in now-a-days it is generally removed after three days. bibhrata eva= while still wearing that thread; tasya= to him - to Aja; aparAm indumatIm iva= another, Indumati, as if; vasudhAm api= earth - kingdom, even; hasta gAminIm akarot= passing over to the hands of [Aja], the king made - Raghu handed over the kingdom to Aja.

Thereafter, even while the prince Aja yet had the charming marriage-thread on his wrist the King Raghu made over to him the kingdom also just as if she were another Indumati. [8-1]


दुरितैरपि कर्तुमात्मसात्प्रयतन्ते नृपसूनवो हि यत्|
तदुपस्थितमग्रहीदजः पितुराज्ञेति न भोगतृष्णया॥ ८-२

duritairapi kartumātmasātprayatante nṛpasūnavo hi yat|
tadupasthitamagrahīdajaḥ piturājñeti na bhogatṛṣṇayā || 8-2

duritairapi kartumAtmasAtprayatante nR^ipasUnavo hi yat |
tadupasthitamagrahIdajaH piturAdnyeti na bhogatR^iShNayA || 8-2


duritaiH api kartum AtmasAt prayatante nR^ipa sUnavaH hi yat tat upasthitam agrahIt ajaH pituH Aj~nyA iti na bhoga tR^iShNayA

anvayam: nR^ipa sUnavaH yat duritaiH api AtmasAt kartum prayatante hi upasthitam tat ajaH pituH Aj~nyA iti agrahIt na bhoga tR^iShNayA

2. dilIpa ana.ntaram= dilIpa, in succession to; rAjye pratiShTitam= in kingdom, established; tam= him; nishamya= on hearing; pUrvam= earlier - during the reign of dilIpa; rAj~nAm= kings - of that time; hR^idaye= in hearts - of those other kings; pra dhUmitaH= highly fuming, smouldering; agniH iva= fire, like - resentment; utthitaH= spurted out, blazed up.

On hearing that raghu is established in kingship in succession to his father dilIpa, the fire of jealousy so far smouldering in the hearts of other kings belonging to the regime of dilIpa blazed up. [4-2]

But at the news, in kings who hated him / Blazed wrathful fire from smouldering envy bred.

It has been a common practice for heir-apparent to resort to all kinds of foul deeds like poisoning fathers and eliminating elder brothers etc, to remove their elders from power and to usurp it.


अनुभूय वसिष्ठसंभृतैः सलिलैस्तेन सहाभिषेचनम्|
विशदोच्छ्वसितेन मेदिनी  कथयामास कृतार्थतामिव॥ ८-३

anubhūya vasiṣṭhasaṁbhṛtaiḥ salilaistena sahābhiṣecanam|
viśadocchvasitena medinī  kathayāmāsa kṛtārthatāmiva || 8-3 

anubhUya vasiShThasa.nbhR^itaiH salilaistena sahAbhiShecanam |
vishadocChvasitena medinI kathayAmAsa kR^itArthatAmiva || 4-3


8-2. nR^ipa sUnavaH= kings, sons of; yat= which kingdoms; duritaiH api= by evil acts, even; AtmasAt kartum= to gain completely into possession; prayatante hi= will be trying, indeed; upasthitam tat= that which is before him, that kingdom; ajaH= Aja; pituH Aj~nyA iti= father's, order, this is; agrahIt= has accepted; na bhoga tR^iShNayA= not, out of a yearning for enjoyment.

That whereof other princes endeavour to gain possession of such kingdoms even by foul means, Aja accepted it since it is an injunction of his father, but not out of a yearning for enjoyment. [8-2]

It has been a common practice for heir-apparents to resort to all kinds of foul deeds like poisoning fathers and eliminating elder brothers etc, to remove their elders from power and to usurp it.


स बभूव दुरासदः परैर्गुरुणाऽथर्वविदा कृतक्रियः|
पवनाग्निसमागमो ह्ययम् सहितम् ब्रह्म यदस्त्रतेजसा॥ ८-४

sa babhūva durāsadaḥ parairguruṇā'tharvavidā kṛtakriyaḥ|
pavanāgnisamāgamo hyayam sahitam brahma yadastratejasā || 8-4

sa babhUva durAsadaH parairguruNA.atharvavidA kR^itakriyaH |
pavanAgnisamAgamo hyayam sahitam brahma yadastratejasA || 4-4


sa babhUva durAsadaH paraiH guruNA atharva vidA kR^ita kriyaH pavana agni samAgamaH hi ayam sahitam brahma yat astra tejasA

8-4. atharva vidA guruNA kR^ita kriyaH= atharva-veda, expert, by preceptor, done, ceremonial rite - at the end of anointment atharva-veda will be recited for god's grace on the newly anointed king; hence vashiShTa who is an expert in that Veda himself recited chants from it; sa paraiH durAsadaH babhUva= he - Aja, to enemies, unconquerable, he became; astra tejasA sahitam= martial, spirit, joined with; yat brahma [tejas]= which, Brahmanical, power - is there; ayam= that; pavana agni samAgamaH hi =wind, fire, fusion, indeed.

When the preceptor vashiShTa, being an expert in atharva-veda, canonised the anointment ceremony of Aja with the hymns of atharva-veda then Prince Aja became invincible to his adversaries; martial spirit joined with scriptural spirit is like the fusion of wind with fire, indeed. [8-4]


रघुमेव निवृत्तयौवनम् तममन्यन्त नवेश्वरम् प्रजाः|
स हि तस्य न केवलाम् श्रियम् प्रतिपेदे सकलान्गुणानपि॥ ८-५

raghumeva nivṛttayauvanam tamamanyanta naveśvaram prajāḥ|
sa hi tasya na kevalām śriyam pratipede sakalānguṇānapi || 8-5

raghumeva nivR^ittayauvanam tamamanyanta naveshvaram prajAH |
sa hi tasya na kevalAm shriyam pratipede sakalAnguNAnapi || 4-5


raghum eva nivR^itta yauvanam tam amanyanta nava Ishvaram prajAH sa hi tasya na kevalAm shriyam pratipede sakalAn guNAn api

8-5. prajAH nava Ishvaram tam= people, regarding new king, him - Aja; nivR^itta yauvanam raghum eva amanyanta= returned, youth, Raghu, alone, [they] deemed; hi= why because; saH= he that Aja; tasya= his - Raghu's; kevalAm shriyam na pratipede= just, wealth of kingdom, not, obtained; sakalAn guNAn api= all, traits, even - Aja inherited.

The subjects of kingdom have not regarded their new king Aja as a new entrant but as Raghu returned with youthfulness, why because, Aja has not only inherited the wealth of kingdom but all the personal traits from his father Raghu. [8-5]



अधिकम् शुशुभे शुभंयुना द्वितयेन द्वयमेव संगतम्|
पदमृद्धमजेन पैतृकम् विनयेनास्य नवम् च यौवनम्॥ ८-६

adhikam śuśubhe śubhaṁyunā dvitayena dvayameva saṁgatam|
padamṛddhamajena paitṛkam vinayenāsya navam ca yauvanam|| 8-6

adhikam shushubhe shubha.nyunA dvitayena dvayameva sa.ngatam |
padamR^iddhamajena paitR^ikam vinayenAsya navam ca yauvanam || 4-6


adhikam shushubhe shubha.nyunA dvitayena dvayam eva sa.ngatam padam R^iddham ajena paitR^ikam vinayena asya navam ca yauvanam

8-6. dvayam eva= a pair of factors, alone; shubha.nyunA=blessed, fortunate; dvitayena sa.ngatam= with a second pair of factors, on intermingling; adhikam shushubhe= became excessively, charming - shone forth; [first pair is]; paitR^ikam R^iddham padam= ancestral, prosperous, status - hence kingdom; ajena= with Aja; asya navam yauvanam= his, youthful, age; vinayena ca = with his modest conduct.

A pair of aspects intermingling with another blessed pair of factors shone forth excessively viz. the prosperous ancestral kingdom by its passing to Aja, and his youthful age with his modest conduct.

Aja has become ornamental to kingdom, while his comportment has become an ornament to himself; he has not become egotistical like ordinary men even on becoming a sovereign.


सदयम् बुभुजे महाभुजः सहसोद्वेगमियम् व्रजेदिति|
अचिरोपनताम् स मेदिनीम् नवपाणिग्रहणाम् वधूमिव॥ ८-७

sadayam bubhuje mahābhujaḥ sahasodvegamiyam vrajediti|
aciropanatām sa medinīm navapāṇigrahaṇām vadhūmiva || 8-7

sadayam bubhuje mahAbhujaH sahasodvegamiyam vrajediti |
aciropanatAm sa medinIm navapANigrahaNAm vadhUmiva  || 4-7


sadayam bubhuje mahAbhujaH sahasA udvegam iyam vrajet iti acira upanatAm sa medinIm nava pANi grahaNAm vadhUmiva

8-7. mahAbhujaH saH= mighty armed one, he that Aja; acira upanatAm= recently, she who has come to him [like a new bride]; medinIm= [a damsel called] earth [- say the new bride like kingdom]; nava pANi grahaNAm vadhUmiva= newly, palminpalmed, bride, as with; sahasA [chet]= suddenly [if - if suddenly enjoyed]; iyam= this [newly wed damsel-kingdom]; udvegam vrajet= alarm, scare, she may get into; iti= thinking so, by this reason; sadayam = nicely, pleasingly; bubhuje = he enjoyed.

That powerful prince Aja enjoyed the kingdom, which had but recently come under his control, like a newly-wedded wife, with tenderness that she may not suddenly take alarm. [8-7]


अहमेव मतो महीपतेरिति सर्वः प्रकृतिष्वचिन्तयत्|
उदधेरिव निम्नगाशतेष्वभवन्नास्य विमानना क्वचित्॥ ८-८

ahameva mato mahīpateriti sarvaḥ prakṛtiṣvacintayat|
udadheriva nimnagāśateṣvabhavannāsya vimānanā kvacit || 8-8

ahameva mato mahIpateriti sarvaH prakR^itiShvacintayat |
udadheriva nimnagAshateShvabhavannAsya vimAnanA kvacit || 4-8


aham eva mataH mahIpateH iti sarvaH prakR^itiShu acintayat udadheH iva nimnagA shateShu abhavat na asya vi +mAnanA kvacit

8-8. prakR^itiShu sarvaH= among the subjects, everyone; aham eva mahIpateH mataH= I alone am the esteemed of the King; iti= in this way; acintayat= [everyone] thought; udadheH nimnagA shateShu iva= by the sea, hundreds of rivers [that join it], as with; asya kvacit [api] = to him - to Aja, none [whosoever]; vi +mAnanA = indifference; na abhavat = not, became.

Everyone from among his subjects thought "I alone am the esteemed of the King"; on the part of king Aja too, there was hardly any indifference towards anyone, just as a sea will be unbigoted towards the hundreds of rivers that rush to join it. [8-8]

His subjects all / Thought each, / "tis me the King loves best! for none / He scorned, as Ocean, wived with countless streams, / Meets all with equal love.


न खरो न च भूयसा मृदुः पवमानः पृथिवीरुहानिव|
स पुरस्कृतमध्यमक्रमो नमयामास नृपाननुद्धरन्॥ ८-९

na kharo na ca bhūyasā mṛduḥ pavamānaḥ pṛthivīruhāniva|
sa puraskṛtamadhyamakramo namayāmāsa nṛpānanuddharan || 8-9

na kharo na ca bhUyasA mR^iduH pavamAnaH pR^ithivIruhAniva |
sa puraskR^itamadhyamakramo namayAmAsa nR^ipAnanuddharan || 4-9


na kharaH na ca bhUyasA mR^iduH pavamAnaH pR^ithivI ruhAn iva  saH puraskR^ita madhyama kramaH namayAmAsa nR^ipAn anuddharan

8-9. saH= he that Aja; bhUyasA kharaH na= much, harsh, not - he is not; mR^iduH ca na= mild, also, not; puraskR^ita madhyama kramaH [san] = agreeable, middle-course, following; pavamAnaH pR^ithivI ruhAn iva = wind, earth born ones - trees, as with; nR^ipAn an+uddharan namayAmAsa= [adversary] kings, not, by uprooting, made them to bend - bow down.

Without becoming neither harsh nor exceedingly mild but adopting a middle course he made his adversary kings bow down before him without extirpating them just as the wind bends down trees without uprooting them. [8-9]



अथ वीक्ष्य रघुः प्रतिष्ठितम् प्रकृतिष्वात्मजमात्मवत्तया|
विषयेषु विनाशधर्मसु त्रिदिवस्थेष्वपि निःस्पृहोऽभवत्॥ ८-१०

atha vīkṣya raghuḥ pratiṣṭhitam prakṛtiṣvātmajamātmavattayā |
viṣayeṣu vināśadharmasu tridivastheṣvapi niḥspṛho'bhavat || 8-10

atha vIkShya raghuH pratiShThitam prakR^itiShvAtmajamAtmavattayA |
viShayeShu vinAshadharmasu tridivastheShvapi niHspR^iho.abhavat|| 4-10


atha vIkShya raghuH pratiShThitam prakR^itiShu Atmajam AtmavattayA viShayeShu vinAsha dharmasu tridivastheShu api niHspR^ihaH abhavat

8-10. atha raghuH= then, Raghu; Atmajam= his own son; AtmavattayA= just like himself; prakR^itiShu pratiShThitam vIkShya= among people - in kingdom, well established, on seeing; vinAsha dharmasu viShayeShu= transitory, nature, in material comforts; tridivastheShu api= available in heaven, even if; niHspR^ihaH abhavat= indifferent, he became.

Now, finding his son properly established among his people just like himself, king Raghu became indifferent to material pleasures which are transitory even though they be in heaven. [8-10]


गुणवत्सुतरोपितश्रियः परिणामे हि दिलीपवंशजाः|
पदवीम् तरुवल्कवाससाम् प्रयताः संयमिनाम् प्रपेदिरे॥ ८-११

guṇavatsutaropitaśriyaḥ pariṇāme hi dilīpavaṁśajāḥ|
padavīm taruvalkavāsasām prayatāḥ saṁyaminām prapedire || 8-11

guNavatsutaropitashriyaH pariNAme hi dilIpava.nshajAH |
padavIm taruvalkavAsasAm prayatAH sa.nyaminAm prapedire || 4-11


guNavat suta ropita shriyaH pariNAmehi dilIpa va.nsha jAH padavIm taru valka vAsasAm prayatAH sa.nyaminAm prapedire

8-11. dilIpa va.nsha jAH= diliipa's, descendants; pariNAmehi= attaining old age; guNavat suta ropita shriyaH= in accomplished, sons, reposed, kingdoms; prayatAH= bringing their own passions under control; taru valka vAsasAm= with trees, bark, dress; sa.nyaminAm= of anchorites; padavIm= pathway; prapedire= obtained.

The descendants of the race of emperor diliipa at the decline of their life relinquished their grandeur to their accomplished sons and bringing their own passions under control passed on to the condition of anchorites wearing barks of trees. [8-11]

Such still the wont of great Dilipa's race, / Who in their green old age make o'er the realm / To sons of equal virtue, while themselves, / Self-centred, tread the bark-clad Hermits' path. 


तमरण्यसमाश्रयोन्मुखम् शिरसा वेष्टनशोभिना सुतः|
पितरम् प्रणिपत्य पादयोरपरित्यागमयाचतात्मनः॥ ८-१२

tamaraṇyasamāśrayonmukham śirasā veṣṭanaśobhinā sutaḥ|
pitaram praṇipatya pādayoraparityāgamayācatātmanaḥ || 8-12

tamaraNyasamAshrayonmukham shirasA veShTanashobhinA sutaH |
pitaram praNipatya pAdayoraparityAgamayAcatAtmanaH || 4-12


tam araNya samAshraya unmukham shirasA veShTana shobhinA sutaH pitaram praNipatya pAdayoH a+parityAgam ayAcataH AtmanaH

8-12. araNya samAshraya unmukham= to the woods, about to retire, who readied himself; tam= him - Raghu; sutaH= son - Aja; veShTana shobhinA shirasA= one with his head covered with a head-dress; the idea of approaching a respectable person with covered head is peculiarly Hindu unlike the English notion; pAdayoH praNipatya= at feet, on venerating; AtmanaH a+parityAgam= his - of Aja, not, abandonment; pitaram ayAcataH= from father, he begged.

Aja, the son of Raghu with his head covered with a head-dress fell at the feet of his father, who was about to retire to the woods and begged that he should not be abandoned. [8-12]

But when the father sought to take his place / Among the pious band, his new-crowned son, / With head bowed low before him, prayed his Sire / Not so to leave him orphaned. 


रघुरश्रुमुखस्य तस्य तत्कृतवानीप्सितमात्मजप्रियः|
न तु सर्प इव त्वचम् पुनः प्रतिपेदे व्यपवर्जिताम् श्रियम्॥ ८-१३

raghuraśrumukhasya tasya tatkṛtavānīpsitamātmajapriyaḥ|
na tu sarpa iva tvacam punaḥ pratipede vyapavarjitām śriyam || 8-13

raghurashrumukhasya tasya tatkR^itavAnIpsitamAtmajapriyaH |
na tu sarpa iva tvacam punaH pratipede vyapavarjitAm shriyam  || 4-13


raghuH ashru mukhasya tasya tat kR^itavAn Ipsitam Atmaja priyaH  na tu sarpa iva tvacam punaH pratipede vyapavarjitAm shriyam

8-13. Atmaja priyaH raghuH= in son, who is affectionate, such Raghu; ashru mukhasya tasya= one whose face was covered with tears, his - Aja's; tat Ipsitam kR^itavAn = that, wish, Raghu fulfilled; tu= but; sarpaH tvacam iva= a snake, slough, as with - as with a serpent not retaking its cast away slough; vyapavarjitAm [vi+apa+varkjitaam]  shriyam= cast away, wealth of kingdom; na punaH pratipede = not, again, resumed.

Raghu, who loved his son tenderly, granted the desire of him whose face was covered with tears, but did not resume the grandeur of a king which he had once abandoned as with a serpent not resuming its slough once cast away. [8-13]


स किलाश्रममन्त्यमाश्रितो निवसन्नावसथे पुराद्बहिः|
समुपास्यत पुत्रभोग्यया स्नुषयेवाविकृतेन्द्रियः श्रिया॥ ८-१४

sa kilāśramamantyamāśrito nivasannāvasathe purādbahiḥ|
samupāsyata putrabhogyayā snuṣayevāvikṛtendriyaḥ śriyā || 8-14

sa kilAshramamantyamAshrito nivasannAvasathe purAdbahiH |
samupAsyata putrabhogyayA snuShayevAvikR^itendriyaH shriyA || 4-14


saH kila Ashramam antyam AshritaH nivasan avasathe purAt bahiH samupAsyata putra bhogyayA snuShayA iva vikR^itendriyaH shriyA

8-14. saH antyam Ashramam AshritaH= he that Raghu, last stage of living, taking recourse; purAt bahiH avasathe nivasan= city's, in outskirts, in a camp, while staying; a+vikR^itendriyaH= without his mind being disturbed; snuShayA iva= daughter-in-law, as with; putra bhogyayA shriyA= by son, enjoyable, wealth called kingdom; samupAsyata [sam+ut+kShipya]= shunned; kila= they say.

 Entering upon the last stage of life, it is said, Emperor Raghu dwelled in a habitation outside the city and  without his mind being disturbed allowed the regality to attend upon him insofar as fetching flowers, fruits and waters, for he treated that regality at par with a daughter-in-law - both enjoyable only by a son.


प्रशमस्थितपूर्वपार्थिवम् कुलमभ्यद्यतनूतनेश्वरम्|
नभसा निभृतेन्दुना तुलामुदितार्केण समारुरोह तत्॥ ८-१५

praśamasthitapūrvapārthivam kulamabhyadyatanūtaneśvaram|
nabhasā nibhṛtendunā tulāmuditārkeṇa samāruroha tat || 8-15

prashamasthitapUrvapArthivam kulamabhyadyatanUtaneshvaram |
nabhasA nibhR^itendunA tulAmuditArkeNa samAruroha tat|| 4-15


prashama sthita npUrva pArthivam kulam abhyadyata nUtana Ishvaram nabhasA nibhR^ita indunA tulAm udita arkeNa samAruroha tat

8-15. prashama sthita = curbing the mind from the pursuit of temporal objects and devoting it to the hearing of the holy texts leading to the knowledge of self; pUrva pArthivam= with such an erstwhile, king - Raghu; abhi+uadyata= just risenm, come into prominence; nUtana Ishvaram= with such a new, king - Aja; tat kulam= that, dynasty; nibhR^ita indunA = with fading, moon; and; udita arkeNa= just rise, sun; nabhasA= with sky; tulAm samAruroha= equality, it [dynasty] obtained.

That dynasty with the erstwhile king Raghu betaking to a life of spiritual tranquillity and the newly crowned king Aja just entering upon his regal career seemed like unto the sky with the moon almost gone down and the sun embarking onto it. [8-15]




to be done from below  

यतिपार्थिवलिङ्गधारिणौ ददृशाते रघुराघवौ जनैः|
अपवर्गमहोदयार्थयोर्भुवमंशाविव धर्मयोर्गतौ॥ ८-१६

yatipārthivaliṅgadhāriṇau dadṛśāte raghurāghavau janaiḥ|
apavargamahodayārthayorbhuvamaṁśāviva dharmayorgatau || 8-16

yatipArthivali~NgadhAriNau dadR^ishAte raghurAghavau janaiH |
apavargamahodayArthayorbhuvama.nshAviva dharmayorgatau  || 4-16


yati pArthiva li~Nga dhAriNau dadR^ishAte raghuH rAghavau janaiH apavarga mahodaya arthayoH bhuvam a.nshau iva dharmayoH gatau

8-16. yati= an ascetic; pArthiva= a king; li~Nga dhAriNau= two of them bearing such marks - Raghu bearing ascetic's marks, Aja bearing king's marks; raghuH Aghavau- Ragu and Aja; apavarga= for final beatitude; mahodaya= earthly glory; arthayoH= for the purpose of - for the fruition of; dharmayoH= with such condcut - It appears Kalidasa uses the word dharma in a general sense viz., conduct in life see Buddha III. 24; bhuvam gatau a.nshau iva = earth, reached, factors - of dharma, as with; janaiH dadR^ishAte = by people, the y two are looked upon.

Raghu and Raghava, say Aja, bearing the characteristic emblems of an ascetic and a king were viewed by the people as portions of the two rules of conduct, whose aims are final emancipation and earthly glory, descended to the earth. [8-16]


अजिताधिगमाय मन्त्रिभिर्युयुजे नीतिविशारदैरजः|
अनुपायिपदोपप्राप्तये रघुराप्तैः समियाय योगिभिः॥ ८-१७

ajitādhigamāya mantribhiryuyuje nītiviśāradairajaḥ|
anupāyipadopaprāptaye raghurāptaiḥ samiyāya yogibhiḥ || 8-17

ajitAdhigamAya mantribhiryuyuje nItivishAradairajaH |
anupAyipadopaprAptaye raghurAptaiH samiyAya yogibhiH|| 4-17


ajita adhigamAya mantribhiH yuyuje nIti vishAradaiH ajaH anupAyi pada upaprAptaye [upalabdhaye] raghuH AptaiH samiyAya yogibhiH

8-17. ajaH; a+jita adhigamAya= for unconquered kingdoms; nIti vishAradaiH mantribhiH= with ministers proficient in politics; yuyuje= associated himself; raghu= [while] Raghu; anupAyi pada= that which does not meet with destruction; hence, imperishable - moksha; upaprAptaye [upalabdhaye]= to derive such a state; AptaiH yogibhiH samiyAya = the company of ascetics, sought.

Aja associated himself with ministers proficient in politics with a view to bring under control those who had not yet been conquered; while Raghu sought the company of ascetics given to  concentration of the mind as clever guides for the attainment of that imperishable state - moksha.


नृपतिः प्रकृतीरवेक्षितुम् व्यवहारासनमाददे युवा|
परिचेतुमुपांशु धारणाम् कुशपूतम् प्रवयास्तु विष्टरम्॥ ८-१८

nṛpatiḥ prakṛtīravekṣitum vyavahārāsanamādade yuvā|
paricetumupāṁśu dhāraṇām kuśapūtam pravayāstu viṣṭaram || 8-18

nR^ipatiH prakR^itIravekShitum vyavahArAsanamAdade yuvA |
paricetumupA.nshu dhAraNAm kushapUtam pravayAstu viShTaram | 4-18


nR^ipatiH prakR^itIH avekShitum vyavahAra Asanam Adade yuvA paricetum upA.nshu dhAraNAm kusha pUtam pravayAH nR^ipatiH tu viShTaram

8-18. yuvA nR^ipatiH= young, king - Aja; prakR^itIH avekShitum= people, to look after; vyavahAra= judicial investigation; Asanam= such a seat; Adade= he took up; pravayAH nR^ipatiH tu= aged, king, but; dhAraNAm paricetum= cconcentration of mind, to get; upA.nshu= in a secluded place; kusha pUtam viShTaram= kusha-grass, made up of, [seat] on a mat - old king took up.

The young king took his seat of judgment, i.e., the throne, to look into the affairs of his subjects, while the aged monarch took up a holy mat of Kusha grass in a secluded place in order to practise concentration of the mind. [8-18]

On throne of justice Aja sat to watch / His people's weal; his Sire, with senses quelled, / Slept on pure Kusha, far from haunts of men, / And weaned his thoughts from earth.


अनयत्प्रभुशक्तिसंपदा वशमेको नृपतीननन्तरान्|
अपरः प्रणिधानयोग्यया मरुतः पञ्च शरीरगोचरान्॥ ८-१९

anayatprabhuśaktisaṁpadā vaśameko nṛpatīnanantarān|
aparaḥ praṇidhānayogyayā marutaḥ pañca śarīragocarān || 8-19

anayatprabhushaktisa.npadA vashameko nR^ipatInanantarAn |
aparaH praNidhAnayogyayA marutaH pa~nca sharIragocarAn  || 4-19


anayat prabhu shakti sampadA vasham ekaH nR^ipatIn anantarAn  aparaH praNidhAna yogyayA marutaH pa~nca sharIra gocarAn

8-19. ekaH= one from the above two- Aja; anantarAn nR^ipatIn= neighbouring, kings; prabhu shakti sampadA= by energies derivable from manifold resources; vasham anayat= under control brought; aparaH= another - Ragu; praNidhAna yogyayA= by constant practice of the concentration of mind; sharIra gocarAn= dwelling in the body; pa~nca marutaH= five, vital airs; vasham anayat= under control brought.

While one conquered outside world by bringing the neighbouring princes into submission by means of the energy derivable from manifold resources of a king; the other conquered his inner self by bringing the five vital airs in the body under his control by means of energy derivable from a single resource, i.e., constant practice of the concentration of mind. [8-19]


अकरोदचिरेश्वरः क्षितौ द्विषदारम्भफलानि भस्मसात्|
इतरो दहने स्वकर्मणाम् ववृते ज्ञानमयेन वह्निना॥ ८-२०

akarodacireśvaraḥ kṣitau dviṣadārambhaphalāni bhasmasāt|
itaro dahane svakarmaṇām vavṛte jñānamayena vahninā || 8-20

akarodacireshvaraH kShitau dviShadArambhaphalAni bhasmasAt |
itaro dahane svakarmaNAm vavR^ite j~nAnamayena vahninA || 4-20


akarot acira IshvaraH kShitau dviShad Arambha phalAni bhasmasAt itaraH dahane sva karmaNAm vavR^ite j~nAnamayena vahninA

8-20. acira IshvaraH= not long before, enthroned one - Aja; kShitau= on earth; dviShad Arambha phalAni= of adversaries, undertakings, fruits of; bhasmasAt akarot= as ashes, he made; itaraH= the other one - Raghu; j~nAnamayena vahninA= of knowledge, by the fire of; sva karmaNAm = fruits of his own actions; dahane vavR^ite = to burn down, busied himself.

The newly enthroned king completely reduced the fruits of the undertakings of his enemies to ashes; while the other, the old monarch, busied himself in burning down the fruits of his own actions by means of the fire of knowledge. [8-20]


पणबन्धमुखान्गुणानजः षडुपायुङ्क्त समीक्ष्य तत्फलम्|
रघुरप्यजयत्गुणत्रयम् प्रकृतिस्थम् समलोष्टकाञ्चनः॥ ८-२१

paṇabandhamukhānguṇānajaḥ ṣaḍupāyuṅkta samīkṣya tatphalam|
raghurapyajayatguṇatrayam prakṛtistham samaloṣṭakāñcanaḥ || 8-21

paNabandhamukhAnguNAnajaH ShaDupAyu~Nkta samIkShya tatphalam |
raghurapyajayatguNatrayam prakR^itistham samaloShTakA~ncanaH || 4-21


paNa-bandha mukhAn guNAn ajaH ShaT upAyu~Nkta samIkShya tat phalam  raghuH api ajayat guNa trayam prakR^itistham sama loShTa kA~ncanaH

8-20. aja; paNa-bandha mukhAn= truce, beginning with; ShaT guNAn= six expedients - for a king; tat phalam= their, results; samIkShya= on exploring; upAyu~Nkta= employed; sama loShTa kA~ncanaH= [one who regards] equally, a clod, [and a block of] gold; raghuH= such Raghu; api = even; guNa trayam= three primary principles; prakR^itistham= constituent elements of Nature - sattva, rajas, tamo guNA-s; ajayat = conquered.

Aja employed the six expedients beginning with truce carefully weighing and watching their results. Raghu also who regarded a clod of earth and a block of gold equally brought the three primary constituent principles of Nature under his control. [8-20]

Six expedients for a king are: sandhi, vigraha, yAna, Asana, dvaidhIbhAva, samAshrayam; where paNa-bandha is sandhi - the truce, as said in kauTilya artha shAstram.


न नवः प्रभुराफलोदयात्स्थिरकर्मा विरराम कर्मणः|
न च योगविधेर्नवेतरः स्थिरधीरापरमात्मदर्शनात्॥ ८-२२

na navaḥ prabhurāphalodayātsthirakarmā virarāma karmaṇaḥ|
na ca yogavidhernavetaraḥ sthiradhīrāparamātmadarśanāt || 8-22

na navaH prabhurAphalodayAtsthirakarmA virarAma karmaNaH |
na ca yogavidhernavetaraH sthiradhIrAparamAtmadarshanAt || 4-22


na navaH prabhuH Aphala udayAt sthira karmA virarAma karmaNaH na ca yoga vidheH nava+itaraH sthira dhIH AparamAtma darshanAt

8-22. sthira karmA navaH prabhuH= one who is firm in action, new ruler; Aphala udayAt = until they bore fruit; karmaNaH= from undertakings; na virarAma= not, desisted from; sthira dhIH= as defined in Bhagavad-Gita II- 55, is one 'whose heart is not agitated in the midst of calamities, who has no longing for pleasures, and from whom the feeling of affection, fear, and wrath have departed'. nava+itaraH ca= new, other than, also - one who is other than new king - old king Raghu; AparamAtma darshanAt= until, Supreme Soul's, glimpse; yoga vidheH= in the practice of abstract meditation; na virarAma= not, paused.

The new ruler, who was firm in action, never desisted from an undertaking until it bore fruit: likewise, the other one, i.e., the old ruler, who was of a firm mind, did not stop practising abstract meditation until he had gained the sight of the Supreme Spirit. [8-22]


इति शत्रुषु चेन्द्रियेषु च प्रतिषिद्धप्रसरेषु जाग्रतौ|
प्रसितावुदयापवर्गयोरुभयीम् सिद्धिमुभाववापतुः॥ ८-२३

iti śatruṣu cendriyeṣu ca pratiṣiddhaprasareṣu jāgratau|
prasitāvudayāpavargayorubhayīm siddhimubhāvavāpatuḥ || 8-23

iti shatruShu cendriyeShu ca pratiShiddhaprasareShu jAgratau |
prasitAvudayApavargayorubhayIm siddhimubhAvavApatuH || 4-23


iti shatruShu ca indriyeShu ca pratiShiddha prasareShu jAgratau prasitau udaya apavargayoH ubhayIm siddhim ubhau avApatuH

8-23. iti = in this way; pratiShiddha= those that are checked, restrained; prasareShu= yet those that tend to be incursive - enemies or sense organs; shatruShu= regarding such enemies; indriyeShu ca= regarding sense organs, as well; jAgratau= those that are vigilant - father and son; udaya apavargayoH prasitau= in kingdom's welfare, in the salvation, those two who are interested in; ubhau= both of them; ubhayIm siddhim avApatuH= both kinds of, accomplishment, they two got.

In this manner both Aja and Raghu who were respectively vigilant in regard to the enemies and enemy-like senses, having thoroughly checked the peculiar courses of those enemies, both of them who were intent upon securing prosperity for the kingdom and absolution of one's own Self gained the complete attainment of their respective objects. [8-23]


अथ काश्चिदजव्यपेक्षया गमयित्वा समदर्शनः समाः|
तमसः परमापदव्ययम् पुरुषम् योगसमाधिना रघुः॥ ८-२४

atha kāścidajavyapekṣayā gamayitvā samadarśanaḥ samāḥ|
tamasaḥ paramāpadavyayam puruṣam yogasamādhinā raghuḥ || 8-24

atha kAshcidajavyapekShayA gamayitvA samadarshanaH samAH |
tamasaH paramApadavyayam puruSham yogasamAdhinA raghuH || 4-24


atha kAshcit ajavyapekShayA gamayitvA sama-darshanaH samAH tamasaH param Apat avyayam puruSham yoga samAdhinA raghuH

8-24. atha raghuH= then, Raghu; sama-darshanaH= who viewed all things with an equal eye; aja vyapekShayA= Aja's, by request of; kAshcit samAH gamayitvA= some, years, on spending; yoga samAdhinA= by means of profound contemplation; avyayam puruSham= immutable Supreme Spirit; tamasaH param= who is beyond mental darkness; Apat = obtained, reached.

Then Raghu who viewed all things with an equal eye passed some years in this mundane world out of regard for the desire of Aja and then by means of profound contemplation obtained the immutable Supreme Spirit who is beyond mental darkness. [8-24]


श्रुतदेहविसर्जनः पितुश्चिरमश्रूणि विमुच्य राघवः|
विदधे विधिमस्य नैष्ठिकम् यतिभिः सार्धमनग्निरग्निचित्॥ ८-२५

śrutadehavisarjanaḥ pituściramaśrūṇi vimucya rāghavaḥ|
vidadhe vidhimasya naiṣṭhikam yatibhiḥ sārdhamanagniragnicit || 8-25

shrutadehavisarjanaH pitushciramashrUNi vimucya rAghavaH |
vidadhe vidhimasya naiShThikam yatibhiH sArdhamanagniragnicit|| 4-25


shruta deha visarjanaH pituHN ciram ashrUNi vimucya rAghavaH vidadhe vidhim asya naiShThikam yatibhiH sArdham an+agnim agnicit

8-25. agnicit rAghavaH= fire-adorer, Aja; pituH= of father; shruta deha visarjanaH= one who heard, body, discarding - those who are absorbed in contemplation of the Supreme Spirit generally pass off suddenly and become samAdhistha - we do not say that they are dead or deceased; ciram ashrUNi vimucya= for a long time, tears, having shed; asya= his; an+agnim= without, fire; naiShThikam vidhim = niShTA is disappearance from this world i.e., death, procedure - funeral; yatibhiH sArdham= ascetics, in the company of; vidadhe= performed.

Aja, of Raghava, the regular fire-adorer, shed tears for a long time on hearing of his father's abandoning his corporeal tenement; then he performed fireless funeral ceremonies, i.e., sepulchring the body, in company of ascetics. [8-25]


अकरोत्स तदौर्ध्वदैहिकम् पितृभक्त्या पितृकार्यकल्पवित्|
न हि तेन पथा तनुत्यजस्तनयावर्जितपिण्डकाङ्क्षिणः॥ ८-२६

akarotsa tadaurdhvadaihikam pitṛbhaktyā pitṛkāryakalpavit|
na hi tena pathā tanutyajastanayāvarjitapiṇḍakāṅkṣiṇaḥ || 8-26

akarotsa tadaurdhvadaihikam pitR^ibhaktyA pitR^ikAryakalpavit |
na hi tena pathA tanutyajastanayAvarjitapiNDakA~NkShiNaH|| 4-26


akarot saH tat [tasya] urdhva-daihikam pitR^i bhaktyA pitR^i-kArya-kalpa-vit na hi tena pathA tanu tyajaH tanaya avarjita piNDa kA~NkShiNaH

8-26. pitR^i-kArya-kalpa-vit= who knew the procedure in obsequial ceremonies - Aja; saH= he that Aja; pitR^i bhaktyA= through paternal devotion; tat [tasya] urdhva-daihikam= funeral rites; akarot= performed; tena pathA= in the way [in which Raghu did]; tanu tyajaH= those who relinquish the body; tanaya avarjita piNDa kA~NkShiNaH= by the sons, offered oblations, longing for; na hi [bhavanti]= not, indeed [they become].

Aja being the knower of the procedures in obsequial ceremonies, he performed the funeral rites in regard to his father just through paternal devotion; f0r, those who relinquish the body in the way in which Raghu did, never long for the oblations offered by the sons, because such souls are emancipated even from farther-son relationships. [8-26]


स परार्ध्यगतेरशोच्यताम् पितुरुद्दिश्य सदर्थवेदिभिः|
शमिताधिरधिज्यकार्मुकः कृतवानप्रतिशासनम् जगत्॥ ८-२७

sa parārdhyagateraśocyatām pituruddiśya sadarthavedibhiḥ|
śamitādhiradhijyakārmukaḥ kṛtavānapratiśāsanam jagat || 8-27

sa parArdhyagaterashocyatAm pituruddishya sadarthavedibhiH |
shamitAdhiradhijyakArmukaH kR^itavAnapratishAsanam jagat || 8-27


saH parArdhya gateH ashocyatAm pituH uddishya sat-artha-vedibhiH  shamita AdhiH adhijya kArmukaH kR^itavAn a-prati-shAsanam jagat

8-27. parArdhya gateH= highest bliss, he who had attained; pituH= about such a father; ashocyatAm= unlamentable condition; uddishya= regarding - such a condition; sat-artha-vedibhiH= by those who understood the meaning of everything viz., philosophers; shamita AdhiH= soothed, mental pain - aadhi is mental pain whereas vyaadhi is physical pain; saH= he that Aja; adhijya kArmukaH= emplacing, bow; jagat= world; a-prati-shAsanam= not, counter, ordering -  incontrovertible;  kR^itavAn = he made.

When learned men soothed his mental condition on the score that the condition in which his father had attained the highest bliss was unlamentable, then that king Aja rendered the whole world incontrovertible to his orders with an emplaced bow. [8-27]


क्षितिरिन्दुमती च भामिनी पतिमासाद्य तमग्र्यपौरुषम्|
प्रथमा बहुरत्नसूरभूदपरा वीरमजीजनत्सुतम्॥ ८-२८

kṣitirindumatī ca bhāminī patimāsādya tamagryapauruṣam|
prathamā bahuratnasūrabhūdaparā vīramajījanatsutam || 8-28

kShitirindumatI ca bhAminI patimAsAdya tamagryapauruSham |
prathamA bahuratnasUrabhUdaparA vIramajIjanatsutam || 8-28


kShitiH indumatI ca bhAminI patim AsAdya tam agrya pauruSham prathamA bahu ratna sUH abhUt aparA vIram ajIjanat sutam

8-28. kShitiH= earth - kingdom; bhAminI indumatI ca= indignant lady, Indumati, also; agrya pauruSham tam patim AsAdya= highly, valorous one, him, as husband, on getting; prathamA bahu ratna sUH abhUt= first [lady - earth], many, diamonds, deliverer, she became; aparA vIram sutam ajIjanat = second one [Indumati], valorous, son, she has delivered.

The Lady Earth and Lady Indumati having obtained most valorous Aja as their husband, the first lady delivered numerous jewels, while the second gave birth to a valiant son, in the husbandhood of Aja. [8-28]

The poet means as to why Indumati is indignant, figuratively, it is to imply that Indumati being eager not to be behind-hand gave birth to a valiant son just as her co-wife, namely the earth, yielded abundance of wealth. Please see Joglekar's notes.


दशरश्मिशतोपमद्युतिम् यशसा दिक्षु दशस्वपि श्रुतम्|
दशपूर्वरथम् यमाख्यया दशकण्ठारिगुरुम् विदुर्बुधाः॥ ८-२९

daśaraśmiśatopamadyutim yaśasā dikṣu daśasvapi śrutam|
daśapūrvaratham yamākhyayā daśakaṇṭhārigurum vidurbudhāḥ || 8-29

dasharashmishatopamadyutim yashasA dikShu dashasvapi shrutam |
dashapUrvaratham yamAkhyayA dashakaNThArigurum vidurbudhAH || 8-29


dasha rashmi shata upama dyutim yashasA dikShu dashasu api shrutam dasha pUrva ratham yam AkhyayA dasha-kaNTha-ari-gurum viduH budhAH

anvaya: dasha-rashmi-shata upama dyutim yashasA dashasu api dikShu shrutam; dasha-kaNTha-ari-gurum yam AkhyayA dasha pUrva ratham budhAH viduH [tam indumatI ajIjanat]

 8-29. dasha-rashmi-shata= ten, rays- hundred - 10*100= 1000 rayed sun; upama dyutim = similar one, in resplendence; yashasA dashasu api dikShu shrutam= by his fame, in ten, even, directions of earth, one who is renowned; dasha-kaNTha-ari-gurum= ten, necked one's, enemy's, father - father of Rama, the enemy of Ravana; yam= whom; AkhyayA= by his name; dasha pUrva ratham= the word, preceding, ratha word; dasha  budhAH viduH= learned men, know about him as such;  [tam indumatI ajIjanat= him, Indumati, delivered].

Whom the wise knew by the name of ratha with the prefix dasha; who was known by his fame in all the ten quarters; whose resplendence was like that of the thousand-rayed sun and who was the father of the enemy of the ten-necked monster - namely Ravana - him the lady Indumati delivered. [8-29]

...and his mortal bride one son, / Whom, bright as sunshine, famous through the worlds / As Dasharatha, after ages knew / The Sire of Rama, ten-necked Ravan's foe.


ऋषिदेवगणस्वधाभुजाम् श्रुतयागप्रसवैः स पार्थिवः|
अनृणत्वमुपेयिवान्बभौ परिधेर्मुक्त इवोष्णदीधितिः॥ ८-३०

ṛṣidevagaṇasvadhābhujām śrutayāgaprasavaiḥ sa pārthivaḥ|
anṛṇatvamupeyivānbabhau paridhermukta ivoṣṇadīdhitiḥ || 8-30

R^iShidevagaNasvadhAbhujAm shrutayAgaprasavaiH sa pArthivaH |
anR^iNatvamupeyivAnbabhau paridhermukta ivoShNadIdhitiH || 8-30


R^iShi deva gaNa svadhA-bhujAm shruta yAga prasavaiH sa pArthivaH anR^iNatvam upeyivAn babhau paridheH mukta iva uShNa dIdhitiH

8-30. shruta= by reciting Vedas; yAga= by performing sacrifices; prasavaiH= by procreating progeny; R^iShi= of sages; deva-gaNa= of gods, hosts; svadhA-bhujAm= of svadha eaters i.e., of manes - the departed ancestors who look forward to the food offered by the sons offered with hymns ending with svathA; svathA - an indeclinable - used to signify the offering to departed ancestors as svAhA is used in the case of the gods; an+R^iNatvam= no, due - free from debt; upeyivAn= one who obtained - Dasharatha; saH pArthivaH= that, king; paridheH mukta uShNa-dIdhitiH iva= from solar halo, freed, hot-glower - sun, as with; babhau = shone forth.

That King Dasharatha who had freed himself from three kinds of debt due to the sages,  gods, and ancestors, by way of his recital of Vedas, by his performance of sacrifices and by begetting sons respectively, dazzled forth like the glowing sun freed from his solar halo. [8-30]


बलमार्तभयोपशान्तये विदुषाम् सत्कृतये बहु श्रुतम्|
वसु तस्य विभोर्न केवलम् गुणवत्तापि परप्रयोजना॥ ८-३१

balamārtabhayopaśāntaye viduṣām satkṛtaye bahu śrutam|
vasu tasya vibhorna kevalam guṇavattāpi paraprayojanā || 8-31

balamArtabhayopashAntaye viduShAm satkR^itaye bahu shrutam |
vasu tasya vibhorna kevalam guNavattApi paraprayojanA || 8-31


balam Arta bhaya upashAntaye viduShAm satkR^itaye bahu shrutam vasu tasya vibhoH na kevalam guNavattA api para prayojanA

8-31. tasya vibhoH= his, that lord's; kevalam vasu= just, wealth; para prayojanam na= others, utility, not - the wealth of this ruler was not the only thing useful for others,; guNavattA api para prayojanA= his possession of good qualities, too, was for the benefit of others; how his good qualities have become useful for others; balam Arta bhaya upashAntaye= his might, was for allaying the  fears of the distressed; bahu shrutam= his high education; viduShAm satkR^itaye = for manifesting respect to the learned.

There is nothing great in saying that his treasury was useful for welfare works, for it is usual; but the treasure of his good qualities like his might that always allayed fears of distressed, and his deep learning that always manifested respect to the learned, thus his possession of good qualities too was always for the benefit of others, which is noteworthy. [8-31]


स कदाचिदवेक्षितप्रजः सह देव्या विजहार सुप्रजाः|
नगरोपवने शचीसखो मरुताम् पालयितेव नन्दने॥ ८-३२

sa kadācidavekṣitaprajaḥ saha devyā vijahāra suprajāḥ|
nagaropavane śacīsakho marutām pālayiteva nandane || 8-32

sa kadAcidavekShitaprajaH saha devyA vijahAra suprajAH |
nagaropavane shacIsakho marutAm pAlayiteva nandane || 8-32


sa kadAcit avekShita prajaH saha devyA vijahAra suprajAH nagara upavane shacI-sakhaH marutAm pAlayita iva nandane

8-32. avekShita prajaH saH= one who has properly taken care of his people, he that Aja; suprajAH= having good son - leaving burden of kingdom on son Dasharatha; kadAcit= at certain time; devyA saha= lady Indumati, along with; nagara upavane= city's, in fringe-gardens; nandane= as in nandana-vana; shacI-sakhaH= lady Shachi Devi, along with; marutAm pAlayita iva= gods, ruler, as with; vijahAra = was sauntering.

On one occasion that king Aja who had taken proper care of his subjects and who had a fine son Dasharatha on whom the burden of kingdom is placed, diverted himself with his queen Indumati in the garden adjoining the city just as the protector of the Marut-gods diverts himself in company of Sachi Devi in the heavenly Nandana gardens. [8-32]


अथ रोधसि दक्षिणोदधेः श्रितगोकर्णनिकेतमीश्वरम्|
उपवीणयितुम् ययौ रवेरुदयावृत्तिपथेन नारदः॥ ८-३३

atha rodhasi dakṣiṇodadheḥ śritagokarṇaniketamīśvaram|
upavīṇayitum yayau raverudayāvṛttipathena nāradaḥ || 8-33

atha rodhasi dakShiNodadheH shritagokarNaniketamIshvaram |
upavINayitum yayau raverudayAvR^ittipathena nAradaH || 8-33


atha rodhasi dakShiNa udadheH shrita gokarNa niketam Ishvaram upavINayitum yayau raveH udaya AvR^itti pathena nAradaH

8-33. atha= then; dakShiNa udadheH rodhasi=  on the shores of the southern ocean; shrita gokarNa niketam= he who had taken his residence in the temple at gokarNa; Ishvaram= Shiva; upavINayitum=  to amuse with the music of his vINa; nAradaH; raveH= sun's; udaya AvR^itti pathena= dawn, return, path - from west to east; [udaga AvR^itti pathena= udIchaH AvRitti pathena = by path returning from north to south -  the South To northern climes;] yayau= passed through.

 Then Narada, the Minstrel Divine, was going along the path of the sun's course from the north to amuse with the music of his vINa the God Shiva who had taken his residence in the temple at gokarNa on the shores of the southern ocean. [8-33]


कुसुमैर्ग्रथितामपार्थिवैः स्रजमातोद्यशिरोनिवेशिताम्|
अहरत्किल तस्य वेगवानधिवासस्पृहयेव मारुतः॥ ८-३४

kusumairgrathitāmapārthivaiḥ srajamātodyaśironiveśitām|
aharatkila tasya vegavānadhivāsaspṛhayeva mārutaḥ || 8-34

kusumairgrathitAmapArthivaiH srajamAtodyashironiveshitAm |
aharatkila tasya vegavAnadhivAsaspR^ihayeva mArutaH || 8-34


kusumaiH grathitAm a+pArthivaiH srajam Atodya-shiraH-niveshitAm aharat kila tasya vegavAn adhivAsa spR^ihayA iva mArutaH

8-34. a+pArthivaiH kusumaiH grathitAm= with non-corporeal, flowers, strung; tasya= his -Narada's; Atodya-shiraH-niveshitAm= vINa's, head, placed -decorated on the upper part of vINa; srajam= such a garland; vegavAn mArutaH= speedster, wind-god; adhivAsa spR^ihayA iva= decorate himself, as if - or - lured by the scent of the garland; aharat kila = carried away, they say so.

Mahati, the vINa of Narada is decorated at its upper part with a garland strung with celestial flowers and the wind-god as if wishing to decorate his formless body with that garland suddenly blew gustily and, they say, made away with it.  [8-34]


भ्रमरैः कुसुमानुसारिभिः परिकीर्णा परिवादिनी मुनेः|
ददृशे पवनापलेपजम् सृजती बाष्पमिवाञ्जनाविलम्॥ ८-३५

bhramaraiḥ kusumānusāribhiḥ parikīrṇā parivādinī muneḥ|
dadṛśe pavanāpalepajam sṛjatī bāṣpamivāñjanāvilam || 8-35

bhramaraiH kusumAnusAribhiH parikIrNA parivAdinI muneH |
dadR^ishe pavanApalepajam sR^ijatI bAShpamivA~njanAvilam || 835


bhramaraiH kusuma anusAribhiH parikIrNA parivAdinI muneH dadR^ishe pavana avalepa jam sR^ijatI bAShpam iva a~njanA vilam

8-35. kusuma anusAribhiH bhramaraiH parikIrNA= flowers, following, with honeybees, swarming over; muneH parivAdinI= sage Narada's, seven-stringed vINa; pavana avalepa jam= wind-god's, atrocity, caused; a~njanA vilam= with mascara, turbid; bAShpam sR^ijatI iva= tears, shedding, as though; dadR^ishe = she - vINa - looked.

Honeybees are swarming over that garland so far adorned on Narada's vINa have followed it in a stream the minute wind-god knocked off that garland, and that glide of honeybees looked like the spate of tears of that lady called Mahati, the vINa of sage Narada, besmirched with mascara, shed owing to the condescending action of the wind-god. [8-35] 


अभिभूय विभूतिमार्तवीम् मधुगन्धातिशयेन वीरुधाम्|
नृपतेरमरस्रगाप सा दयितोरुस्तनकोटिसुस्थितीम्॥ ८-३६

abhibhūya vibhūtimārtavīm madhugandhātiśayena vīrudhām|
nṛpateramarasragāpa sā dayitorustanakoṭisusthitīm || 8-36

abhibhUya vibhUtimArtavIm madhugandhAtishayena vIrudhAm |
nR^ipateramarasragApa sA dayitorustanakoTisusthitIm || 8-36


abhibhUya vibhUtim ArtavIm madhu gandha atishayena vIrudhAm nR^ipateH amara srak Apa sA dayita uru stana koTi susthitIm

8-36. sA amara srak= she, that celestial, garland; madhu gandha atishayena= nectar, scent, by excellence of; vIrudhAm ArtavIm vibhUtim = creepers of earth, of seasonal nature, their splendour; abhibhUya= surpassing - earthly flowers; nR^ipateH dayita= king's beloved's; uru stana koTi= on the surface of the full breasts susthitIm Apa = a convenient resting-spot, secured.

That heavenly garland far surpassed the seasonal splendour of earthly creepers by means of its excess nectar and fragrance and now wafted by wind secured a convenient resting-spot on the surface of the full breasts of the king's beloved, lady Indumati. [8-36]


क्षणमात्रसखीम् सुजातयोः स्तनयोस्तामवलोक्य विह्वला|
निमिमील नरोत्तमप्रिया हृतचन्द्रा तमसेव कौमुदी॥ ८-३७

kṣaṇamātrasakhīm sujātayoḥ stanayostāmavalokya vihvalā|
nimimīla narottamapriyā hṛtacandrā tamaseva kaumudī || 8-37

kShaNamAtrasakhIm sujAtayoH stanayostAmavalokya vihvalA |
nimimIla narottamapriyA hR^itacandrA tamaseva kaumudI || 8-37


kShaNa mAtrasakhIm sujAtayoH stanayoH tAm avalokya vihvalA nimimIla nara uttama priyA hR^ita candrA tamasA eva kaumudI

8-37. sujAtayoH stanayoH= of beautifully formed breasts; kShaNa mAtra sakhIm= only for a moment, companion - on becoming - that garland; tAm avalokya vihvalA= her - garland, on beholding, overpowered with agitation; nara uttama priyA= king, the best, his beloved; tamasA hR^ita candrA kaumudI iva= by planet Rahu, swalloed, moon, moonlight, as if; nimimIla= [Indumati] closed her eyes [in total darkness of eternal sleep].

The beloved queen of the king, namely Indumati, became overpowered with agitation on beholding that garland which was only a moment's companion of her beautifully formed breasts; and closed her eyes in total darkness of eternal sleep, like the moon-light enveloped in darkness when the eclipsing planet Rahu devours the moon. [8-37]

kaumidi is moonlight; c.f., Joglekar's notes. 


वपुषा करणोज्झितेन सा निपतन्ती पतिमप्यपातयत्|
ननु तैलनिषेकबिन्दुना सह दीपार्चिरुपैति मेदिनीम्॥ ८-३८

vapuṣā karaṇojjhitena sā nipatantī patimapyapātayat|
nanu tailaniṣekabindunā saha dīpārcirupaiti medinīm || 8-38

vapuShA karaNojjhitena sA nipatantI patimapyapAtayat |
nanu tailaniShekabindunA saha dIpArcirupaiti medinIm || 8-38


vapuShA karaNa ujjhitena sA nipatantI patim api apAtayat nanu taila niSheka bindunA saha dIpArciH upaiti medinIm

8-38. karaNa ujjhitena vapuShA= sense organs, she who is bereft, with such [insensate] body; nipatantI= while she is falling down; sA patim api apAtayat= she, husband, also, made to fall; taila niSheka bindunA saha= oil, wet, drop, along with; dIpa arciH= lamp's, [a little] flame; medinIm upaiti nanu = to earth, reaches, isn't it.

In herself falling down with her body forsaken by the senses, she made her husband also drop down along with her; a bit of flame drops down to the ground along with a trickle of oil from a lamp, isn't it! [8-38]

So far Aja and Indumati are wedded like the inseparable oil blob and its tiny flame; now Indumati lost the candant of her life, prANa-diipa-jvaala, as with a dropped spark of a wick, whereby Aja became the residuum of their partnership, like a flameless oil blob. 


उभयोरपि पार्श्ववर्तिनाम् तुमुलेनार्तरवेण वेजिताः|
विहगाः कमलाकरालयाः समदुःखा इव तत्र चुक्रुशुः॥ ८-३९

ubhayorapi pārśvavartinām tumulenārtaraveṇa vejitāḥ|
vihagāḥ kamalākarālayāḥ samaduḥkhā iva tatra cukruśuḥ || 8-39

ubhayorapi pArshvavartinAm tumulenArtaraveNa vejitAH |
vihagAH kamalAkarAlayAH samaduHkhA iva tatra cukrushuH || 8-39


ubhayoH api pArshva vartinAm tumulena Arta raveNa vejitAH vihagAH kamala-AkarAlayAH sama duHkhA iva tatra cukrushuH

8-39. ubhayoH = on both of their; pArshva vartinAm= side, guards; tumulena Arta raveNa= with loud, cries of distress; vejitAH= frightened; kamala-Akara AlayAH = lotus, treasures, houses - lotus pond's; vihagAH= water fowls; tatra= in that matter - of queen's falling; sama duHkhA iva= co-sufferers, as if; cukrushuH= raised hue and cry.

The water-fowls available in nearby lotus pond being frightened by the loud cries of anguish uttered by the side-guards, raised hue and cry as if they too share the adversity bechanced on the queen. [8-39]


नृपतेर्व्यजनादिभिस्तमो नुनुदे सा तु तथैव संस्थिता|
प्रतिकारविधानमायुषः सति शेषे हि फलाय कल्पते॥ ८-४०

nṛpatervyajanādibhistamo nunude sā tu tathaiva saṁsthitā|
pratikāravidhānamāyuṣaḥ sati śeṣe hi phalāya kalpate || 8-40

nR^ipatervyajanAdibhistamo nunude sA tu tathaiva sa.nsthitA |
pratikAravidhAnamAyuShaH sati sheShe hi phalAya kalpate || 8-40


nR^ipateH vyajanAdibhiH tamaH nunude sA tu tathaiva sa.nsthitA pratikAra vidhAnam AyuShaH sati sheShe hi phalAya kalpate

8-40. nR^ipateH tamaH= king's, swoon; vyajana AdibhiH nunude= by fanning, etc, removed; sA tu= she, but; tathaiva sa.nsthitA= like that only, remained; hi= indeed; pratikAra vidhAnam = medication, procedure; AyuShaH sheShe sati= life, is remaining, if; phalAya kalpate= for result, it will be put to use - otherwise, it is a waste.

The fainting fit of the king was dispelled by fanning, sprinkling of water etc; but the queen Indumati remained static; for, application of a remedy is worthwhile provided life lasts in the body. [8-40]


प्रतियोजयितव्यवल्लकीसमवस्थामथ सत्त्वविप्लवात्|
स निनाय नितान्तवत्सलः परिगृह्योचितमङ्कमङ्गनाम्॥ ८-४१

pratiyojayitavyavallakīsamavasthāmatha sattvaviplavāt|
sa nināya nitāntavatsalaḥ parigṛhyocitamaṅkamaṅganām || 8-41

pratiyojayitavyavallakIsamavasthAmatha sattvaviplavAt |
sa ninAya nitAntavatsalaH parigR^ihyocitama~Nkama~NganAm || 8-41


pratiyojayitavya vallakI samavasthAm atha sattva viplavAt sa ninAya nitAnta vatsalaH parigR^ihya ucitam a~Nkam a~NganAm

8-41. atha sattva viplavAt= then, life principle's, on departure; pratiyojayitavya = tuneable with strings; vallakI= vINa; samavasthAm= in a similar state - she who is now similar to an untuned string instrument; a~NganAm= such a lady; nitAnta vatsalaH= extremely loving - king; sa= he that Aja; parigR^ihya= by embracing; ucitam a~Nkam ninAya = which she was familiar, on his lap, placed her.

Then that extremely loving king Aja held his queen whose condition was like that of a tuneless string instrument on account of the loss of life, and placed her on his lap with which she was familiar. [8-41]


पतिरङ्कनिषण्णया तया करणापायविभिन्नवर्णया|
समलक्ष्यत बिभ्रदाविलाम् मृगलेखामुषसीव चन्द्रमाः॥ ८-४२

patiraṅkaniṣaṇṇayā tayā karaṇāpāyavibhinnavarṇayā|
samalakṣyata bibhradāvilām mṛgalekhāmuṣasīva candramāḥ || 8-42

patira~NkaniShaNNayA tayA karaNApAyavibhinnavarNayA |
samalakShyata bibhradAvilAm mR^igalekhAmuShasIva candramAH || 8-42


patiH a~Nka niShaNNayA tayA karaNAa apAya vibhinna varNayA samalakShyata bibhrat AvilAm mR^iga lekham uShasi iva candramAH

8-42. patiH a~Nka niShaNNayA= husband's, on lap, reposing - with her; karaNAa apAya vibhinna varNayA= senses, by loss of, different, in colour - complexion paled; tayA= by her; uShasi AvilAm mR^iga lekham bibhrat candramAH iva= at dawn, obscured / blanched, deer's, mark, moon, as if; samalakShyata= he looked so.

When she with a griseous complexion on account of the loss of senses reposed lifeless on the lap of her husband, he that king Aja appeared like morning time moon marked with blanched deer on his mien. [8-42]


विललाप स बाष्पगद्गदम् सहजामप्यपहाय धीरताम्|
अभितप्तमयोऽपि मार्दवम् भजते कैव कथा शरीरिषु॥ ८-४३

vilalāpa sa bāṣpagadgadam sahajāmapyapahāya dhīratām|
abhitaptamayo'pi mārdavam bhajate kaiva kathā śarīriṣu || 8-43

vilalApa sa bAShpagadgadam sahajAmapyapahAya dhIratAm |
abhitaptamayo.api mArdavam bhajate kaiva kathA sharIriShu || 8-43


vilalApa sa bAShpa gadgadam sahajAm api apahAya dhIratAm abhitaptam ayaH api mArdavam bhajate kaiva kathA sharIriShu

8-43. saH sahajAm api dhIratAm apahAya= he, natural, though, firmness, on forgoing; bAShpa gadgadam vilalApa= with tears, stammer, bewailed; abhitaptam ayaH api mArdavam bhajate = when excessively heated, iron, even, softness, acquires; sharIriShu kaiva kathA = of those possessing bodies, what, can be said.

Having even given up his natural firmness Aja bewailed stammering on account of his being choked with tears. Even iron when excessively heated acquires softness; what then can be said in respect of those possessing bodies. [8-43]


कुसुमान्यपि गात्रसंगमात्प्रभवन्त्यायुरपोहितुम् यदि|
न भविष्यति हन्त साधनम् किमिवान्यत्प्रहरिष्यतो विधेः॥ ८-४४

kusumānyapi gātrasaṁgamātprabhavantyāyurapohitum yadi|
na bhaviṣyati hanta sādhanam kimivānyatprahariṣyato vidheḥ || 8-44

kusumAnyapi gAtrasa.ngamAtprabhavantyAyurapohitum yadi |
na bhaviShyati hanta sAdhanam kimivAnyatprahariShyato vidheH || 8-44


kusumAni api gAtra sa.ngamAt prabhavanti AyuH apohitum yadi na bhaviShyati hanta sAdhanam kim iva anyat prahariShyataH vidheH

8-44. kusumAni api = flowers, even; gAtra sa.ngamAt= corporeal body, on touching; AyuH apohitum prabhavanti yadi= life, to remove, embark, if; hanta= oh, god; prahariShyataH vidheH= of killer, Destiny; anyat= any other thing; kim iva sAdhanam na bhaviShyati = why, not, instrument, not becomes.

"Even when delicate flowers can cut life short by a mere contact with the corporeal frame what else then, alas, cannot be the weapon of that butcher of a god called Destiny. [8-44]

If Fate by touch of flowers can kill, what dart / May not be deadly when He seeks to slay ?

From here it is the monologue of king Aja.


अथवा मृदु वस्तु हिंसितुम् मृदुनैवारभते प्रजान्तकः|
हिमसेकविपत्तिरत्र मे नलिनी पूर्वनिदर्शनम् मता॥ ८-४५

athavā mṛdu vastu hiṁsitum mṛdunaivārabhate prajāntakaḥ|
himasekavipattiratra me nalinī pūrvanidarśanam matā || 8-45

athavA mR^idu vastu hi.nsitum mR^idunaivArabhate prajAntakaH |
himasekavipattiratra me nalinI pUrvanidarshanam matA || 8-45


athavA mR^idu vastu hi.nsitum mR^idunaiva Arabhate praja-antakaH  hima seka vipattiH atra me nalinI pUrva nidarshanam matA

8-45. athavA= or else; praja-antakaH = killer-god Destiny; mR^idu vastu= a delicate, thing;  mR^idunaiva= with another delicate thing, alone; hi.nsitum Arabhate= to destroy, he starts; atra= in this regard; me= to me; hima seka vipattiH nalinI= by snow, drenching, destruction, of a lotus; pUrva nidarshanam matA= first, illustration, I look upon.

Or, the God of Death undertakes to destroy a delicate object by a delicate agent alone, for I reckon the destruction of a lotus just by frost as first illustration. [8-45]


स्रगियम् यदि जीवितापहा हृदये किम् निहिता न हन्ति माम्|
विषमप्यमृतम् क्वचिद्भवेदमृतम् वा विषमीश्वरेच्छया॥ ८-४६

sragiyam yadi jīvitāpahā hṛdaye kim nihitā na hanti mām|
viṣamapyamṛtam kvacidbhavedamṛtam vā viṣamīśvarecchayā || 8-46

sragiyam yadi jIvitApahA hR^idaye kim nihitA na hanti mAm |
viShamapyamR^itam kvacidbhavedamR^itam vA viShamIshvarecChayA || 8-46


srak iyam yadi jIvita apahA hR^idaye kim nihitA na hanti mAm viSham api amR^itam kvacit bhavet amR^itam vA viSham Ishvara icChayA

            8-46. iyam srak= this, garland; yadi jIvita apahA= if, life, taking [garland]; hR^idaye nihitA = on chest, when placed [when I came into contact with it with my chest]; mAm kim na hanti= me, why, not, killing; Ishvara icChayA= by the will of the Omnipotent; kvacit viSham api amR^itam bhavet= some, poson, ambrosia, it becomes; amR^itam vA viSham= ambrosia becomes, poison.

If this is a killer-garland why does it not kill me when I touched it with my chest? By the will of the Omnipotent in some places poison becomes nectar and nectar becomes poison... [8-46]        


अथवा मम भाग्यविप्लवादशनिः कल्पित एव वेधसा|
यदनेन तरुर्न पातितः क्षपिता तद्विटपाश्रिता लता॥ ८-४७

athavā mama bhāgyaviplavādaśaniḥ kalpita eva vedhasā|
yadanena tarurna pātitaḥ kṣapitā tadviṭapāśritā latā || 8-47

athavA mama bhAgyaviplavAdashaniH kalpita eva vedhasA |
yadanena tarurna pAtitaH kShapitA tadviTapAshritA latA || 8-47


athavA mama bhAgya viplavAt ashaniH kalpita eva vedhasA yat anena taruH na pAtitaH kShapitA tat viTapa AshritA latA

8-47. athavA= or else; mama bhAgya viplavAt= by my, fortune, adverseness; eSha= this - garland; vedhasA ashaniH kalpita= by Creator, [like] thunderbolt, this is created; yat= why because; anena= by this - thunderbolt like garland; taruH na pAtitaH= tree [i.e., me], not, felled; [kintu= but]; tat viTapa AshritA latA kShapitA= that, tree, dependent, creeper, is felled.

Or, through the adverseness of my fate, the Creator has created this garland as thunderbolt by which the tree i.e., me, has not been felled by it while it threw down the creeper entwined round the branches of that tree. [8-47]


कृतवत्यसि नावधीरणामपराद्धेऽपि यदा चिरम् मयि|
कथमेकपदे निरागसम् जनमाभाष्यमिमम् न मन्यसे॥ ८-४८

kṛtavatyasi nāvadhīraṇāmaparāddhe'pi yadā ciram mayi|
kathamekapade nirāgasam janamābhāṣyamimam na manyase || 8-48

kR^itavatyasi nAvadhIraNAmaparAddhe.api yadA ciram mayi |
kathamekapade nirAgasam janamAbhAShyamimam na manyase || 848


kR^itavatI asi na avadhIraNAm aparAddhe.api yadA ciram mayi katham ekapade nirAgasam janam abhAShyam imam na manyase

8-48. mayi ciram aparAddhe.api= I am, many times, was at fault; yadA na avadhIraNAm kR^itavatI asi= when not, evince any indifference, you did, make; katham ekapade nir+Agasam imam janam= how, suddenly, with a faultless, man, [i.e., me]; abhAShyam= worthy of being talked to; na manyase= not, considering.

Even when I was at fault for a long time you did not evince any indifference towards me: how then suddenly you do not consider this person who is innocent as worthy of being talked to. [8-48]


ध्रुवमस्मि शठः शुचिस्मिते विदितः कैतववत्सलस्तव|
परलोकमसंनिवृत्तये यदनापृच्छ्य गतासि मामितः॥ ८-४९

dhruvamasmi śaṭhaḥ śucismite viditaḥ kaitavavatsalastava|
paralokamasaṁnivṛttaye yadanāpṛcchya gatāsi māmitaḥ || 8-49

dhruvamasmi shaThaH shucismite viditaH kaitavavatsalastava |
paralokamasa.nnivR^ittaye yadanApR^icChya gatAsi mAmitaH || 8-49


dhruvam asmi shaThaH shucismite viditaH kaitava vatsalaH tava paralokam asa.nnivR^ittaye yat anApR^icChya gatAsi mAm itaH

9-49. shucismite= Oh thou with guileless smiles! shaThaH= a veritable rogue; kaitava vatsalaH= one feigning love; dhruvam tava viditaH asmi= truly, by you, known, I am; yat= by which reason; mAm anApR^icChya= me, without asking - bidding farewell; itaH paralokam= from here - from me, to other world; asa.nnivR^ittaye= in a returnless journey; gatAsi = you have gone.

Oh thou with guileless smiles! From me you have gone to a returnless world even without bidding me adieu, by that, you consider me a veritable rogue feigning love, or what! [8-49]

Thou doubt'st my love, / O smiling Lady! wherefore, scorning fraud, / (My leave unasked) thou took'st thy way to Heaven.


दयिताम् यदि तावदन्वगाद्विनिवृत्तम् किमिदम् तया विना|
सहताम् हतजीवितम् मम प्रबलामात्मकृतेन वेदनाम्॥ ८-५०

dayitām yadi tāvadanvagādvinivṛttam kimidam tayā vinā|
sahatām hatajīvitam mama prabalāmātmakṛtena vedanām || 8-50

dayitAm yadi tAvadanvagAdvinivR^ittam kimidam tayA vinA |
sahatAm hatajIvitam mama prabalAmAtmakR^itena vedanAm || 8-50


dayitAm yadi tAvat anvagAt vinivR^ittam kim idam tayA vinA sahatAm hata jIvitam mama prabalAm AtmakR^itena vedanAm

8-50. idam mama hata-jIvitam tAvat= this, my, wretched, life; [Adau= firstly]; dayitAm anvagAt yadi= with beloved, followed, when; [tarhi= then]; tayA vinA kim vinivR^ittam= her, without, why, returned; [ata eva= wherefore]; AtmakR^itena prabalAm vedanAm sahatAm= of one's own, intense, grief, let it suffer.

If this accursed life of mine first departed along with my beloved when I too swooned at the fall of killer-garland, then why has it come back without her; hence, let this wretched life of mine suffer the intense grief created by itself inasmuch as it returned alone. [8-50]


सुरतश्रमसंभृतो मुखे ध्रियते स्वेदलवोद्गमोऽपि ते|
अथ चास्तमिता त्वमात्मना धिगिमाम् देहभृतामसारताम्॥ ८-५१

surataśramasaṁbhṛto mukhe dhriyate svedalavodgamo'pi te|
atha cāstamitā tvamātmanā dhigimām dehabhṛtāmasāratām || 8-51

suratashramasa.nbhR^ito mukhe dhriyate svedalavodgamo.api te |
atha cAstamitA tvamAtmanA dhigimAm dehabhR^itAmasAratAm || 8-52


surata shrama sa.nbhR^itaH mukhe dhriyate sveda lava udgamaH api te atha ca astamitA tvam AtmanA dhik imAm dehabhR^itAm a+sAratAm

8-51. surata shrama sa.nbhR^itaH= sexual union's, by strain, produced; sveda lava udgamaH api= sweat drops, coming out, even; te mukhe dhriyate= your, face, still there; atha ca= yet; tvam AtmanA astam itA= you, by yourself, perish, obtained; [ataH= whereof]; deha bhR^itAm imAm a+sAratAm= corporeal bodies, bearing ones - mortals, this, not, sapfulness - saplessness; dhik = fie on it.

Drops of sweat of coital exertion have not yet dried on your face, but your life departed; sea-change in a split second; oh, fie upon this ephemerality of corporals. [8-51]

Still on thy face, fair Spouse, / Tired love has left its trace, but soul is fled: /Alas, how transient are the lives of men!


मनसापि न विप्रियम् मया कृतपूर्वम् तव किम् जहासि माम्|
ननु शब्दपतिः क्षितेरहम् त्वयि मे भावनिबन्धना रतिः॥ ८-५२

manasāpi na vipriyam mayā kṛtapūrvam tava kim jahāsi mām|
nanu śabdapatiḥ kṣiteraham tvayi me bhāvanibandhanā ratiḥ || 8-52

manasApi na vipriyam mayA kR^itapUrvam tava kim jahAsi mAm |
nanu shabdapatiH kShiteraham tvayi me bhAvanibandhanA ratiH || 8-52


manasApi na vipriyam mayA kR^ita pUrvam tava kim jahAsi mAm nanu shabda patiH kShiteH aham tvayi me bhAva nibandhanA ratiH

8-52. mayA manasA api tava vipriyam= by me, mentally, even, to you, wrong; na kR^ita pUrvam= not, done earlier; kim mAm jahAsi= why, me, you left; nanu= oh, dear; aham kShiteH shabda patiH= I am, land's, verbal, lord - verbally I am lord of the land, but; bhAva nibandhanA me ratiH tvayi = based on devotion, my affection, is centred in you.

Never before have I even mentally done anything which may be a wrong to yon: why do you then forsake me. Really and truly I am lord-master of the earth in words; since my affection based on devotion is centred in you. [8-52]


करभोरु करोति मारुतस्त्वदुपावर्तनशङ्कि मे मनः॥ ८-५३

karabhoru karoti mārutastvadupāvartanaśaṅki me manaḥ || 8-53

kusumotkhacitAnvalIbhR^itashcalayanbhR^i~NgarucastavAlakAn |
karabhoru karoti mArutastvadupAvartanasha~Nki me manaH || 8-53


kusuma utkhacitAn valI bhR^itaH calayan bhR^i~Nga rucaH tava alakAn karabhoru karoti mArutaH tvat upAvartana sha~Nki me manaH

8-53. kusuma utkhacitAn= with flowers, up-braided - not chiding but hairdo bun with flower festoon; valI bhR^itaH=curls, bearing; bhR^i~Nga rucaH tava alakAn = honeybee, like, your, hair-locks; karabhoru= Oh thou with trunk-like thighs; calayan mArutaH = while moving, the wind; me manaH= in my, heart; tvat upAvartana sha~Nki karoti = your, return, doubt, creating.

Oh thou with trunk-like thighs! The breeze that has been shaking thy wavy hair which are dark like beetles' and which are thickly intertwined with flowers brings my mind to entertain a hope of thy return. [8-53]


तदपोहितुमर्हसि प्रिये प्रतिबोधेन विषादमाशु मे|
ज्वलितेन गुहागतम् तमस्तुहिनाद्रेरिव नक्तमोषधिः॥ ८-५४

tadapohitumarhasi priye pratibodhena viṣādamāśu me|
jvalitena guhāgatam tamastuhinādreriva naktamoṣadhiḥ || 8-54

tadapohitumarhasi priye pratibodhena viShAdamAshu me |
jvalitena guhAgatam tamastuhinAdreriva naktamoShadhiH || 8-54


tat apohitum arhasi priye pratibodhena viShAdam Ashu me jvalitena guhA gatam tamaH tuhina adreH iva naktam oShadhiH

8-54. priye= oh, dear; tat- thereby; Ashu= quickly; me viShAdam =my, grief; naktam oShadhiH = night, herb - a self-luminescent herb called tR^iNa jyothi; jvalitena= by its luminescence; tuhina adreH guhA gatam tamaH iva = in Himalaya, mountain, in cave, existing, darkness, as with; pratibodhena apohitum arhasi = by your waking up, to remove [my darkness], apt of you.

Therefore, my darling, pray do remove my grief promptly by again coming to consciousness just as a self-luminescent herb called tR^iNa jyothi dispels the night time darkness lurking in the caverns of the Himalayas. [8-54]


इदमुच्छ्वसितालकम् मुखम् तव  विश्रान्तकथम् दुनोति माम्|
निशि सुप्तमिवैकपङ्कजम् विरताभ्यन्तरषट्पदस्वनम्॥ ८-५५

idamucchvasitālakam mukham tava  viśrāntakatham dunoti mām|
niśi suptamivaikapaṅkajam viratābhyantaraṣaṭpadasvanam || 8-55

idamucChvasitAlakam mukham tava vishrAntakatham dunoti mAm |
nishi suptamivaikapa~Nkajam viratAbhyantaraShaTpadasvanam || 8-55


idam ucChvasita alakam mukham tava vishrAnta katham dunoti mAm nishi suptam iva eka pa~Nkajam virata abhyantara ShaTpada svanam

8-55. idam ucChvasita alakam= this, suspiring [- moving with wind so looking like exhalations], hair-locks; vishrAnta katham= [from which] ceased, amorous talks; tava mukham= your, face; [looking like] nishi suptam= in night, slept [lotus]; virata abhyantara ShaTpada svanam= ceased, inside [the lotus], honeybees, humming; eka pa~Nkajam iva= single, lotus, like; mAm dunoti = me, it is tormenting.

This face of yours with swaying hair-locks and muted speech, like a lonely lotus slumbering in night with stilled hum of bees in and around it, anguishes me... [8-55]

I grieve to see thy face, which locks dispersed / Disfigure, mute once eloquent, as when / A lonely lotus slumbers, stilled the hum / Of bees that sleep there.


शशिनम् पुनरेति शर्वरी दयिता द्वन्द्वचरम् पतत्रिणम्|
इति तौ विरहान्तरक्षमौ कथमत्यन्तगता न माम् दहेः॥ ८-५६

śaśinam punareti śarvarī dayitā dvandvacaram patatriṇam|
iti tau virahāntarakṣamau kathamatyantagatā na mām daheḥ || 8-56

shashinam punareti sharvarI dayitA dvandvacaram patatriNam |
iti tau virahAntarakShamau kathamatyantagatA na mAm daheH || 8-56


shashinam punaH eti sharvarI dayitA dvandva caram patatriNam punaH eti iti tau viraha antara kShamau katham atyanta gatA na mAm daheH

8-56. sharvarI shashinam punaH eti = night, to moon, again, goes; dvandva caram patatriNam= in pair, moving, chakravAka bird; dayitA punaH eti iti= [bird's] ladylove, again, meets; tau= those two moon and bird; viraha antara kShamau= they are able to bear the [limited 1duration of separation; atyanta gatA= who have gone never to return, [tvam= you]; katham mAm na daheH= how, me, not, torment.

At the close of day night meets the moon once again; at the close of night the female chArvAka bird meets her pairing companion once again; hence, those two, moon and chaarvaaka male bird, are able to bear the limited duration of separation; but how can you, who have gone never to return, fail to burn me.

Night regains her Moon, / The Cuckoo finds his mate, and parting's pangs / Are cured by meeting: how canst thou, O Love, / Destroy my life by leaving me for aye?

Please see Joglekar's long notes on this stanza.


नवपल्लवसंस्तरेऽपि ते मृदु दूयेत यदङ्गमर्पितम्|
तदिदम् विषहिष्यते कथम् वद वामोरु चिताधिरोहणम्॥ ८-५७

navapallavasaṁstare'pi te mṛdu dūyeta yadaṅgamarpitam|
tadidam viṣahiṣyate katham vada vāmoru citādhirohaṇam || 8-57

navapallavasa.nstare.api te mR^idu dUyeta yada~Ngamarpitam |
tadidam viShahiShyate katham vada vAmoru citAdhirohaNam || 8-57


nava pallava sa.nstare api te mR^idu dUyeta yat a~Ngam arpitam tadidam viShahiShyate katham vada vAmoru cita adhirohaNam

8-57. nava pallava sa.nstare arpitam api= tender, leaves, on bed, when placed, even; mR^idu te yat a~Ngam dUyeta= delicate, your, which, body, will be pained; vAmoru= one with pretty thighs; tadidam= that this [body]; cita adhirohaNam katham viShahiShyate= on pyre, placement, how, it tolerates; vada = tell me.

Oh, one with pretty legs, do tell me how that delicate body of yours which used to be pained even when placed on a layer of tender foliage will be able to tolerate placement on a pyre. [8-57]


इयमप्रतिबोधशायिनीम् रशना त्वाम् प्रथमा रहःसखी|
गतिविभ्रमसादनीरवा न शुचा नानु मृतेव लक्ष्यते॥ ८-५८

iyamapratibodhaśāyinīm raśanā tvām prathamā rahaḥsakhī|
gativibhramasādanīravā na śucā nānu mṛteva lakṣyate || 8-58

iyamapratibodhashAyinIm rashanA tvAm prathamA rahaHsakhI |
gativibhramasAdanIravA na shucA nAnu mR^iteva lakShyate || 8-58


iyam apratibodha shAyinIm rashanA tvAm prathamA rahaH sakhI gati vibhrama sAda nIravA na shucA na anu mR^ita iva lakShyate

5-58. iyam prathamA rahaH sakhI= this, important, even in private, a companion; gati vibhrama= of your sportive motion; sAda= cessation; nIravA = soundless; rashanA= girdle; a+pratibodha shAyinIm= not, waking up, sleeping - sleeping like the dead; tvAm anu= you, following; shucA= in grief; mR^ita iva= dead one, like; na lakShyate= not, appearing; [iti] na= [that which] is not there.

This girdle of yours, the most important companion even in your private, is now silent on account of the cessation of your sportive motion; but it does not seem not to have, out of grief, followed you who are sleeping never to wake again. [8-58]


कलमन्यभृतासु भासितम् कलहंसीषु मदालसम् गतम्|
पृषतीषु विलोलमीक्षितम् पवनाधूतलतासु विभ्रमाः॥ ८-५९

त्रिदिवोत्सुकयाप्यवेक्ष्य माम् निहिताः सत्यममी गुणास्त्वया|
विरहे तव मे गुरुव्यथम् हृदयम् न त्ववलम्बितुम् क्षमाः॥ ८-६०

kalamanyabhṛtāsu bhāsitam kalahaṁsīṣu madālasam gatam|
pṛṣatīṣu vilolamīkṣitam pavanādhūtalatāsu vibhramāḥ || 8-59

tridivotsukayāpyavekṣya mām nihitāḥ satyamamī guṇāstvayā|
virahe tava me guruvyatham hṛdayam na tvavalambitum kṣamāḥ || 8-60

kalamanyabhR^itAsu bhAsitam kalaha.nsIShu madAlasam gatam |
pR^iShatIShu vilolamIkShitam pavanAdhUtalatAsu vibhramAH || 8-59

tridivotsukayApyavekShya mAm nihitAH satyamamI guNAstvayA |
virahe tava me guruvyatham hR^idayam na tvavalambitum kShamAH || 8-60


kalam anya bhR^itAsu bhAsitam kala ha.nsIShu madAlasam gatam pR^iShatIShu vilolam IkShitam pavana AdhUta latAsu vibhramAH tridiva utsukayA api avekShya mAm nihitAH satyam amI guNAH tvayA virahe tava me guru vyatham hR^idayam na tu avalambitum kShamAH

8-59, 60. anya bhR^itAsu= by others, fostered - kokila-s hatched in crows nests; kalam bhAsitam= sweetly, said - sung; kala ha.nsIShu madAlasam gatam= in royal swans, dalliance in walking; pR^iShatIShu vilolam IkShitam= rolling of the eyes in the spotted deer; pavana AdhUta latAsu vibhramAH = sportive moving about in the creepers shaken by the wind;  iti= in this way;  amI guNAH= these, qualities - factors; eShu= in them - kokila, deer etc; tridiva utsukayA tvayA= to heaven going, interested, by you; mAm avekShya= me, on seeing - seeing my anguish in separation from you; satyam nihitAH= truly, they are retained; but; tava virahe guru vyatham= in your, separation, heavily, anguished; me hR^idayam= my, heart; avalambitum= to bolster up; na tu kShamAH= not, indeed, competent.

Sweet singing of kokilA-s, dalliance in the walk of swans, rolling eyes of spotted deer, and sportive swaying of windswept creepers: all these characteristics have been, it is true, left by you have here out of a consideration for me when going to heaven; but they all are ineffectual to cheer up my heart which is excessively troubled at your separation. [8-59. 60]


मिथुनम् परिकल्पितम् त्वया सहकारः फलिनी च नन्विमौ|
अविधाय विवाहसत्क्रियामनयोर्गम्यत इत्यसांप्रतम्॥ ८-६१

mithunam parikalpitam tvayā sahakāraḥ phalinī ca nanvimau|
avidhāya vivāhasatkriyāmanayorgamyata ityasāṁpratam || 8-61

mithunam parikalpitam tvayA sahakAraH phalinI ca nanvimau |
avidhAya vivAhasatkriyAmanayorgamyata ityasA.npratam || 8-61


mithunam parikalpitam tvayA sahakAraH phalinI ca nanu imau avidhAya vivAha satkriyAm anayoH gamyata iti asA.npratam

8-61. nanu= oh, darling; sahakAraH phalinI ca= mango tree, priyangu creeper, also; imau tvayA mithunam parikalpitam= these two, by you, as a pair, made; anayoH vivAha satkriyAm a+vidhAya= for these two, marriage, ceremony, not, arranging; gamyata iti= your going away, that which topic is there; a+sA.npratam= improper.

You have paired this mango tree and the priyangu creeper, and oh, darling, departing without celebrating the auspicious marriage-ceremony of both of these two is improper on your part. [8-61]

Didst not thou betrothe / This scented Mango to his Creeper-bride? / How leave them then unwed, deserting me / Untimely ?


कुसुमम् कृतदोहदस्त्वया यदशोकोऽयमुदीरयिष्यति|
अलकाभरणम् कथम् नु तत्तव नेष्यामि निवापमाल्यताम्॥ ८-६२

kusumam kṛtadohadastvayā yadaśoko'yamudīrayiṣyati|
alakābharaṇam katham nu tattava neṣyāmi nivāpamālyatām || 8-62

kusumam kR^itadohadastvayA yadashoko.ayamudIrayiShyati |
alakAbharaNam katham nu tattava neShyAmi nivApamAlyatAm || 8-62


kusumam kR^ita dohadaH tvayA yat ashokaH ayam udIrayiShyati alaka AbharaNam katham nu tat tava neShyAmi nivApa mAlyatAm

8-62. tvayA= by you, kR^ita dohadaH= rendered help - any preparation or process by which blossoms are produced; ayam ashokaH= this, Ashoka tree; yat kusumam udIrayiShyati tava alaka AbharaNam= which, flowers, it blossoms, your, curls, adornment; tat= that - flowers; katham nu= how, indeed; nivApa mAlyatAm neShyAmi= as funeral, wreath, I can place [on pyre].

This Ashoka has blossomed only when you rendered help to it and those flowers have become adoration on your curls in all these days; how can I place the very same flowers as your funeral wreath. [8-62]

Shall these hands weave funeral wreaths / Of that Ashoka's blossoms, which thyself / Hast coaxed, made coy, and fostered lovingly, / To deck thy ringlets?

Here dohada is trampling Ashoka, for they will be in flowers when it is trampled by women in general, here it is Indumati. A convention has been current among poets that certain trees have to be treated in a particular manner before they blossom. Sir W. Jones observes that "the vegetable world scarce exhibits a richer sight than the Ashoka in full bloom. Its flowers are very large and beautifully diversified with tints of orange-scarlet, of pale yellow, and of bright orange, which form a variety of shades according to the age of the blossom." - C.f. Joglekar's notes.


स्मरतेव सशब्दनूपुरम् चरणानुग्रहमन्यदुर्लभम्|
अमुना कुसुमाश्रुवर्षिणा त्वमशोकेन सुगात्रि शोच्यसे॥ ८-६३

smarateva saśabdanūpuram caraṇānugrahamanyadurlabham|
amunā kusumāśruvarṣiṇā tvamaśokena sugātri śocyase || 8-63

smarateva sashabdanUpuram caraNAnugrahamanyadurlabham |
amunA kusumAshruvarShiNA tvamashokena sugAtri shocyase || 8-63


smaratA iva sa-shabda-nUpuram caraNa anugraham anya durlabham amunA kusuma ashru varShiNA tvam ashokena sugAtri shocyase

8-63. anya durlabham= for others, impossible; sa-shabda-nUpuram= with, tinkling, anklets; caraNa anugraham= [your] feet's, favour; smaratA iva= remembering, as if; kusuma ashru varShiNA= flower, tears, raining; amunA ashokena= by this, Ashoka; sugAtri= oh, pleasing lady; tvam shocyase= about you [that tree] is mourning.

Remembering the favour you have done by trampling this Ashoka tree to blossom perfectly, to the chime of jingling anklets, that too impossible to get for other trees, it is mourning for you by shedding flower-tear-rain. [8-63]


तव निःश्वसितानुकारिभिर्बकुलैरर्धचिताम् समम् मया|
असमाप्य विलासमेखलाम् किमिदम् किन्नरकण्ठि सुप्यते॥ ८-६४

tava niḥśvasitānukāribhirbakulairardhacitām samam mayā|
asamāpya vilāsamekhalām kimidam kinnarakaṇṭhi supyate || 8-64

tava niHshvasitAnukAribhirbakulairardhacitAm samam mayA |
asamApya vilAsamekhalAm kimidam kinnarakaNThi supyate || 8-64


tava niHshvasita anukAribhiH bakulaiH ardhacitAm samam mayA asamApya vilAsa mekhalAm kim idam kinnara-kaNThi supyate

8-64. tava niHshvasita anukAribhiH= your, suspires, with followers - with flowers fragrant like your exhalation; bakulaiH= with vakula flowers; mayA samam= me, along with; ardhacitAm vilAsa mekhalAm= half-knotted, sportive, flower-girdle; asamApya= not completing; kinnara-kaNThi= oh, rich voiced one; kim idam supyate= how, this way, you sleep.     

Along with me you have started to knot vakula flowers that imitate the fragrance of your exhalations for use as your flower-girdle; but, how could you grab a shut eye without completing it. [8-64]

That zone is yet unfinished, which with me / Thou half hast fashioned of these fragrant blooms, / Fresh-scented as thy breath: how canst thou sleep, / And leave thy task undone?    


समदुःखसुखः सखीजनः प्रतिपच्चन्द्रनिभोऽयमात्मजः|
अहमेकरसस्तथापि ते व्यवसायः प्रतिपत्तिनिष्ठुरः॥ ८-६५

samaduḥkhasukhaḥ sakhījanaḥ pratipaccandranibho'yamātmajaḥ|
ahamekarasastathāpi te vyavasāyaḥ pratipattiniṣṭhuraḥ || 8-65

samaduHkhasukhaH sakhIjanaH pratipaccandranibho.ayamAtmajaH |
ahamekarasastathApi te vyavasAyaH pratipattiniShThuraH || 8-65


sama duHkha sukhaH sakhI janaH pratipat candra nibho.ayam AtmajaH aham eka rasaH tathApi te vyavasAyaH pratipatti niShThuraH

8-65. sakhI janaH sama duHkha sukhaH= female friends, equally participating, in grief, in joy; pratipat candra nibhaH ayam AtmajaH= first-day, moon, in shine, is your son; aham eka rasaH= I am firmly steady in my affection; tathApi= even then; te vyavasAyaH= your, action - act of going away; pratipatti niShThuraH= decision [to go away], is asseverative.

The whole body of your female friends is the participator equally in your joy as well as sorrow; your son is like the first-day-moon; I am firmly steady in my affection and in spite of that your action in going away is hard on account of its asseveration.

Annotators have been wrangling over the phrase pratipatti niShThuraH. We fail to follow them. The sense seems to be very clear. "There are grounds for you to prolong your stay in this world and in spite of that you have [chosen to go away] gone away. This action has been very cruel on account of your firm determination about it." - KMJ - c.f. his notes.


धृतिरस्तमिता रतिश्च्युता विरतम् गेयमृतुर्निरुत्सवः|
गतमाभरणप्रयोजनम् परिशून्यम् शयनीयमद्य मे॥ ८-६६

dhṛtirastamitā ratiścyutā viratam geyamṛturnirutsavaḥ|
gatamābharaṇaprayojanam pariśūnyam śayanīyamadya me || 8-66

dhR^itirastamitA ratishcyutA viratam geyamR^iturnirutsavaH |
gatamAbharaNaprayojanam parishUnyam shayanIyamadya me || 8-66


dhR^itiH astam itA ratiH cyutA viratam geyam R^ituH nirutsavaH gatam AbharaNa prayojanam parishUnyam shayanIyam adya me

8-66. adya me= now, my; dhR^itiH astam itA = fortitude, vanish, went in to; ratiH cyutA= interest in enjoyment, gone; geyam viratam= song [of my life], no more; R^ituH nirutsavaH= seasons, without festivity; AbharaNa prayojanam gatam= ornaments, utility, gone; shayanIyam parishUnyam = bed, completely empty.

Now all my fortitude has disappeared, desire for enjoyment gone, song of my life silent, seasons unenjoyable, decorations lost their purpose, and my bed is quite empty. [8-66]

Endurance broken: cheerful songs have ceased; / Spring charms no longer, gauds are laid aside;  / My couch henceforth is widowed, desolate.


गृहिणी सचिवः सखी मिथः प्रियशिष्या ललिते कलाविधौ|
करुणाविमुखेन मृत्युना हरता त्वाम् वद किम् न मे हृतम्॥ ८-६७

gṛhiṇī sacivaḥ sakhī mithaḥ priyaśiṣyā lalite kalāvidhau|
karuṇāvimukhena mṛtyunā haratā tvām vada kim na me hṛtam || 8-67

gR^ihiNI sacivaH sakhI mithaH priyashiShyA lalite kalAvidhau |
karuNAvimukhena mR^ityunA haratA tvAm vada kim na me hR^itam || 867


gR^ihiNI sacivaH sakhI mithaH priya shiShyA lalite kalA vidhau  karuNA vimukhena mR^ityunA haratA tvAm vada kim na me hR^itam

8-67. [tvam eva= you, alone are my]; gR^ihiNI= wife; sacivaH= advisor; sakhI= companion; mithaH priya= in solitude, beloved one; shiShyA lalite kalA vidhau= favourite pupil, in the practice of the fine arts; tvAm haratA= you, while taking away [you by Death]; karuNA vimukhena mR^ityunA= mercy, adverse - ruthless, by such Death; me kim na hR^itam= mine, what, not, taken away; vada = tell me.

You were my wife, my counsellor, my beloved companion in private, my favourite pupil in the practice of the fine arts: now tell me what has not been snatched away from me by ruthless death while taking you away from me. [8-67]


मदिराक्षि मदाननार्पितम् मधु पीत्वा रसवत्कथम् नु मे|
अनुपास्यसि बाष्पदूषितम् परलोकोपनतम् जलाञ्जलिम्॥ ८-६८

madirākṣi madānanārpitam madhu pītvā rasavatkatham nu me|
anupāsyasi bāṣpadūṣitam paralokopanatam jalāñjalim || 8-68

madirAkShi madAnanArpitam madhu pItvA rasavatkatham nu me |
anupAsyasi bAShpadUShitam paralokopanatam jalA~njalim || 8-68


madira akShi mat Anana arpitam madhu pItvA rasavat katham nu me anupAsyasi bAShpat UShitam paraloka upanatam jala a~njalim

8-68. madira akShi= oh, one with captivating eyes; mat Anana arpitam= by my mouth, given; rasavat madhu pItvA= most delicious, wine, having drunk; bAShpat UShitam= with tears, fouled; paraloka upanatam= that has come to other world - water oblation given on earth; me jala a~njalim= my, water oblation; katham nu anupAsyasi = how, indeed, you can drink - wilt thou drink after me.

You used to sip the most delicious wine from my mouth; but now, how can you sip the water-oblation that reaches you in the other world while I offer it here on earth, which is rendered tepidly brackish wet with my tears. [8-68]


विभवेऽपि सति त्वया विना सुखमेतावदजस्य गण्यताम्|
अहृतस्य विलोभनान्तरैर्मम सर्वे विषयास्त्वदाश्रयाः॥ ८-६९

vibhave'pi sati tvayā vinā sukhametāvadajasya gaṇyatām|
ahṛtasya vilobhanāntarairmama sarve viṣayāstvadāśrayāḥ || 8-69

vibhave.api sati tvayA vinA sukhametAvadajasya gaNyatAm |
ahR^itasya vilobhanAntarairmama sarve viShayAstvadAshrayAH || 8-69


vibhave api sati tvayA vinA sukham etAvat ajasya gaNyatAm ahR^itasya vilobhana antaraiH mama sarve viShayAH tvat AshrayAH

8-69. vibhave sati api= affluence, though available; tvayA vinA= you, without; ajasya= Aja's; etAvat= up to now only; sukham gaNyatAm= happiness, counted; vilobhana antaraiH= those that are luring, other aspects - other aspects of life that will be luring; a+hR^itasya= one who is not, taken away - I who am not lured; mama sarve viShayAH= my, all, objects of enjoyments; tvat AshrayAH= on you, dependent.

Though there is affluence still the happiness of Aja without you may be considered extending so far. All objects of enjoyment of me, who was not drawn away by other alluring objects, were entirely dependent on you..." [6-69]


विलपन्निति कोसलाधिपः करुणार्थग्रथितम् प्रियाम् प्रति|
अकरोत्पृथिवीरुहानपि स्रुतशाखारसबाष्पदूषितान्॥ ८-७०

vilapanniti kosalādhipaḥ karuṇārthagrathitam priyām prati|
akarotpṛthivīruhānapi srutaśākhārasabāṣpadūṣitān || 8-70

vilapanniti kosalAdhipaH karuNArthagrathitam priyAm prati |
akarotpR^ithivIruhAnapi srutashAkhArasabAShpadUShitAn || 8-70


vilapan iti kosala adhipaH karuNArtha grathitam priyAm prati akarot pR^ithivI-ruhAn api sruta-shAkhA-rasa-bAShpa-dUShitAn

8-70. kosala adhipaH= Kosala's, king Aja; iti= in this way; karuNArtha grathitam= sentiments arousing commiseration; priyAm prati vilapan= beloved, towards, by wailing; pR^ithivI-ruhAn api = earth, born ones - trees, even; sruta-shAkhA-rasa-bAShpa-dUShitAn= trickling, from branches, drops of juice, with such tears, tarnished with; akarot = made.

Thus Aja, the ruler of the Kosala, bemoaning the loss of his wife in expressions full of sentiments arousing commiseration moved even the trees to rain down tears in the form of drops of juice trickling from their branches. [6-70]


अथ तस्य कथंचिदङ्कतः स्वजनस्तामपनीय सुन्दरीम्|
विससर्ज तदन्त्यमण्डनामनलायागुरुचन्दनैधसे॥ ८-७१

atha tasya kathaṁcidaṅkataḥ svajanastāmapanīya sundarīm|
visasarja tadantyamaṇḍanāmanalāyāgurucandanaidhase || 8-71

atha tasya katha.ncida~NkataH svajanastAmapanIya sundarIm |
visasarja tadantyamaNDanAmanalAyAguruchandanaidhase || 8-71


atha tasya katha.ncit a~NkataH svajanaH tAm apanIya sundarIm visasarja tat antya maNDanAm analAya aguru chandana edhase

8-71. atha= then; svajanaH= relatives; tasya a~NkataH= from his, thigh; katha.ncit= somehow; apanIya= on removing - her; tat antya maNDanAm= with that, last, decoration - decorating the body; tAm sundarIm= that, beautiful lady; aguru chandana edhase= on aloe, sandalwood, firewood sticks; analAya visasarja = for fire, she is left - place on pyre.

Now, his kinsmen having somehow removed the body of the fair lady from his lap and after adorning her body with all funeral decorations gave her up to the fire whose fuel was aloe and sandalwood sticks. [8-71]

Certain decorations such as putting of garlands, anointing of turmeric and red paste etc. have to be done in the case of a woman who dies while her husband is alive.


प्रमदामनु संस्थितः शुचा नृपतिः सन्नपि वाच्यदर्शनात्|
न चकार शरीरमग्निसात्सह देव्या न तु जीविताशया॥ ८-७२

pramadāmanu saṁsthitaḥ śucā nṛpatiḥ sannapi vācyadarśanāt|
na cakāra śarīramagnisātsaha devyā na tu jīvitāśayā || 8-72

pramadAmanu sa.nsthitaH shucA nR^ipatiH sannapi vAcyadarshanAt |
na cakAra sharIramagnisAtsaha devyA na tu jIvitAshayA || 8-72


pramadAm anu sa.nsthitaH shucA nR^ipatiH san iti vAcya darshanAt na cakAra sharIram agnisAt saha devyA na tu jIvita AshayA

8-72. nR^ipatiH san api= king, prudent, though he is; shucA pramadAm anu sa.nsthitaH= by grief, his lady, he followed her, in death; iti= this way; vAcya darshanAt= reproachful talk, on foreseeing; devyA saha sharIram agnisAt na cakAra= lady, along with, his body, to fire, he did not, commit; na tu jIvita AshayA= but not owing to love of life.

Aja did not consign his body to fire along with that of his queen foreseeing that there will be a reproachful talk like "the king though prudent followed his wife in death through grief..." but not out of love for his life. [8-72]


अथ तेन दशाहतः परे गुणशेषामपदिश्य भामिनीम्|
विदुषा विधयो महर्द्धयः पुर एवोपवने समापिताः॥ ८-७३

atha tena daśāhataḥ pare guṇaśeṣāmapadiśya bhāminīm|
viduṣā vidhayo maharddhayaḥ pura evopavane samāpitāḥ || 8-73

atha tena dashAhataH pare guNasheShAmapadishya bhAminIm |
viduShA vidhayo maharddhayaH pura evopavane samApitAH || 8-73


atha tena dasha AhataH pare guNa sheShAm upadishya bhAminIm viduShA vidhayaH mahA ardhayaH pura eva upavane samApitAH

8-73. atha= then; viduShA tena= learned one, by him; guNa-sheShAm= who had remained only in the form of his/her virtues i.e., who was now remembered only by recalling his/her virtues to mind; bhAminIm upadishya= lady, in her regard; dasha AhataH pare= ten, days, later - rites lasting after ten days; mahA ardhayaH vidhayaH= of high, import, funeral rites; pura upavane eva= in  city's, outskirts, only; samApitAH= completed.

That learned king then magnificently carried through the funeral rites of high religious import, and which were to be performed after the ten days towards that lady, whose virtues only survived her, in the gardens at the outskirts of city. [8-73]


स विवेश पुरीम् तया विना क्षणदापायशशाङ्कदर्शनः|
परिवाहमिवावलोकयन्स्वशुचः पौरवधूमुखाश्रुषु॥ ८-७४

sa viveśa purīm tayā vinā kṣaṇadāpāyaśaśāṅkadarśanaḥ|
parivāhamivāvalokayansvaśucaḥ pauravadhūmukhāśruṣu || 8-74

sa vivesha purIm tayA vinA kShaNadApAyashashA~NkadarshanaH |
parivAhamivAvalokayansvashucaH pauravadhUmukhAshruShu || 8-74


sa vivesha purIm tayA vinA kShaNadApAyashashA~NkadarshanaH parivAhamivAvalokayansvashucaH pauravadhUmukhAshruShu

8-74. tayA vinA= her, without; kShaNada apAya shashA~Nka darshanaH= night, by passing off, moon, looking like - lacklustre moon on daybreak; sa= he that Aja; paura vadhU mukha ashruShu sva shucaH iva = city, womenfolk, on face, tears, his, agony - his agony flowing like tears on the faces of womenfolk; parivAham= tide of tears; avalokayan= seeing; purIm vivesha = city, entered.

Aja looking like the lacklustre moon on daybreak entered the city without Indumati beholding, as it were, the forcible flow of his own sorrow in the form of tears rolling down on the faces of womenfolk of the city. [8-74]

Dejected, widowed, sad / (As when Night yields to Morning pale and wan), / He entered his fair City, and beheld / The tears that ladies shed, as 'twere the floods / Of grief that overflowed his sorrowing heart.


अथ तम् सवनाय दीक्षितः प्रणिधानाद्गुरुराश्रमस्थितः|
अभिषङ्गजडम् विजज्ञिवानिति शिष्येण किलान्वबोधयत्॥ ८-७५

atha tam savanāya dīkṣitaḥ praṇidhānādgururāśramasthitaḥ|
abhiṣaṅgajaḍam vijajñivāniti śiṣyeṇa kilānvabodhayat || 8-75

atha tam savanAya dIkShitaH praNidhAnAdgururAshramasthitaH |
abhiSha~NgajaDam vijadnyivAniti shiShyeNa kilAnvabodhayat || 8-75


atha tam savanAya dIkShitaH praNidhAnAt guruH Ashrama sthitaH abhiSha~Nga jaDam vija~nnyivAn iti shiShyeNa kila anvabodhayat

8-75. atha tam= then, about him; savanAya dIkShitaH guruH= for certain ritual, avowed one, mentor - vashiShTa; Ashrama sthitaH= in hermitage, remaining - for he should not move out when avowed for a ritual; tam= him - Aja; abhiSha~Nga jaDam= by sudden grief; unexpected reverse, became stoic; praNidhAnAt  vija~nnyivAn= by abstract contemplation, o knowing; iti= in the following way; shiShyeNa anvabodhayat= through, disciple, sent this message; kila= they say so.

It is said that the family-priest vashiShTa who had undertaken a sacrifice and was therefore staying at the hermitage came to know through the power of his profound meditation that the king was almost paralysed by sudden grief and therefore advised him through his disciple. [8-75]


असमाप्तविधिर्यतो मुनिस्तव विद्वानपि तापकारणम्|
न भवन्तमुपस्थितः स्वयम् प्रकृतौ स्थापयितुम् पथश्च्युतम्॥ ८-७६

asamāptavidhiryato munistava
vidvānapi tāpakāraṇam|
na bhavantamupasthitaḥ svayam
prakṛtau sthāpayitum pathaścyutam || 8-76

asamAptavidhiryato munistava
vidvAnapi tApakAraNam |
na bhavantamupasthitaH svayam
prakR^itau sthApayitum pathashcyutam || 8-76


asamApta vidhiH yataH muniH tava vidvAn api tApa kAraNam na bhavantam upasthitaH svayam prakR^itau sthApayitum pathaH cyutam

8-76. yataH muniH asamApta vidhiH= by which reason, the sage, incomplete, ritual; tataH= thereby; tava tApa kAraNam vidvAn api= your, grief's, cause, knowing, though; pathaH cyutam bhavantam= from natural frame, slipped, yourself; prakR^itau sthApayitum= in your nature, to re-establish; svayam na upasthitaH = personally [he] did not, come.

"Although the sage knows the cause of your grief yet since he has not finished the sacrifice he has not come personally to establish you in your natural frame of mind from which you have fallen." Thus the disciple started to tell the message. [8-76]


मयि तस्य सुवृत्त वर्तते लघुसंदेशपदा सरस्वती|
श्रुणु विश्रुतसत्त्वसार ताम् हृदि चैनामपधातुमर्हसि॥ ८-७७

mayi tasya suvṛtta vartate laghusaṁdeśapadā sarasvatī|
śruṇu viśrutasattvasāra tām hṛdi caināmapadhātumarhasi || 8-77

mayi tasya suvR^itta vartate laghusa.ndeshapadA sarasvatI |
shruNu vishrutasattvasAra tAm hR^idi cainAmapadhAtumarhasi || 8-77


mayi tasya suvR^itta vartate laghu sa.ndesha padA sarasvatI shruNu vishruta-sattva-sAra tAm hR^idi ca enAm upadhAtum arhasi

8-77. hè suvR^itta= oh, well-conducted monarch laghu sa.ndesha padA tasya sarasvatI= in brief, message, with words, his, speech - his briefly worded message; mayi vartate- in me, it is there, through me it is sent; hè vishruta-sattva-sAra= oh you, whose strong mental firmness is well-known;  tAm shruNu= that , you listen; enAm hR^idi upadhAtum ca arhasi= these, words, in heart, to contain, also, will be apt of you.

Oh well-conducted monarch! The speech making up a brief message from my mentor is in my charge; hear it, oh you, whose strong mental firmness is well-known, and then carefully brace thy heart with it. [8-77]


पुरुषस्य पदेष्वजन्मनः समतीतम् च भवच्च भावि च|
स हि निष्प्रतिघेन चक्षुषा त्रितयम् ज्ञानमयेन पश्यति॥ ८-७८

puruṣasya padeṣvajanmanaḥ samatītam ca bhavacca bhāvi ca|
sa hi niṣpratighena cakṣuṣā tritayam jñānamayena paśyati || 8-78

puruShasya padeShvajanmanaH samatItam ca bhavacca bhAvi ca |
sa hi niShpratighena cakShuShA tritayam dnyAnamayena pashyati || 8-78


puruShasya padeShu a+janmanaH sam+atItam ca bhavaH ca bhAvi ca sa hi niShpratighena cakShuShA tritayam j~nAnamayena pashyati

8-78. a+janmanaH puruShasya= not, birthed, Supreme Person's = Vishnu in vAmana avatAra; padeShu= about his feet - the three steps of vAmana viz. the heaven, the sky, and the earth; which are mythologically spoken of as the steps of Vishnu - so whatever that is there in this triad of worlds is known to sage vashiShTa; sam+atItam= that has gone by - past; bhavaH ca= now available -present; bhAvi ca= to come also - future; tritayam= al the three; saH= he that sage VashiShTa; niSh+ pratighena = completely, unhindered; j~nAnamayena cakShuShA pashyati hi = with gnostic, eye, he sees, indeed.

"Sage vashiShTa does perceive the past the present, and the future in the triad of worlds with his unhindered eye of powerful knowledge, isn't it. [8-78]


चरतः किल दुश्चरम् तपस्तृणबिन्दोः परिशङ्कितः पुरा|
प्रजिघाय समाधिभेदिनीम् हरिरस्मै हरिणीम् सुराङ्गनाम्॥ ८-७९

carataḥ kila duścaram tapastṛṇabindoḥ pariśaṅkitaḥ purā|
prajighāya samādhibhedinīm harirasmai hariṇīm surāṅganām || 8-79

carataH kila dushcaram tapastR^iNabindoH parisha~NkitaH purA |
prajighAya samAdhibhedinIm harirasmai hariNIm surA~NganAm || 8-79


carataH kila dushcaram tapaH tR^iNabindoH parisha~NkitaH purA prajighAya samAdhi bhedinIm hariH asmai hariNIm sura a~NganAm

8-79. purA kila= once upon a time; dushcaram tapaH carataH tR^iNabindoH= impossible, penance, undertaking, tR^iNabindu named sage; parisha~NkitaH hariH= doubting, Indra; samAdhi bhedinIm sura a~NganAm hariNIm= concentration, disturbing, celestial damsel, name hariNi; asmai prajighAya = towards that sage, sent.

It is said that in days of yore Indra growing apprehensive of the rigorous penance practised by Sage trinabindu sent against him the celestial damsel named hariNi capable of interrupting his contemplation. [8-79]


स तपःप्रतिबन्धमन्युना प्रमुखाविष्कृतचारुविभ्रमम्|
अशपद्भव मानुषीति ताम् शमवेलाप्रलयोर्मिणा भुवि॥ ८-८०

sa tapaḥpratibandhamanyunā pramukhāviṣkṛtacāruvibhramam|
aśapadbhava mānuṣīti tām śamavelāpralayormiṇā bhuvi || 8-80

sa tapaHpratibandhamanyunA pramukhAviShkR^itacAruvibhramam |
ashapadbhava mAnuShIti tAm shamavelApralayormiNA bhuvi || 8-80


sa tapaH pratibandha manyunA pramukha AviShkR^ita cAru vibhramam ashapat bhava mAnuShI iti tAm shama velA pralaya UrmiNA bhuvi

8-80. saH= that sage; shama velA= to the factor called peace, and its shoreline - to the shoreline called peace; for that; pralaya UrmiNA= a deluging, tide - or we may say, a 'boar' which will rise so high as to overflow all limits and go far beyond the high water-mark and submerge everything in water - a boar-wave; tapaH pratibandha manyunA= wrath caused by that interruption to his penance; pramukha AviShkR^ita cAru vibhramam= she who exhibited her attractive flirtations in front of him; tAm = her; bhuvi mAnuShI bhava= on earth, human, you shall become; iti ashapat = thus, he cursed her.

The sage trinabindu through the wrath caused by that interruption to his penance, which was a boar-wave of the deluge to the shoreline of his mental calmness, cursed her who exhibited in front of him her attractive flirtations, in the following words: 'be thou a mortal woman in the sub-lunary world.' [8-80]


भगवन्परवानयम् जनः प्रतिकूलाचरितम् क्षमस्व मे|
इति चोपनताम् क्षितिस्पृशम् कृतवाना सुरपुष्पदर्शनात्॥ ८-८१

bhagavanparavānayam janaḥ pratikūlācaritam kṣamasva me|
iti copanatām kṣitispṛśam kṛtavānā surapuṣpadarśanāt || 8-81

bhagavanparavAnayam janaH pratikUlAcaritam kShamasva me |
iti copanatAm kShitispR^isham kR^itavAnA surapuShpadarshanAt || 881


bhagavan paravAn ayam janaH pratikUla Acaritam kShamasva me iti ca upanatAm kShiti spR^isham kR^itavAn Asura puShpa darshanAt

8-81. bhagavan = oh, god; ayam janaH paravAn= this, being, [this is an idiom to be noted] subject to the orders of another; me pratikUla Acaritam kShamasva= my, offensive conduct, please excuse; iti= in this way imploring; upanatAm= humbled, bent down in front - that celestial damsel hariNi; A-sura puShpa darshanAt= till the celestial flower, seeing; kShiti spR^isham= earth, touching; kR^itavAn= made.

"Sire! This individual is entirely subject to the orders of another; be pleased, therefore, to pardon my offensive conduct..." said the celestial damsel; when she was thus humbled the sage ordained her to move about on this earth till she beheld celestial flowers. [8-81]


क्रथकैशिकवंशसंभवा तव भूत्वा महिषी चिराय सा|
उपलब्धवती दिवश्च्युतम् विवशा शापनिवृत्तिकारणम्॥ ८-८२

krathakaiśikavaṁśasaṁbhavā tava bhūtvā mahiṣī cirāya sā|
upalabdhavatī divaścyutam vivaśā śāpanivṛttikāraṇam || 8-82

krathakaishikava.nshasa.nbhavA tava bhUtvA mahiShI cirAya sA |
upalabdhavatI divashcyutam vivashA shApanivR^ittikAraNam || 8-82


krathakaishika va.nsha sa.nbhavA tava bhUtvA mahiShI cirAya sA  upalabdhavatI divaH cyutam vivashA shApa nivR^itti kAraNam

8-82. krathakaishika va.nsha sa.nbhavA= the kratha kaishika, born in the family of; tava mahiShI bhUtvA= your, queen, on becoming; cirAya divaH cyutam shApa nivR^itti kAraNam upalabdhavatI = for a long time, from heaven, after falling, curse, cessation, she got; sA  vivashA = she, brought her (earthly existence) to a close.

 Born in the family of the kratha kaishika-s she became your queen and after the lapse of a good long time got the cause of the cessation of her curse as the garland with celestial flowers fell from the sky and brought her earthly existence to a close. [8-82]


तदलम् तदपायचिन्तया विपदुत्पत्तिमतामुपस्थिता|
वसुधेयमवेक्ष्यताम् त्वया वसुमत्या हि नृपाः कलत्रिणः॥ ८-८३

tadalam tadapāyacintayā vipadutpattimatāmupasthitā|
vasudheyamavekṣyatām tvayā vasumatyā hi nṛpāḥ kalatriṇaḥ || 8-83

tadalam tadapAyacintayA vipadutpattimatAmupasthitA |
vasudheyamavekShyatAm tvayA vasumatyA hi nR^ipAH kalatriNaH || 8-83


tat alam tat apAya cintayA vipat utpatti matAm upasthitA vasudhA iyam avekShyatAm tvayA vasumatyA hi nR^ipAH kalatriNaH

8-83. tat= therefore; tat apAya cintayA alam= to her, loss, [your] anguish, enough; utpatti matAm vipat upasthitA= for those that take birth, misery, is in forefront - birth entails death; tvayA iyam vasudhA avekShyatAm= by you, this earth, is to be taken care of; hi= why because; nR^ipAH vasumatyA kalatriNaH= kings, by earth, have husbandhood.

Then, enough is your brooding over her loss; birth entails death: this earth ought to be taken care of by you; since, a king's regal bride is earth. [8-83]


उदये मदवाच्यमुज्झता श्रुतमाविष्कृतमात्मवत्त्वया|
मनसस्तदुपस्थिते ज्वरे पुनरक्लीबतया प्रकाश्यताम्॥ ८-८४

udaye madavācyamujjhatā śrutamāviṣkṛtamātmavattvayā|
manasastadupasthite jvare punaraklībatayā prakāśyatām || 8-84

udaye madavAcyamujjhatA shrutamAviShkR^itamAtmavattvayA |
manasastadupasthite jvare punaraklIbatayA prakAshyatAm || 8-84


udaye mada vAcyam ujjhatA shrutam AviShkR^itam AtmavattvayA manasaH tat upasthite jvare punaH aklIbatayA prakAshyatAm

8-84. udaye= when you came to power; mada vAcyam= ensure of being called haughty; ujjhatA= you kept off; such as you are; tvayA= by you; AtmavattvayA shrutam AviShkR^itam= [then] by your firmness, your wisdom, had been shown; tat= that wisdom; manasaH jvare upasthite= in mind, perturbation, when it is there; punaH a+klIbatayA prakAshyatAm= now, not, destitution, you have to show.

 When you were in power and happiness you kept off the censure of being called haughty person and showed your wisdom by your firmness; as pain has overtaken your mind, you should now manfully give proof of your wisdom. [8-84]


रुदता कुत एव सा पुनर्भवता नानुमृतापि लभ्यते|
परलोकजुषाम् स्वकर्मभिर्गतयो भिन्नपथा हि देहिनाम्॥ ८-८५

rudatā kuta eva sā punarbhavatā nānumṛtāpi labhyate|
paralokajuṣāam svakarmabhirgatayo bhinnapathā hi dehinām || 8-85

rudatA kuta eva sA punarbhavatA nAnumR^itApi labhyate |
paralokajuShAam svakarmabhirgatayo bhinnapathA hi dehinAm || 8-85


rudatA kuta eva sA punaH bhavatA na anumR^itA api labhyate paraloka juShAam sva karmabhiH gatayaH bhinna pathA hi dehinAm

8-85. rudatA bhavatA sA kuta eva labhyate= bewailer, by you, she, from where, regained - how a bewailer regains her; anumR^itA api= one who follows her in death, even; bhavatA punaH na labhyate= by you, again, not, she is regainable; paraloka juShAam dehinAm gatayaH= to other world, gone, corporeal beings, their destinations; sva karmabhiH bhinna pathA hi = their own actions, different, are their paths, indeed.

How indeed you can regain her by bewailing; moreover, you cannot regain her even if you follow her in death; remember, different are the paths of those that go to their destinations in the other world, just determined by their own actions here. [8-85]

Though thou die with her, / Scarce shouldst thou find her more; for souls of men / Take fateful paths that vary with their deeds.


अपशोकमनाः कुटुम्बिनीमनुगृह्णीष्व निवापदत्तिभिः|
स्वजनाश्रु किलातिसंततम् दहति प्रेतमिति प्रचक्षते॥ ८-८६

apaśokamanāḥ kuṭumbinīmanugṛhṇīṣva nivāpadattibhiḥ|
svajanāśru kilātisaṁtatam dahati pretamiti pracakṣate || 8-86

apashokamanAH kuTumbinImanugR^ihNIShva nivApadattibhiH |
svajanAshru kilAtisa.ntatam dahati pretamiti pracakShate || 8-86


apa shoka manAH kuTumbinIm anugR^ihNIShva nivApadattibhiH svajanAshru kilAa ati sa.ntatam dahati pretam iti pracakShate

8-86. apa shoka manAH= removing, sadness, in mind; kuTumbinIm nivApadattibhiH anugR^ihNIShva= [your] wife, with funeral offertories like water-oblation etc, endow her; ati sa.ntatam sva jana ashru= too much of, relatives', tears; pretam dahati iti = dead soul, will burn, thus; pracakShate kilAa = they say, indeed.

With your mind freed of its sorrow do favour your wife with offering of handfuls of water. It is said that the incessant flow of tears of relatives only scorch the dead soul.

It is said that dead soul is forced to drink the tears and phlegm, if the relative go on wailing for it ceaselessly - so says yAj~navalka mRiti.


मरणम् प्रकृतिः शरीरिणाम् विकृतिर्जीवितमुच्यते बुधैः|
क्षणमप्यवतिष्ठते श्वसन्यदि जन्तुर्ननु लाभवानसौ॥ ८-८७

maraṇam prakṛtiḥ śarīriṇām vikṛtirjīvitamucyate budhaiḥ|
kṣaṇamapyavatiṣṭhate śvasanyadi janturnanu lābhavānasau || 8-87

maraNam prakR^itiH sharIriNAm vikR^itirjIvitamuchyate budhaiH |
kShaNamapyavatiShThate shvasanyadi janturnanu lAbhavAnasau || 8--87


maraNam prakR^itiH sharIriNAm vikR^itiH jIvitam uchyate budhaiH kShaNam api avatiShThate shvasan yadi jantuH nanu lAbhavAn asau

8-86. sharIriNAm maraNam prakR^itiH= for bodied beings, death, is a natural condition; jIvitam vikR^itiH= life, is an accidental condition; budhaiH uchyate= so say, wise people; [that being so] jantuH kShaNam api shvasan avatiShThate yadi= living being, for a moment, by breathing, remains [on earth], if; asau lAbhavAn nanu = that being, is a gainer, indeed.

Death is natural while life is accidental to mortals; if, therefore, a living being should remain breathing even for a moment on earth, still it is a gainer. [8-86]

Know, earthly life / Is bondage to the Soul, which Death sets free: / If then one breathe an instant, and depart, / His gain is highest:


अवगच्छति मूढचेतनः प्रियनाशम् हृदि शल्यमर्पितम्|
स्थिरधीस्तु तदेव मन्यते कुशलद्वारतया समुद्धृतम्॥ ८-८८

avagacchati mūḍhacetanaḥ priyanāśam hṛdi śalyamarpitam|
sthiradhīstu tadeva manyate kuśaladvāratayā samuddhṛtam || 8-88

avagacChati mUDhacetanaH priyanAsham hR^idi shalyamarpitam |
sthiradhIstu tadeva manyate kushaladvAratayA samuddhR^itam || 8-88


avagacChati mUDha cetanaH priya nAsham hR^idi shalyam arpitam sthiradhIH tu tadeva manyate kushala dvAratayA samuddhR^itam

8-88. mUDha cetanaH= a dull-headed person; priya nAsham= death of a dear one; hR^idi = in the chest; arpitam= wedged; shalyam= shaft-blade; avagacChati= views as; sthira dhIH tu tadeva samuddhR^itam manyate kushala dvAratayA

A dull-headed person views the death of a dear one as if it were a shaft-blade lodged in the chest while a wise man regards that very thing as an extracted dart on account of its being a path to eternal bliss. [8-88]


स्वशरीरशरीरिणावपि श्रुतसंयोगविपर्ययौ यदा|
विरहः किमिवानुतापयेद्वद बाह्यैर्विषयैर्विपश्चितम्॥ ८-८९

svaśarīraśarīriṇāvapi śrutasaṁyogaviparyayau yadā|
virahaḥ kimivānutāpayedvada bāhyairviṣayairvipaścitam || 8-89

svasharIrasharIriNAvapi shrutasa.nyogaviparyayau yadA |
virahaH kimivAnutApayedvada bAhyairviShayairvipashcitam || 8-89


sva sharIrasharIriNau api shruta sa.nyoga viparyayau yadA virahaH kim iva anutApayet vada bAhyaiH viShayaiH vipashcitam

8-89. sva= one's own; sharIra= body; sharIriNau= soul - sharIri is the master of the sharIra corporeal body; api= even; yadA= when; shruta sa.nyoga viparyayau= we know of their, joining, and its contrariety - disjoining; [tadA= then] bAhyaiH viShayaiH= reg. external matters like wife, sons, wealth etc; virahaH= abandonment; vipashcitam= for a wise man; kim iva= how possibly; anutApayet= afflictive; vada= you tell me.

Since even one's body and soul are known to be joined as well as disjoined, say how possibly will the abandonment by external objects like wife, children, wealth etc give pain to a learned man. [8-89]

Thou know'st the soul must meet, / Then leave the destined body: shall the wise / Grieve when the soul casts off those coils of sense / Which bind in life?


न पृथग्जनवच्छुचो वशम् वशिनामुत्तम गन्तुमर्हसि|
द्रुमसानुमताम् किमन्तरम् यदि वायौ द्वितयेऽपि ते चलाः॥ ८-९०

na pṛthagjanavacchuco vaśam vaśināmuttama gantumarhasi|
drumasānumatām kimantaram yadi vāyau dvitaye'pi te calāḥ || 8-90

na pR^ithagjanavacChucho vasham vashinAmuttama gantumarhasi |
drumasAnumatAm kimantaram yadi vAyau dvitaye.api te calAH || 8-90


na pR^ithak janavat shuchaH vasham vashinAm uttama gantum arhasi druma sAnumatAm kim antaram yadi vAyau dvitaye api te calAH

8-90. hè vashinAm uttama= one who has his senses under his control, best of them; pR^ithak jana vat= unenlightened one, like; shuchaH vasham gantum na arhasi= sadness, under its control, to go, not, apt of you; vAyau [sati] = when there is wind; dvitaye api= differing in character; te calAH yadi= they, oscillate, if; druma sAnumatAm= between a tree, and mountain; kim antaram = what is the difference.

Oh you the pre-eminent among those who have curbed their passions, you do not deserve to go into the subjection of grief like an ordinary person. What is the difference between trees and mountains if both of them were to rock in a gust of wind?" Thus sage vashiShTa sent his message through his disciple. [8-90]

Fall never, wisest King, / Before unreasoning grief, as fools may fall: / Trees bend, but rocks stand firm when tempests rage!


स तथेति विनेतुरुदारमतेः प्रतिगॄह्य वचो विससर्ज मुनिम्|
तदलब्धपदम् हृदि शोकघने प्रतियातमिवान्तिकमस्य गुरोः॥ ८-९१

sa tatheti vineturudāramateḥ pratigṝhya vaco visasarja munim |

tadalabdhapadam hṛdi śokaghane pratiyātamivāntikamasya guroḥ || 8-91

sa tatheti vineturudAramateH pratigR^Ihya vaco visasarja munim |
tadalabdhapadam hR^idi shokaghane pratiyAtamivAntikamasya guroH || 8-91


sa tatha iti vinetuH udAra mateH pratigR^Ihya vacaH visasarja munim tat alabdha-padam hR^idi shoka ghane pratiyAtam iva antikam asya guroH

8-91. saH= he that Aja; udAra-mateH vinetuH vacaH= noble minded, preceptor's, words; tatha iti= be it so - thinking like this; pratigR^Ihya= accepting - teacher's message; munim visasarja= disciple, sent away; tat shoka ghane= in that, sadness, abundant; asya hR^idi= his, heart; alabdha-padam= not gained, foothold; guroH antikam pratiyAtam iva= beck to teacher's, proximity, returned, as if - that message went back to the teacher for Aja's sadness is so dense.

Aja accepted the message of the noble-minded preceptor with the words 'be it so', and gave leave to the pupil to depart; but the words of the preceptor went back to that mentor, as it were, on account .of their not having gained a footing in the heart of the king for it was quite full of grief. [8-91]


तेनाष्टौ परिगमिताः समाः कथंचिद्बालत्वादवितथसूनृतेन सूनोः|
सादृश्यप्रतिकृतिदर्शनैः प्रियायाः स्वप्नेषु क्षणिकसमागमोत्सवैश्च॥ ८-९२

tenāṣṭau parigamitāḥ samāḥ kathaṁcid
bālatvādavitathasūnṛtena sūnoḥ|
sādṛśyapratikṛtidarśanaiḥ priyāyāḥ
svapneṣu kṣaṇikasamāgamotsavaiśca || 8-92

tenAShTau parigamitAH samAH katha.ncid
bAlatvAdavitathasUnR^itena sUnoH |
sAdR^ishyapratikR^itidarshanaiH priyAyAH
svapneShu kShaNikasamAgamotsavaishca || 8-92


tena aShTau parigamitAH samAH katha.ncit bAlatvAt avitatha sUnR^itena sUnoH  sAdR^ishya pratikR^iti darshanaiH priyAyAH svapneShu kShaNika samAgama utsavaiH ca

8-92. avitatha sUnR^itena  tena= he who has true and courteous language, by him; sUnoH bAlatvAt= son's, by tender age; priyAyAH= ladylove's; sAdR^ishya= resembling items - statues; pratikR^ita= imageable, items - paintings; darshanaiH= by seeing; svapneShu kShaNika samAgama utsavaiH ca= in dreams, momentary, company, also; katha.ncit= somehow; aShTau samAH parigamitAH = eight, years, spent.

By him of true and courteous language eight years were made to roll with some difficulty especially)on account of the tender age of his son, by looking at the pictures and statues of  his wife and by means of the pleasure derived from her momentary company in dreams. [8-92]


तस्य प्रसह्य हृदयम् किल शोकशङ्कुः
प्लक्षप्ररोह इव सौधतलम् बिभेद|
प्राणान्तहेतुमपि तम् भिषजामसाध्यं
लाभम् प्रियानुगमने त्वरया स मेने॥ ८-९३

tasya prasahya hṛdayam kila śokaśaṅkuḥ
plakṣapraroha iva saudhatalam bibheda|
prāṇāntahetumapi tam bhiṣajāmasādhyaṁ
lābham priyānugamane tvarayā sa mene || 8-93

tasya prasahya hR^idayam kila shokasha~NkuH
plakShapraroha iva saudhatalam bibheda |
prANAntahetumapi tam bhiShajAmasAdhya.n
lAbham priyAnugamane tvarayA sa mene || 8-93


tasya prasahya hR^idayam kila shoka sha~NkuH plakSha praroha iva saudha talam bibheda prANa anta hetum api tam bhiShajAm asAdhyam lAbham priya anugamane tvarayA sa mene

8-93. shoka sha~NkuH= dart of grief; tasya hR^idayam= his, heart; plakSha praroha= peeple tree's, sprout; saudha talam iva= palace, terrace, as with; prasahya bibheda= forcibly, cleaved; kila = it is said so; saH prANa anta hetum api= he, life, ending, reason, though; bhiShajAm asAdhyam= for medical men, impossible one - his mental agony; tam= that dart of grief - called his agony for departed wife; priya anugamane tvarayA= ladylove, following, in eagerness; lAbham mene= as a gainful [disease] he thought.

The dart of grief, it is said, broke his heart forcibly like the sprout of the Peepul tree cleaving the terrace of a palace; however, he looked upon that wound which was to be the cause of bringing his life to a close and which was incurable to physicians, as a gain on account of his eagerness to follow his beloved. [8-93]

Sorrow's dart had struck / Deep-rooted in his soul, as strikes a Fig / Deep roots in palace-roofs: when sickness came / To end his life, he welcomed its stern dint, / As one that set him free to join his Love.


सम्यग्विनीतमथ वर्महरम् कुमार-

मादिश्य रक्षणविधौ विधिवत्प्रजानाम्|
रोगोपसृष्टतनुदुर्वसतिम् मुमुक्षुः

प्रायोपवेशनमतिर्नृपतिर्बभूव॥ ८-९४

samyagvinītamatha varmaharam kumāra-

mādiśya rakṣaṇavidhau vidhivatprajānām|
rogopasṛṣṭatanudurvasatim mumukṣuḥ

prāyopaveśanamatirnṛpatirbabhūva || 8-94

samyagvinItamatha varmaharam kumAra-
mAdishya rakShaNavidhau vidhivatprajAnAm |
rogopasR^iShTatanudurvasatim mumukShuH
prAyopaveshanamatirnR^ipatirbabhUva || 8-94


samyak vinItam atha varma haram kumAram Adishya rakShaNa vidhau vidhivat prajAnAm roga upasR^iShTa tanu durvasatim mumukShuH prAyopaveshana matiH nR^ipatiH babhUva

8-94. atha= later; nR^ipatiH= king Aja; samyak vinItam= one properly trained - Dasharatha; varma haram= armour, capable to wear - trained warrior - Dasharatha; kumAram= son Dasharatha; prajAnAm rakShaNa vidhau vidhivat Adishya= people, in guarding, in the aspect of - in kingship, procedurally, on establishing; roga upasR^iShTa tanu= with disease, surrounded, such a body; dur+vasatim= painful residence - of soul in a body with disease; mumukShuH san= to release; prAyopaveshana matiH babhUva= fasting himself to death, mind, he made.

Now having entrusted with due form the task of protecting the subjects to his son, Dasharatha, who had been properly trained and who had become fit to wear the armour, the king  himself anxious to give up the troublesome existence in this corporeal frame afflicted by disease, and thus set his heart upon fasting himself to death. ;[8-94]


तीर्थे तोयव्यतिकरभवे जह्नुकन्यासरय्वो-

र्देहत्यागादमरगणनालेख्यमासाद्य सद्यः|
पूर्वाकाराधिकतररुचा संगतः कान्तयासौ

लीलागारेष्वरमत पुनर्नन्दनाभ्यन्तरेषु॥ ८-९५

tīrthe toyavyatikarabhave jahnukanyāsarayvo-

rdehatyāgādamaragaṇanālekhyamāsādya sadyaḥ|
pūrvākārādhikatararucā saṁgataḥ kāntayāsau

līlāgāreṣvaramata punarnandanābhyantareṣu || 8-95

tIrthe toyavyatikarabhave jahnukanyAsarayvo-
rdehatyAgAdamaragaNanAlekhyamAsAdya sadyaH |
pUrvAkArAdhikatararucA sa.ngataH kAntayAsau
lIlAgAreShvaramata punarnandanAbhyantareShu || 8-95


tIrthe toya vyatikarabhave jahnu-kanyA sarayvoH deha tyAgAt amara gaNanA lekhyam AsAdya sadyaH pUrva AkArAt adhika tara rucA sa.ngataH san kAntayA asau lIlAgAreShu aramata punaH nandana abhyantareShu

8-95. asau= he that Aja; jahnu-kanyA sarayvoH= of sage Jahnu's daughter - River Ganga, River Sarayu; toya vyatikarabhave= streams, conflicting in a place - at the confluence of those rivers; tIrthe= at certain declivity; deha tyAgAt= by leaving the body; sadyaH= immediately; amara gaNanA lekhyam= in celestials, census - inclusion of his name; AsAdya= on getting; pUrva AkArAt adhikatara rucA= than earlier, form, much better, beautifulness - she who obtained - Indumati now called hariNi, the celestial maiden; kAntayA= with such ladylove; sa.ngataH san= having met her; nandana abhyantareShu lIlAgAreShu punaH aramata = he sported again in the pleasure-houses in the inside . of the Nandana gardens of Indra.

Giving up his body at the sacred spot of the confluence of the rivers Ganga and Sarayu and immediately securing a place in the census of immortals, king Aja became united with his wife Indumati, now in the form of the celestial damsel hariNi, endowed with a loveliness surpassing that of her former form, and he sported again with her in the pleasure-houses in the inside of the Nandana gardens of Indra. [8-95]



इति कालिदास कृत रघुवंश महाकाव्ये अष्टमः सर्गः

iti kālidāsa kṛta raghuvaṁśa mahākāvye aṣṭamaḥ sargaḥ

Thus this is 8th chapter in Kalidasa's Raghuvamsha, The Outstanding Poem of India



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Desiraju Hanumanta Rao - June 2010


abbreviations, words used  etc - explained

Krishnarao Mahadeva Joglekar, 1916 - KMJ, or Joglekar

Gopala Raghunath Nandargikar, 1897 GRN

pithy, terse sayings or foots of poem appearing in comment section - from The Story of Raghu's Line by Kalidasa; translated  by P. De Lacy Johnston, Published by Adine House, London, 1902 - De Lacy or Lacy


upama is roughly said as metaphor, transferred epithet, or condensed simile, or expanded simile, or whatever, but not stabilised, as with atishayokti and utpreksha both made to fall under the category of a hyperbole.

u.mA o : upamAna - comparable object; or the object itself.

u.me  oc : upameya - object compared.

sA.dha c: sAdhAraNa dharma: commonality in sharing attributes.

sA. vA cw: sAdharaNa vAcaka: coupula, conjunctional word used.

anu.dha uq : anugAmi dharma : underlying quality of factors.

bimba om, or O: object to be mirrored.

prati-bimba mo: reflected object with mirror symmetry, mirrored object.


shleSa innuendo: lexically mixing, imbibed in; better we use this innuendo= 2 a remark with a double meaning, usu. suggestive; till pundits object.

zeugma : a figure of speech using a verb or adjective with two nouns, to one of which it is strictly applicable while the word appropriate to the other is not used (e.g. with weeping eyes and [sc. grieving] hearts).

syllepsis : a figure of speech in which a word is applied to two others in different senses (e.g. caught the train and a bad cold) or to two others of which it grammatically suits one only (e.g. neither they nor it is working) - but not innuendo, or double meaning.

atishayokti - hybo: hyperbole.

utpreksha - mglq: magniloqui, gasconade.


Out of many mind-boggling Sanskrit poetics, upama is one, and only 23 of its shades are presented here as illustration. Please construe that hero is telling these se ntences to his heroine.


desiraju hanumanta rao, August 09

desirajuhrao at yahoo.com