mahAkavi kAlidAsa
Dynasty of Emperor Raghu
9 chapter -- 82 verses



This Canto introduces us to King Dasharatha, the father of Rama. As usual, there is an elaborate description of his glory, his prowess, and his piety. We have a description of a hunting expedition in the forest and of the accident that brought on Dasharatha a direct curse which was actually a blessing. It was the death of Shravana, son of an old and blind sage, in the forest, by an arrow of Dasharatha. The horror-stricken king carried the dead body to the blind parents, explained the particulars of the occurrence and stood a remorseful penitent before them. The father and mother decide upon immolating themselves on the funeral pyre prepared for the dead body of their son;  but not before they had pronounced their curse on King Dasharatha, which was to the effect that "thou too wilt suffer the pain of separation from your son". The king was childless and naturally looked upon the curse as half a blessing inasmuch as it must give him a son if the word of the cursing sage were to turn out true. This canto might be compared with Canto I of jAnakI-haraNa.

The noteworthy feature of this Canto is that the poet selects and arranges his words in such a manner in the last quarter of each stanza as to produce yamaka which is defined by the sAhitya darpana - i.e., repetition in the same order, of a collection of vowels and consonants, the sense where there is one being different is termed yamaka - thus the verses are fashioned after druta-vilambita method.- KMG

Notes and commentary of Kishanrao Madhavarao Joglekar on this 9th canto is made available here 1.07 MB pdf for further reading.



पितुरनन्तरमुत्तरकोसलान्समधिगम्य समाधिजितेन्द्रियः।
दशरथः प्रशशास महारथो यमवतामवताम् च धुरि स्थितः॥ ९-१

pituranantaramuttarakosalānsamadhigamya samādhijitendriyaḥ |
daśarathaḥ praśaśāsa mahāratho yamavatāmavatām ca dhuri sthitaḥ || 9-1

pituranantaramuttarakosalAnsamadhigamya samAdhijitendriyaH |
dasharathaH prashashAsa mahAratho yamavatAmavatAm ca dhuri sthitaH || 9-1


pituH anantaram uttara kosalAn samadhigamya samAdhi jitendriyaH dasharathaH prashashAsa mahArathaH yamavatAm avatAm ca dhuri sthitaH

9-1.samAdhi jitendriyaH= who had conquered his senses by meditation;  yamavatAm= among best ones who controlled themselves;  avatAm ca= among protecting rulers, also;  dhuri sthitaH= at the head of them, who stood;  mahArathaH= mighty warrior;  dasharathaH;  pituH anantaram= after his father;  uttara kosalAn= Northern Kosala;  samadhigamya = came into the possession of;  prashashAsa = ruled over it.

After his father, Dasharatha, who had conquered his senses by meditation, a mighty warrior, and who stood at the head of the best-conducted persons who kept themselves under control as also of protecting rulers, came into the possession of Northern Kosala, and ruled over it. [9-1]

 dasha-ratha is defined as: eko dasha sahasrANi yodhayet yastu dhanvinaH | shatra astrta pravINAshca sa mahAratha uchyate || one who can fight ten thousand archers single handedly, besides being an expert in hand-held and projectile weapons.



अधिगतम् विधिवद्यदपालयत्प्रकृतिमण्डलमात्मकुलोचितम्।
अभवदस्य ततो गुणवत्तरम् सनगरम् नगरन्ध्रकरौजसः॥ ९-२

adhigatam vidhivadyadapālayatprakṛtimaṇḍalamātmakulocitam |
abhavadasya tato guṇavattaram sanagaram nagarandhrakaraujasaḥ || 9-2

adhigatam vidhivadyadapAlayatprakR^itimaNDalamAtmakulocitam |
abhavadasya tato guNavattaram sanagaram nagarandhrakaraujasaH || 9-2


adhigatam vidhivat yat apAlayat prakR^iti maNDalam Atma kulocitamabhavat asya tataH guNavattaram sa nagaram naga randhra kara aujasaH

9-2. adhigatam Atma kulocitam = inherited, dynatically befitting to him - kingdom;  sa nagaram= that, city;  prakR^iti maNDalam= circle of his subjects together with the citizens;  yat vidhivat apAlayat= which, he dutifully, ruled; tataH= thereby; naga randhra kara aujasaH= mountain, one who bored, with that god's prowess - kuumAra's prowess;  asya guNavattaram abhavat = to Dasharatha, it was alI the more attached to him - people have shown more interst in him.

Since Dasharatha whose prowess was like that of Kartikeya, the piercer of the mountain, dutifully protected the whole kingdom (lil. the circle of his subjects together with the citizens, that kingdom and subjects were all the more attached to him. [9-2]

The demon Mahishasura flying from the battle in which Taraka bad been slain took refuge in the Krauncha mountain. A dispute arising between Indra and Kartikeya as to their· respective powers they referred the point to the mountain. Kartikeya was displeased with the decision and hurled such a forcible shaft that it pierced through the mountain and pinned the demon on the other side.


उभयमेव वदन्ति मनीषिणः समयवर्षितया कृतकर्मणाम्।
बलनिषुदनमर्थपतिम् च तम् श्रमनुदम् मनुदण्डधरान्वयम्॥ ९-३

ubhayameva vadanti manīṣiṇaḥ samayavarṣitayā kṛtakarmaṇām |
balaniṣudanamarthapatim ca tam śramanudam manudaṇḍadharānvayam || 9-3

ubhayameva vadanti manIShiNaH samayavarShitayA kR^itakarmaNAm |
balaniShudanamarthapatim ca tam shramanudam manudaNDadharAnvayam || 9-3


ubhayam eva vadanti manIShiNaH samaya varShitayA kR^ita-karmaNAm bala- niShudanam arthapatim ca tam shrama nudam manu-daNDa-dhara-anvayam

9-3. manIShiNaH= wise-men; bala- niShudanam= Indra - the killer of the demon Bala. This demon is supposed to keep the rain-clouds pent up;  manu-daNDa-dhara-anvayam= the king who is the descendent of sceptre -wielding King Manu tam= him;  arthapatim ca= the lord of treasury - king - Dasharatha;  ubhayam eva = two, only;  samaya varShitayA= [because they two cause] on time, downpour of rain - either natural rain from Indra, or rain of wealth from king;  kR^ita-karmaNAm = those that are fatigued by work - like farmers, labourers etc;  shrama nudam= [their] fatigue, removers;  vadanti= wise men say so.

The wise speak of only two personalities as removers of fatigue of subjects toiling for results like farmers or labourers, viz. one is Indra, the killer of demon Bala, for showering timely rain;  while the other is king Dasharatha, the descendent of King Manu, for showering timely wealth on those toilers. [9-3]


जनपदे न गदः पदमादधावभिभवः कुत एव सपत्नजः।
क्षितिरभुत्फलवत्यजनन्दने शमरतेऽमरतेजसि पार्थिवे॥ ९-४

janapade na gadaḥ padamādadhāvabhibhavaḥ kuta eva sapatnajaḥ |
kṣitirabhutphalavatyajanandane śamarate'maratejasi pārthive || 9-4

janapade na gadaH padamAdadhAvabhibhavaH kuta eva sapatnajaH |
kShitirabhutphalavatyajanandane shamarate.amaratejasi pArthive || 9-4


janapade na gadaH padam Adadhau abhibhavaH kuta eva sapatna jaH kShitiH abhut phalavati aja nandane shamarate amara tejasi pArthive

9-4. shama rate= anger, silenced one - peaceful one;  amara tejasi= one who is celestial-like, in prowess; aja nandane= such Aja's, son - such a Dasharatha;  pArthive sati= a king, [when he is on the throne]; janapade gadaH padam na Adadhau= in the kingdom, disease, foothold, did not, get; sapatna jaH abhibhavaH kuta eva= enemy-kings, born out of, refusal, where, from;  kShitiH phalavati abhut= land, rich in yield, became.

No disease or its sisterly calamity could secure a foothold in the land whence can there be any defeat from an enemy while Dasharatha, the son of Aja, whose prowess was like that of a god and who still took delight in the tranquillity of mind, was the ruler of the earth?


दशदिगन्तजिता रघुणा यथा श्रियमपुष्यदजेन ततः परम्।
तमधिगम्य तथैव पुनर्बभौ न न महीनमहीनपराक्रमम्॥ ९-५

daśadigantajitā raghuṇā yathā śriyamapuṣyadajena tataḥ param |
tamadhigamya tathaiva punarbabhau na na mahīnamahīnaparākramam || 9-5

dashadigantajitA raghuNA yathA shriyamapuShyadajena tataH param |
tamadhigamya tathaiva punarbabhau na na mahInamahInaparAkramam || 9-5


dasha dik anta jitA raghuNA yathA shriyam apuShyat ajena tataH param tam adhigamya tathaiva punar babhau na na mahI inam ahIna parAkramam

9-5. mahI dasha dik anta jitA raghuNA= earth, in ten, quarters, conquered, by Raghu;  yathA shriyam apuShyat= as to how, displayed her splendour [under Raghu]; tataH param ajena ca= even later, during Aja's regime, also;  tathaiva= like that;  a+hIna parAkramam= not, less, in prowess;  tam inam adhigamya= him [Dasharatha], as king, on getting;  punar na babhau [iti] na = again, she did not, was like that [such a bad remark], is not there.

Just as Earth displayed a splendour by being ruled over by Raghu whose conquests had reached up to the limits of the ten directions;  and after him by the rule of Aja;  in a similar manner it was not that she did not shine by having gained him who was in no wise less in prowess than these predecessors for her lord. [9-5]


समतया वसुवृष्टिविसर्जनैनियमनादसताम् च नराधिपः।
अनुययौ यमपुण्यजनेश्वरौ सवरुणावरुणाग्रसरम् रुचा॥ ९-६

samatayā vasuvṛṣṭivisarjanainiyamanādasatām ca narādhipaḥ |
anuyayau yamapuṇyajaneśvarau savaruṇāvaruṇāgrasaram rucā || 9-6

samatayA vasuvR^iShTivisarjanainiyamanAdasatAm ca narAdhipaH |
anuyayau yamapuNyajaneshvarau savaruNAvaruNAgrasaram rucA || 9-6


samatayA vasu vR^iShTi visarjanai niyamanAt asatAm ca narAdhipaH anuyayau yama puNya jana Ishvarau sa varuNau aruNa-agra-saram rucA

9-6. narAdhipaH= that king, Dasharatha;  samatayA= by his impartiality;  vasu vR^iShTi visarjanai= wealth, downpours, by releasing;  asatAm niyamanAt ca= bad-elements, by controlling, also;  sa varuNau= along with god varuNa, yama= god Yama;  puNya-jana-Ishvarau= god Kubera;  anuyayau= he followed;  rucA= by his resplendence - he is like;  aruNa-agra-saram = aruNa, in van, who travels - the Sun who travels keeping aruNa in the van, in charioteer's place.

By his even-handedness, by his showering riches and by keeping the wicked under check king Dasharatha equalled gods yama, kubera and varuNa respectively, and by way of his resplendence he resembled him who travels while aruNa travels in his van i.e. the god Sun. [9-6]


न मृगयाभिरतिर्न दुरोदरम् न च शशिप्रतिमाभरणम् मधु।
तमुदयाय न वा नवयौवना प्रियतमा यतमानमपाहरत्॥ ९-७

na mṛgayābhiratirna durodaram na ca śaśipratimābharaṇam madhu |
tamudayāya na vā navayauvanā priyatamā yatamānamapāharat || 9-7

na mR^igayAbhiratirna durodaram na ca shashipratimAbharaNam madhu |
tamudayAya na vA navayauvanA priyatamA yatamAnamapAharat || 9-7


na mR^igayA abhiratiH na durodaram na ca shashi-pratima-AbharaNam madhu tam udayAya na vA nava-yauvanA priyatamA yatamAnam apAharat

9-7. udayAya yatamAnam tam= [mark the idiom] striving for aggrandisement [of kingdom], to him;  mR^igayA abhiratiH na = hunting [vice], not, distracted;  durodaram na apAharat= gimleting, not, infatuated;  shashi-pratima-AbharaNam madhu ca= drinking wine in moonlight with the image of the reflected moon quivering in the cup of drink;  na apAharat= not, infatuated;  nava-yauvanA priyatamA vA= beloved in the prime of her youth - philandering;  na apAharat= not, infatuated.

Neither ardent love for hunting, nor gambling, nor wine adorned with the reflection of the moon quivering in goblets, nor did philandering distract him who was striving for aggrandisement of kingdom. [9-7]

...so him, self-restrained / For Glory's winning, neither women's love, / Nor dice, nor youth's fair spring-time led astray, / Nor wine moon-mirroring.


न कृपणा प्रभवत्यपि वासवे न वितथा परिहासकथास्वपि।
न च सपत्नजनेष्वपि तेन वागपरुषा परुषाक्षरमीरिता॥ ९-८

na kṛpaṇā prabhavatyapi vāsave na vitathā parihāsakathāsvapi |
na ca sapatnajaneṣvapi tena vāgaparuṣā paruṣākṣaramīritā || 9-8

na kR^ipaNA prabhavatyapi vAsave na vitathA parihAsakathAsvapi |
na ca sapatnajaneShvapi tena vAgaparuShA paruShAkSharamIritA || 9-8


na kR^ipaNA prabhavati api vAsave na vitathA parihAsa kathAsu api na ca sapatna-janeShu api tena vAk aparuShA paruSha akSharam IritA

9-8. tena= by him - Dasharatha; prabhavati vAsave api= in superior position, Indra is there, although;  kR^ipaNA vAk na IritA= supplicant's, talk, not said;  parihAsa kathAsu api vitathA vAk na IritA= jesting conversations, even in, untruthful, word, not said;  ca= further;  a+paruShA tena= one who is ever free from anger, by him;  sapatna-janeShu api= enemies, even in their respect;  paruSha akSharam vaak na iiritaa= hard word, not, said.

Although Indra was the superior, still a supplicating speech was not uttered to him, nor was an up-truth given out even in jesting conversation by this king Dasharatha: nor was a hard word spoken by him who was ever free from anger even to his enemies. [9-8]

No abject word, / Not even to Lord Indra, would he use;  / Nor, even jesting, falsely speak;  nor foes / Would he with passion meet, nor nurse revenge.


उदयमस्तमयम् च रघूद्वहादुभयमानशिरे वसुधाधिपाः।
स हि निदेशमलङ्घयतामभुत्सुहृदयोहृदयः प्रतिगर्जताम्॥ ९-९

udayamastamayam ca raghūdvahādubhayamānaśire vasudhādhipāḥ |
sa hi nideśamalaṅghayatāmabhutsuhṛdayohṛdayaḥ pratigarjatām || 9-9

udayamastamayam ca raghUdvahAdubhayamAnashire vasudhAdhipAH |
sa hi nideshamala~NghayatAmabhutsuhR^idayohR^idayaH pratigarjatAm || 9-9


udayam astamayam ca raghu udvahAt ubhayam Anashire vasudhAdhipAH sa hi nidesham ala~NghayatAm abhut suhR^it ayo-hR^idayaH pratigarjatAm

9-9. vasudhAdhipAH= [other] kings;  raghu udvahAt= by this descendent of Raghu's dynasty - Dasharatha;  udayam astamayam ca= rise, fall, also;  ubhayam = both;  Anashire= they obtained;  hi= why because;  saH= he - Dasharatha;  nidesham a+la~NghayatAm= orders, not, flouting - to them;  suhR^it abhut= good natured, he became;  prati-garjatAm= to those with rowdiness;  ayo-hR^idayaH= [he became] iron-hearted.

Other princes had both rise and fall as they deserved from the ruler of Raghu's dynasty. He was kind-hearted to those who did not transgress his command but was iron-hearted to those who were rowdy with him. [9-9]


अजयदेकरथेन स मेदिनीमुदधिनेमिमधिज्यशरासनः।
जयमघोषयदस्य तु केवलम् गजवती जवतीव्रहया चमुः॥ ९-१०

ajayadekarathena sa medinīmudadhinemimadhijyaśarāsanaḥ |
jayamaghoṣayadasya tu kevalam gajavatī javatīvrahayā camuḥ || 9-10

ajayadekarathena sa medinImudadhinemimadhijyasharAsanaH |
jayamaghoShayadasya tu kevalam gajavatI javatIvrahayA camuH || 9-10


ajayat eka rathena sa medinIm udadhi nemim adhijya sharAsanaH jayam aghoShayat asya tu kevalam gajavatI java-tIvra-hayA camuH

9-10. adhijya sharAsanaH sa= with emplaced, bow, he;  udadhi nemim medinIm= oceans, as its rim, earth;  eka rathena= with one, chariot;  ajayat= he conquered;  gajavatI= having elephantary; java-tIvra-hayA= having high speeded horses;  camuH tu= [his] army, but;  asya kevalam jayam aghoShayat = his, success, proclaimed.

In a single chariot with an emplaced bow he conquered whole earth rimmed with oceans;  while his army made up of numerous elephantary and impetuously fleet horses became the mouthpiece of his success. [9-10]


अवनिमेकरथेन वरुथिना जितवतः किल तस्य धनुर्भृतः।
विजयदुन्दुभिताम् ययुरर्णवा घनरवा नरवाहनसम्पदः॥ ९-११

avanimekarathena varuthinā jitavataḥ kila tasya dhanurbhṛtaḥ |
vijayadundubhitām yayurarṇavā ghanaravā naravāhanasampadaḥ || 9-11

avanimekarathena varuthinA jitavataH kila tasya dhanurbhR^itaH |
vijayadundubhitAm yayurarNavA ghanaravA naravAhanasampadaH || 9-11


avanim eka rathena varuthinA jitavataH kila tasya dhanurbhR^itaH vijaya dundubhitAm yayuH arNavAH ghana-ravAH nara-vAhana sampadaH

9-11. varuthinA= a wooden fence with which a chariot is provided to protect it against collision - collision-guard;  ekarathena= with such a unique, chariot;  avanim jitavataH dhanurbhR^itaH nara-vAhana sampadaH= earth, who conquered, best archer, a wealthy one; tasya= to him; ghana-ravAH= highly, thunderous;  arNavAH= oceans on sides;  vijaya dundubhitAm yayuH= victory, drumbeat, they became;  kila = they say so.

The thunders of oceans like that of clouds became, as it were, thunderous drumbeats proclaiming his victory;  for that expert archer whose wealth equals that of Kubera conquered the whole earth by riding a unique chariot furnished with a collision-guard. [9-11]


शमितपक्षबलः शतकोटिना शिखरिणाम् कुलिशेन पुरम्दरः।
स शरवृष्टिमुचा धनुषा द्विषाम् स्वनवता नवतामरसाननः॥ ९-१२

śamitapakṣabalaḥ śatakoṭinā śikhariṇām kuliśena puramdaraḥ |
sa śaravṛṣṭimucā dhanuṣā dviṣām svanavatā navatāmarasānanaḥ || 9-12

shamitapakShabalaH shatakoTinA shikhariNAm kulishena puramdaraH |
sa sharavR^iShTimucA dhanuShA dviShAm svanavatA navatAmarasAnanaH || 9-12


shamita pakSha balaH shata-koTinA shikhariNAm kulishena purandaraH saH shara-vR^iShTi-mucA dhanuShA dviShAm svanavatA nava-tAmarasa-AnanaH

9-12. purandaraH= Indra;  shata-koTinA kulishena= with hundred-edged, thunderbolt;  shikhariNAm= of flying mountains;  shamita pakSha balaH= silenced, wings, power - got rid of; nava-tAmarasa-AnanaH saH= new, lotuses like, face, he who is with - Dasharatha; shara-vR^iShTi-mucA= arrows, showers, by release;  svanavatA dhanuShA= with twanging, bow;  dviShAm= of enemies;  shamita pakSha balaH= silenced, allies, strength.

Indra got rid of the force of the wings of flying mountains with his hundred edged thunderbolt;  while Dasharatha whose face was like a fresh red lotus got rid of the force of his enemies together with their allies just with his twanging bow that down poured showers of arrows. [9-12]


नृपतयः शतशो मरुतो यथा शतमखम् तमखण्डितपौरुषम्॥ ९-१३

caraṇayornakharāgasamṛddhibhirmukuṭaratnamarīcibhiraspṛśan |
nṛpatayaḥ śataśo maruto yathā śatamakham tamakhaṇḍitapauruṣam || 9-13

caraNayornakharAgasamR^iddhibhirmukuTaratnamarIcibhiraspR^ishan |
nR^ipatayaH shatasho maruto yathA shatamakham tamakhaNDitapauruSham || 9-13


caraNayoH nakha rAga samR^iddhibhiH mukuTa ratna marIcibhiH aspR^ishan nR^ipatayaH shatashaH marutaH yathA shatamakham tam akhaNDita pauruSham

9-13. shatashaH nR^ipatayaH= hundreds of kings;  akhaNDita pauruSham= who has unbroken, bravery;  tam= him;  marutaH shatamakham yathA= marut gods, at Indra, as with;  nakha rAga samR^iddhibhiH= toenails, their glow, abundance;  mukuTa ratna marIcibhiH= crowns, gems, gleaming with [of other kings]; caraNayoH aspR^ishan= feet, when touching.

Hundreds of kings were venerating the feet of Dasharatha whose course of valour was unimpeded, while the glow of his toenails heightened the glitter of gems studded in their crowns, just as the marut-gods adore the feet of Indra. [9-13]


निववृते स महार्णवरोधसः सचिवकारितबालसुताञ्जलीन्।
समनुकम्प्य सपत्नपरिग्रहाननलकानलकानवमाम् पुरीम्॥ ९-१४

nivavṛte sa mahārṇavarodhasaḥ sacivakāritabālasutāñjalīn |
samanukampya sapatnaparigrahānanalakānalakānavamām purīm || 9-14

nivavR^ite sa mahArNavarodhasaH sacivakAritabAlasutA~njalIn |
samanukampya sapatnaparigrahAnanalakAnalakAnavamAm purIm || 9-14


nivavR^ite sa mahArNava rodhasaH saciva kArita bAla suta a~njalIn samanukampya sapatna parigrahAn analakAn alaka anavamAm purIm

9-14. saH= he, Dasharatha;  saciva kArita bAla suta a~njalIn= by ministers, made, of young, sons, palm-fold - when the wives of defeated kings sought the mercy of Dasharatha with palm-folds through their young sons, made at the advise of their own ministers;  an+alakAn= those that are decorating their curls of hair - widowed queens of defeated kings;  sapatna parigrahAn= them the wives of defeated kings;  samanukampya= accepting compassionately;  mahArNava rodhasaH= from great oceans, shorelines - from far places;  alaka an+avamAm= Alaka city, not, inferior to - a city not inferior to Alaka city of Kubera;  purIm= to such a city - his own Ayodhya;  nivavR^ite = he used to return.

He used to return from the shores of the oceans to his capital which was in no way inferior to the city of Kubera, on taking a compassionate view on the wives of his defeated enemies who have been rendered uncaring to tidy up their head-hair and whose young sons had been made to pray for the mercy at the advise of their ministers. [9-14]


उपगतोऽपि च मण्डलनाभितामनुदितान्यसितातपवारणः।
श्रियमवेक्ष्य स रन्ध्रचलामभुदनलसोऽनलसोमसमद्युतिः॥ ९-१५

upagato'pi ca maṇḍalanābhitāmanuditānyasitātapavāraṇaḥ |
śriyamavekṣya sa randhracalāmabhudanalaso'nalasomasamadyutiḥ || 9-15

upagato.api ca maNDalanAbhitAmanuditAnyasitAtapavAraNaH |
shriyamavekShya sa randhracalAmabhudanalaso.analasomasamadyutiH || 9-15


upagataH api ca maNDala nAbhitAm anudita anya sita-Atapa-vAraNaH shriyam avekShya sa randhra calAm abhut analasaH anala soma sama dyutiH

9-15. anudita anya sita-Atapa-vAraNaH= to raise up, no other [ruler to open and use the] white, sun heat stopper - umbrella - there is none raise his own royal white parasol - he the sole monarch;  anala soma sama dyutiH= he whose splendour was like that of fire and moon;  shriyam randhra calAm= the goddess of wealth might depart through any loop holes - anyAya, AlasyAdi doShA-s;  avekShya= seeing - fully aware that wealth seeks loop holes to escape;  saH= he, Dasharatha;  maNDala nAbhitAm upagataH api= he had attained the central position among the circle of rulers, although;  an+alasaH abhut= untiring, he became.

Though he had attained the central position among the circle of rulers and although now there was no other ruler to open and use his own white regal parasol, still knowing full well that the goddess of wealth might depart through any loop hole, like lassitude, misconduct etc, he whose splendour was like that of fire and moon was ever on alert. [9-15]

maNDala nAbhitAm - is actually rAja maNDala nAbhitam. There are 12 sorts of king to any other king like - his friend, friend's friend, enemy, enemy's friend etc. Out of them one called vijigIShu stands like an axel of a wheel and confronts others. If he is successful in trouncing all the others, then he becomes a chakravarti.


तमपहाय ककुत्स्थकुलोद्भवम् पुरुषमात्मभवम् च पतिव्रता।
नृपतिमन्यमसेवत देवता सकमला कमलाघवमर्थिषु॥ ९-१६

tamapahāya kakutsthakulodbhavam puruṣamātmabhavam ca pativratā |
nṛpatimanyamasevata devatā sakamalā kamalāghavamarthiṣu || 9-16

tamapahAya kakutsthakulodbhavam puruShamAtmabhavam ca pativratA |
nR^ipatimanyamasevata devatA sakamalA kamalAghavamarthiShu || 9-16


am apahAya kakutstha kulodbhavam puruSham Atmabhavam ca pativratA nR^ipatim anyama sevata devatA sa kamalA kam alAghavam arthiShu

9-16. pativratA sa kamalA devatA = husband-devout, one with lotus in hand, such a goddess - Lakshmi;  arthiShu a+lAghavam= in regard to supplicants, not, stingy - liberal;  kakutstha kulodbhavam tam= one born in the dynasty of Kakutstha, him - Dasharatha;  Atmabhavam puruSham ca= self-created, Supreme Person, as well; apahAya= leaving off [these two]; anyam kam nR^ipatim asevata= other, which, king, she [Lakshmi] will attend.

Leaving off such a Dasharatha who was sprung from the dynasty of Kakutstha and him who was the self-born Supreme Spirit which each one liberal towards suppliants, to what other lord of men would the chaste Goddess of wealth, bearing a lotus in her hand, attach herself? [9-16]


तमलभन्त पतिम् पतिदेवताः शिखरिणामिव सागरमापगाः।
मगधकोसलकेकयशासिनाम् दुहितरोऽहितरोपितमार्गणम्॥ ९-१७

tamalabhanta patim patidevatāḥ śikhariṇāmiva sāgaramāpagāḥ |
magadhakosalakekayaśāsinām duhitaro'hitaropitamārgaṇam || 9-17

tamalabhanta patim patidevatAH shikhariNAmiva sAgaramApagAH |
magadhakosalakekayashAsinAm duhitaro.ahitaropitamArgaNam || 9-17


tam alabhanta patim patidevatAH shikhariNAm iva sAgaram ApagAH magadha kosala kekaya shAsinAm duhitaraH ahita ropita mArgaNam

9-17. patidevatAH= husband, as god - one who adores so - husband-devout ladies; magadha kosala kekaya shAsinAm duhitaraH= Magadha, Kosala, Kekaya kings', daughters of; ahita ropita mArgaNam= on unfriendly, wedged, arrows - one who has arrows stuck in the bodies of enemies;  tam= him - Dasharatha;  shikhariNAm duhitaraH ApagAH = mountains, daughters, rivers;  sAgaram iva = ocean, as with;  patim alabhanta = as husband, they got.

The daughters of the kings of Magadha, Kosala, and Kekaya provinces who looked upon their husband as their deity gained for their husband him, who drove his arrows deep into the bodies of his enemies, just as the daughters of mountains, namely the rivers, gain the ocean as their husband. [9-17]


प्रियतमाभिरसौ तिसृभिर्बभौ तिसृभिरेव भुवम् सह शक्तिभिः।
उपगतो विनिनीषुरिव प्रजा हरिहयोऽरिहयोगविचक्षणः॥ ९-१८

priyatamābhirasau tisṛbhirbabhau tisṛbhireva bhuvam saha śaktibhiḥ |
upagato vininīṣuriva prajā harihayo'rihayogavicakṣaṇaḥ || 9-18

priyatamAbhirasau tisR^ibhirbabhau tisR^ibhireva bhuvam saha shaktibhiH |
upagato vininIShuriva prajA harihayo.arihayogavicakShaNaH || 9-18


priyatamAbhiH asau tisR^ibhiH babhau tisR^ibhiH eva bhuvam saha shaktibhiH upagato vininIShuH iva prajA harihayaH ari+ha yoga vicakShaNaH

9-18. ari+ha yoga vicakShaNaH= of destroying his enemies, in the means, an expert - an expert in the means of destroying his enemies,; asau= that Dasharatha;  tisR^ibhiH priyatamAbhiH saha= three, ladyloves, along with;  prajA vininIShuH= subjects, to follow good conduct;  tisR^ibhiH eva shaktibhiH= with three, alone, powers - prabhu, mantra, utsAha shakti-s;  bhuvam upagataH harihayaH iva= to earth, reached, one with green-horses - Indra, as with;  babhau= shone forth.

He who was expert in the means of destroying his enemies, that Dasharatha along with his three wives seemed like Indra accompanied by the three powers imperative to any king, namely good governance, good outlook and good enthusiasm, descended upon the earth, as if out of a desire to rule the mortals. [9-18]


स किल सम्युगमुर्ध्नि सहायताम् मघवतः प्रतिपद्य महारथः।
स्वभुजवीर्यमगापयदुच्छ्रितम् सुरवधुरवधुतभयाः शरैः॥ ९-१९

sa kila samyugamurdhni sahāyatām maghavataḥ pratipadya mahārathaḥ |
svabhujavīryamagāpayaducchritam suravadhuravadhutabhayāḥ śaraiḥ || 9-19

sa kila samyugamurdhni sahAyatAm maghavataH pratipadya mahArathaH |
svabhujavIryamagApayaducChritam suravadhuravadhutabhayAH sharaiH || 9-19


sa kila samyuga murdhni sahAyatAm maghavataH pratipadya mahArathaH sva-bhuja- vIryam agApayat ucChritam sura-vadhuH avadhuta bhayAH sharaiH

9-19. mahArathaH saH samyuga murdhni= chariot-warrior, he that Dasharatha, wars, in vanguard of;  maghavataH sahAyatAm pratipadya= to Indra, helping hand, on getting;  sharaiH avadhuta bhayAH= with arrows, removed, fear;  sura-vadhuH= of celestial ladies;  ucChritam sva-bhuja- vIryam= prominent, his arms, might;  agApayat kila = made to sing, they say.

That chariot-warrior, having assisted Indra remaining in the van of battles with demons, caused the wives of the gods whose fears had been dispelled by his arrows, to sing the praises of the vigour of his mighty arms. [9-19]


क्रतुषु तेन विसर्जितमौलिना भुजसमाहृतदिग्वसुना कृताः।
कनकयुपसमुच्छ्रयशोभिनो वितमसा तमसासरयुतटाः॥ ९-२०

kratuṣu tena visarjitamaulinā bhujasamāhṛtadigvasunā kṛtāḥ |
kanakayupasamucchrayaśobhino vitamasā tamasāsarayutaṭāḥ || 9-20

kratuShu tena visarjitamaulinA bhujasamAhR^itadigvasunA kR^itAH |
kanakayupasamucChrayashobhino vitamasA tamasAsarayutaTAH || 9-20


kratuShu tena visarjita maulinA bhuja samAhR^ita dik vasunA kR^itAH kanaka yupa samucChraya shobhinaH vitamasA tamasA sarayu taTAH

9-20. kratuShu visarjita maulinA= in Vedic rituals, left off, crown - removed crown and performed rituals;  bhuja samAhR^ita dik vasunA= with his own arm-strength, collected, wealth, from all quarters, of earth;  vi+tamasA= who was free from the quality of darkness;   tena= by him;  tamasA sarayu taTAH= Tamasa [a tributary of river Ganga], Saryu rivers, on the banks;  kanaka yupa samucChraya shobhinaH= golden, sacrificial posts, high rising, shining forth;  kR^itAH = made to.

Putting aside his crown during the performance of the Vedic sacrifices, he who had collected wealth from various quarters and who was free from the quality of darkness, made the riverbanks of the Tamasa and the Sarayu splendid by erecting high-rising golden sacrificial posts. [9-20]


अजिनदण्डभृतम् कुशमेखलाम् यतगिरम् मृगशृङ्गपरिग्रहाम्।
अधिवसम्स्तनुमध्वरदीक्षितामसमभासमभासयदीश्वरः॥ ९-२१

ajinadaṇḍabhṛtam kuśamekhalām yatagiram mṛgaśṛṅgaparigrahām |
adhivasamstanumadhvaradīkṣitāmasamabhāsamabhāsayadīśvaraḥ || 9-21

ajinadaNDabhR^itam kushamekhalAm yatagiram mR^igashR^i~NgaparigrahAm |
adhivasamstanumadhvaradIkShitAmasamabhAsamabhAsayadIshvaraH || 9-21


ajina daNDa bhR^itam kusha-mekhalAm yata-giram mR^iga shR^i~Nga parigrahAm adhivasan tanum adhvara dIkShitAm asamabhAsam abhAsayat IshvaraH

9-21. IshvaraH= god Shiva;  ajina daNDa bhR^itam= antelope -skin, staff, holding;  kusha-mekhalAm= one with a girdle of the Kusha grass;  yata-giram= one controlled his speech;  mR^iga shR^i~Nga parigrahAm= one who had a deer horn in his hand;  adhvara dIkShitAm= one who is in the vow of ritual;  tanum adhivasan= body, presiding over - Shiva;  a+sama+bhAsam= not, equalling any other, resplendence, [Dasharatha's body]; abhAsayat= made to.  

God Ishvara entered the body of Dasharatha who had gone through vow of a ceremony, and who therefore now had an antelope -skin and a staff, a girdle of the Kusha grass, who held his speech under restraint, and had a deer horn in his hand;  and (by doing so) made it shine forth with matchless splendour. [9-21]

Shiva is supposed to enter for a while, rather take possession of the spirit of, the person performing a Vedic sacrifice.


अवभृथप्रयतो नियतेन्द्रियः सुरसमाजसमाक्रमणोचितः।
नमयति स्म स केवलमुन्नतम् वनमुचे नमुचेररये शिरः॥ ९-२२

avabhṛthaprayato niyatendriyaḥ surasamājasamākramaṇocitaḥ |
namayati sma sa kevalamunnatam vanamuce namuceraraye śiraḥ || 9-22

avabhR^ithaprayato niyatendriyaH surasamAjasamAkramaNocitaH |
namayati sma sa kevalamunnatam vanamuce namuceraraye shiraH || 9-22


avabhR^itha prayataH niyata indriyaH sura samAja samAkramaNa ucitaH namayati sma sa kevalam unnatam vana-muce namuceH araye shiraH

9-22. avabhR^itha prayataH= by end-bath of Vedic ritual, one who is purified;  niyata indriyaH= with controlled senses;  sura samAja= gods, assemblies;  sam + AkramaNa ucitaH= to sit on high seat of gods, one who is fit;  saH= he that Dasharatha;  unnatam shiraH= his unbending head; vana-muce= by forests, rained - for the holy water;  kevalam namuceH araye= only, before demon Namuchi's enemy - Indra;  namayati sma= he was bending his head.

 He who had been purified by the end- ablutions of Vedic rituals, who had his senses under control, who was fit to sit on the high seat of the assembly of the gods used to bow his unswerving head out of respect only before the enemy of demon Namuchi who is the rain-giver, namely Indra. [9-22]

AkramaNa = pITham = high seat.


असकृदेकरथेन तरस्विना हरिहयाग्रसरेण धनुर्भृता।
दिनकराभिमुखा रणरेणवो रुरुधिरे रुधिरेण सुरद्विषाम्॥ ९-२३

asakṛdekarathena tarasvinā harihayāgrasareṇa dhanurbhṛtā |
dinakarābhimukhā raṇareṇavo rurudhire rudhireṇa suradviṣām || 9-23

asakR^idekarathena tarasvinA harihayAgrasareNa dhanurbhR^itA |
dinakarAbhimukhA raNareNavo rurudhire rudhireNa suradviShAm || 9-23


asakR^it ekarathena tarasvinA hari-haya-agra sareNa dhanur-bhR^itA dinakara abhimukhA raNa reNavaH rurudhire rudhireNa sura-dviShAm

9-23. ekarathena= one with unique chariot;  tarasvinA= mighty one;  hari-haya-agra sareNa= to green-horses [of Indra], in van, who marches ahead;  dhanur-bhR^itA= bow, emplaced;  asakR^it= on many times;  dinakara abhimukhA raNa reNavaH= sun, in front, [raised] war, dust;  sura-dviShAm rudhireNa= gods, enemies, with blood of; rurudhire= stopped - dust wetted with blood.

That vigorous warrior Dasharatha who fought with only one chariot armed with a bow, and who used to march in the van of Indra, frequently suppressed masses of war-dust raised on the battle-field going up towards the sun by wetting it with the blood of the enemies of the gods, thus making the path of the sun unclouded. [9-23]


वसन्त ऋतु वर्णन

vasanta ṛtu varṇana

अथ समाववृते कुसुमैर्नवैस्तमिव सेवितुमेकनराधिपम्।
यमकुबेरजलेश्वरवज्रिणाम् समधुरम् मधुरञ्चितविक्रमम्॥ ९-२४

atha samāvavṛte kusumairnavaistamiva sevitumekanarādhipam |
yamakuberajaleśvaravajriṇām samadhuram madhurañcitavikramam || 9-24

atha samAvavR^ite kusumairnavaistamiva sevitumekanarAdhipam |
yamakuberajaleshvaravajriNAm samadhuram madhura~ncitavikramam || 9-24


atha samAvavR^ite kusumaiH navaiH tam iva sevitum eka narAdhipam yama kubera jaleshvara vajriNAm samadhuram madhuH a~ncita vikramam

9-24. atha= then;  yama kubera jaleshvara vajriNAm samadhuram= with Yama, Kubera, Varuna, Indra, one who has equal responsibility;  a~ncita vikramam= praised, prowess;  eka narAdhipam= unique, king;  tam sevitum iva = him, to venerate, as if;  navaiH kusumaiH madhuH samAvavR^ite = with new, flowers, vernal season, reoccurred.

Now reappeared the vernal season with fresh flowers to do honour, as it were, to the unrivalled sovereign lord of the people whose responsibility was equal to that of Yama, Kubera, Varuna and Indra together and whose prowess was highly respected. [9-24]

One should not approach a king, teacher and a god empty-handedly. Hence vernal season brought flowers with him, of course, to Dasharatha. From this verse to the end of the extolling spring season, each verse may be read with the concluding suffix ...such and such a spring season has come...


जिगमिषुर्धनदाध्युषिताम् दिशम् रथयुजा परिवर्तितवाहनः।
दिनमुखानि रविर्हिमनिग्रहैर्विमलयन्मलयम् नगमत्यजत्॥ ९-२५

jigamiṣurdhanadādhyuṣitām diśam rathayujā parivartitavāhanaḥ |
dinamukhāni ravirhimanigrahairvimalayanmalayam nagamatyajat || 9-25

jigamiShurdhanadAdhyuShitAm disham rathayujA parivartitavAhanaH |
dinamukhAni ravirhimanigrahairvimalayanmalayam nagamatyajat || 9-25


jigamiShuH dhanada adhyuShitAm disham ratha yujA parivartita vAhanaH dina mukhAni raviH hima nigrahaiH vimalayan malayam nagam atyajat

9-25. dhanadA adhyuShitAm disham jigamiShuH= by Kubera, presiding, quarter [north], one who is scheduled to go - the Sun;  ratha yujA parivartita vAhanaH= by charioteer, U-turned, chariot - from south to north;  raviH= such Sun;  hima-nigrahaiH dina-mukhAni vimalayan= by thawing snow, day's, face - dawns, by brightening;  malayam nagam atyajat= Mt.Malaya [in south], he discarded.

Wishing to go to the northern quarter presided over by Kubera the sun whose charioteer made the chariot to take a U-turn left Mt. Malaya in south and proceeded to north brightening the early mornings by thawing the mist. [9-25]

Sun began his northern solstice stopping southern solstice.


कुसुमजन्म ततो नवपल्लवास्तदनु षट्पदकोकिलकुजितम्।
इति यथाक्रममाविरभुन्मधुर्द्रुमवतीमवतीर्य वनस्थलीम्॥ ९-२६

kusumajanma tato navapallavāstadanu ṣaṭpadakokilakujitam |
iti yathākramamāvirabhunmadhurdrumavatīmavatīrya vanasthalīm || 9-26

kusumajanma tato navapallavAstadanu ShaTpadakokilakujitam |
iti yathAkramamAvirabhunmadhurdrumavatImavatIrya vanasthalIm || 9-26


kusuma janma tataH nava pallavAH tat anu ShaTpada kokila kujitam iti yathAkramam Avirabhut madhuH druma-vatIm avatIrya vana-sthalIm

9-26. kusuma janma= [firstly] flowers, birth - blossoming;  tataH= then;  nava pallavAH= new, leaflets;  tat anu= following that;  ShaTpada kokila kujitam= honeybees, kokilA-s, humming and singings;  iti yathAkramam= in this way, in serial order; druma-vatIm vana-sthalIm= plants and trees, having, in woodlands;  avatIrya= by descending on those woodlands;  madhuH= vernal season;  Avirabhut = manifested itself.

Then there was the bursting of flowers and the appearance of tender foliage followed by the humming and signing of honeybees and kokilA-s - in this serial order did the vernal season manifest itself by descending on the thickly wooded woodlands. [9-26]


नयगुणोपचितामिव भुपतेः सदुपकारफलाम् श्रियमर्थिनः।
अभिययुः सरसो मधुसम्भृताम् कमलिनीमलिनीरपतत्रिणः॥ ९-२७

nayaguṇopacitāmiva bhupateḥ sadupakāraphalām śriyamarthinaḥ |
abhiyayuḥ saraso madhusambhṛtām kamalinīmalinīrapatatriṇaḥ || 9-27

nayaguNopacitAmiva bhupateH sadupakAraphalAm shriyamarthinaH |
abhiyayuH saraso madhusambhR^itAm kamalinImalinIrapatatriNaH || 9-27


 naya guNa upacitAm iva bhupateH sat-upakAra-phalAm shriyam arthinaH abhiyayuH sarasaH madhu sambhR^itAm kamalinIm ali nIra-patatriNaH

9-27. naya-guNa upacitAm= as a state policy, that which is forgathered - wealth;  sat-upakAra-phalAm= of benefit to the good;  bhupateH shriyam= king's, for such wealth;  arthinaH iva= supplicants, as with;  madhu sambhR^itAm= by vernal season, well accumulated;  sarasaH kamalinIm= pond's, lotus plant;  ali= honeybees;  nIra-patatriNaH= water fowls;  abhiyayuH= reached.

Honeybees and water-birds repaired to the 10tus-plants which were by now plentiful in the lake just as like supplicants gathering round the King for the wealth forgathered by policy and from which various expedients to be of benefit to the good. [9-27]


कुसुममेव न केवलमार्तवम् नवमशोकतरोः स्मरदीपनम्।
किसलयप्रसवोऽपि विलासिनाम् मदयिता दयिताश्रवणार्पितः॥ ९-२८

kusumameva na kevalamārtavam navamaśokataroḥ smaradīpanam |
kisalayaprasavo'pi vilāsinām madayitā dayitāśravaṇārpitaḥ || 9-28

kusumameva na kevalamArtavam navamashokataroH smaradIpanam |
kisalayaprasavo.api vilAsinAm madayitA dayitAshravaNArpitaH || 9-28


kusumam eva na kevalam Artavam navam ashoka taroH smara dIpanam kisalaya prasavaH api vilAsinAm madayitA dayitA shravaNa arpitaH

9-28. Artavam= appertaining to the season;  navam ashoka taroH= of new, Ashoka, tree's;  kevalam kusumam eva= just one, flower, alone;  smara dIpanam na= excitant of the passion of beaus;  [kintu= why because]; vilAsinAm = for playboys;  madayitA= maddening;  dayitA shravaNa arpitaH= lady love's, in ear, placed;  kisalaya prasavaH api= grass, tender shoot, even;  smara dIpanaH= passion excitant.

The fresh seasonal flower of the Ashoka is not the only excitant of the passion of beaus, why because, the new foliage of the tender-shoot placed as an ornament on the ears of their beloveds was an exhilarant too. [9-28]


विरचिता मधुनोपवनश्रियामभिनवा इव पत्रविशेषकाः।
मधुलिहाम् मधुदानविशारदाः कुरबका रवकारणताम् ययुः॥ ९-२९

viracitā madhunopavanaśriyāmabhinavā iva patraviśeṣakāḥ |
madhulihām madhudānaviśāradāḥ kurabakā ravakāraṇatām yayuḥ || 9-29

viracitA madhunopavanashriyAmabhinavA iva patravisheShakAH |
madhulihAm madhudAnavishAradAH kurabakA ravakAraNatAm yayuH || 9-29


viracitA madhunA upavana shriyAm abhinavAH iva patra visheShakAH madhu-lihAm madhu dAna vishAradAH kuravakA rava kAraNatAm yayuH

9-29. madhunA viracitA = by spring-season, painted;  upavana shriyAm= the person of the presiding beauty of a garden;  abhinavAH patra visheShakAH iva= new, foliage-like erasable tattoos drawn on the cheeks of vasanta lakshmi], as with;  madhu dAna vishAradAH= honey, according, experts - flowers of kuravaka plants according much honey;  kuravakA= a tree belonging to the genus Barleria having a reddish brown flower but it bas very little honey and it appears strange that kAlidAsa should call it honey-endowing tree unless we take it to be meant sarcastically;  and we feel justified in this view since we are told that they were the cause of the humming which would not have been heard had there been plenty of honey in the flowers. The paucity of honey in the flowers made the bees go about them buzzing;  madhu-lihAm= honey-lickers - bees;  rava kAraNatAm yayuH= humming, caused by the flowers, they entered - thee flowers of kuravaka caused the drone of bees.

Thc kuravaka flowers which were liberal in yielding honey and which appeared like the foliage-like erasable tattoos on the cheeks of the personified Garden-Beauty called vasanta lakshmi, drawn by equally personified craftsman namely vernal season, became the cause of the droning of bees. [9-29]


सुवदनावदनासवसम्भृतस्तदनुवादिगुणः कुसुमोद्गमः।
मधुकरैरकरोन्मधुलोलुपैर्वकुलमाकुलमायतपङ्क्तिभिः॥ ९-३०

suvadanāvadanāsavasambhṛtastadanuvādiguṇaḥ kusumodgamaḥ |
madhukarairakaronmadhulolupairvakulamākulamāyatapaṅktibhiḥ || 9-30

suvadanAvadanAsavasambhR^itastadanuvAdiguNaH kusumodgamaH |
madhukarairakaronmadhulolupairvakulamAkulamAyatapa~NktibhiH || 9-30


suvadanA vadanAsava sambhR^itaH tat anuvAdi guNaH kusuma udgamaH madhu karaiH akarot madhu lolupaiH vakulam Akulam Ayata pa~NktibhiH

9-30. suvadanA= of beauties;  vadana Asava sambhR^itaH kusuma udgamaH= in mouths, wines, flowers, blossoming - these vakula flowers blossom abundantly when women gargle and spit wine on them, as with the kicking of Ashoka trees by women;  tat anuvAdi guNaH= that [wine's], mimickingin quality of fragrance;  madhu lolupaiH Ayata pa~NktibhiH madhu karaiH= those infatuated with honey, in long chains, by bees;  vakulam Akulam akarot= vakula trees, to fluster, [bees] made.

When beautiful women gargled and spouted wine on vakula trees there was fresh and abundant blossoming, mimicking the fragrance of the wine spewed on them, and those trees were swaying under the weight of blossoms;  when bees infatuated with nectar have suddenly fallen on them in swarms of long chains, the swaying of these trees increased much, thus the vakula trees, their blossoms, honeybees and the mouths of beauties - all are soaked in the deliciousness of wine consumed in this vernal season. [9-30]

Wine from beauteous lips / Made fertile bursting blooms, which fragrant blush / On Vakulas, where long-drawn swarms of bees / Greedy of sweetness clung.


उपहितम् शिशिरापगमश्रिया मुकुलजालमशोभत किम्शुके।
प्रणयिनीव नखक्षतमण्डनम् प्रमदया मदयापितलज्जया॥ ९-३१

upahitam śiśirāpagamaśriyā mukulajālamaśobhata kimśuke |
praṇayinīva nakhakṣatamaṇḍanam pramadayā madayāpitalajjayā || 9-31

upahitam shishirApagamashriyA mukulajAlamashobhata kimshuke |
praNayinIva nakhakShatamaNDanam pramadayA madayApitalajjayA || 9-31


upahitam shishira apagama shriyA mukula jAlam ashobhata kimshuke praNayini iva nakha kShata maNDanam pramadayA mada yApita lajjayA

9-31. shishira apagama shriyA= shishira season, on going away, the beauty that came - vasanta, vernal season - on its coming;  kimshuke upahitam mukula jAlam= on kimshuka trees, placed, buds, collection of;  mada yApita lajjayA= by intoxication, removed, bashfulness;  pramadayA= by such passionate ladies;  praNayini upahitam= on their lovers, placed;  nakha kShata maNDanam iva= with nails, dented, ornamentation, as with;  ashobhata= shone forth.

The abundant appearance of buds produced on the kinshuka plants by the beauty called the vernal season that follows the close of the winter appeared like the embellishll1ent of nail marks made on the body of her lover by a passionate young woman deprived of her bashfulness by intoxication. [9-31]

kimshuka is the palAsha or Rulea frondosa. In spring it is covered with deep red flowers which have hardly any smell.


व्रणगुरुप्रमदाधरदुःसहम् जघननिर्विषयीकृतमेखलम्।
न खलु तावदशेषमपोहितुम् रविरलम् विरलम् कृतवान्हिमम्॥ ९-३२

vraṇagurupramadādharaduḥsaham jaghananirviṣayīkṛtamekhalam |
na khalu tāvadaśeṣamapohitum raviralam viralam kṛtavānhimam || 9-32

vraNagurupramadAdharaduHsaham jaghananirviShayIkR^itamekhalam |
na khalu tAvadasheShamapohitum raviralam viralam kR^itavAnhimam || 9-32


vraNa guru pramada adhara duHsaham jaghana nirviShayIkR^ita mekhalam na khalu tAvat asheSham apohitum raviH alam viralam kR^itavAn himam

9-32. vraNa guru pramada adhara duHsaham= with blisters, deep ones, on ladies', lips, intolerable one - frost made them so in winter;  jaghana nirviShayIkR^ita mekhalam= on waists, removed, girdles - frost made them so in winter;  himam= such a frost;  raviH= the Sun;  tAvat = up to that time - till the arrivals of spring season;  asheSham apohitum na alam khalu= completely, to remove, not, capable, indeed;  [but] viralam kR^itavAn = made it [frost] to become thin.

The Sun was as not indeed able to completely dispel the frost which to young women's lips swollen by the teeth-marks of their lovers was unbearable;  which had caused the metal-girdles to be thrown aside from the waists of womenfolk for the metal-contact is equally unbearable to them in winter;  but he could rarefy that frost advent of spring season. [9-32]

Not yet the Sun dispelled, but made less keen / The frost by women hated, swollen-lipped / From biting, while their zones slipped down from waists / That shrank with cold.


अभिनयान्परिचेतुमिवोद्यता मलयमारुतकम्पितपल्लवा।
अमदयत्सहकारलता मनः सकलिका कलिकामजितामपि॥ ९-३३

abhinayānparicetumivodyatā malayamārutakampitapallavā |
amadayatsahakāralatā manaḥ sakalikā kalikāmajitāmapi || 9-33

abhinayAnparicetumivodyatA malayamArutakampitapallavA |
amadayatsahakAralatA manaH sakalikA kalikAmajitAmapi || 9-33


abhinayAn paricetum iva udyatA malaya mAruta kampita pallavA amadayat sahakAra-latA manaH sa-kalikA kali-kAma-jitAm api

9-33. abhinayAn paricetum udyatA iva= expressing with gestures - mudra-s of dance performance, to practise, upshot, as if;  malaya mAruta kampita pallavA= [one which has been] by southern, breeze, vacillated, tender leaves;  sa-kalikA= one with buds;  sahakAra-latA= such a mango-creeper - a particular fragrant variety of the mango;  kali-kAma-jitAm api= those who had overcome feud and lust. manaH amadayat= minds, exhilarated.

While the southern wind vacillated a young creeper-mango having blossom-buds, that creeper appeared as if bent upon practising dancers' gesticulations and thereby exhilarated the minds of even those who had overcome feud and the mischief of love-god. [9-33]

From southern Malaya / Fresh buds of mango, shaken by warm winds, / Learned arts enticing, in ascetic breasts / By charm of waving twigs to fix Love's power.


प्रथममन्यभृताभिरुदीरिताः प्रविरला इव मुग्धवधूकथाः।
सुरभिगन्धिषु शुश्रुविरे गिरः कुसुमितासु मिता वनराजिषु॥ ९-३४

prathamamanyabhṛtābhirudīritāḥ praviralā iva mugdhavadhūkathāḥ |
surabhigandhiṣu śuśruvire giraḥ kusumitāsu mitā vanarājiṣu || 9-34

prathamamanyabhR^itAbhirudIritAH praviralA iva mugdhavadhUkathAH |
surabhigandhiShu shushruvire giraH kusumitAsu mitA vanarAjiShu || 9-34


prathamam anyabhR^itAbhiH udIritAH praviralA iva mugdha vadhU kathAH surabhi gandhiShu shushruvire giraH kusumitAsu mitA vanarAjiShu

9-34. surabhi gandhiShu kusumitAsu vanarAjiShu=  full of sweet fragrance, in blossomed, in the groves;  anyabhR^itAbhiH= by others [crows] hatched ones - kokilA-s;  prathamam udIritAH = for the first time [in season], said - sang;  mitAH giraH= a few measured, notes;  praviralA= much reticent, words;  mugdha vadhU kathAH= by coyish, girls, uttered [words]; iva= as with;  shushruvire= came to ears.

A few measured notes uttered by the kokilA-s for the first time after the opening of spring season in the groves in blossom and full of sweet fragrance, fell on the ear like the very limited words of coyly girls. [9-34]


श्रुतिसुखभ्रमरस्वनगीतयः कुसुमकोमलदन्तरुचो बभुः।
उपवनान्तलताः पवनाहतैः किसलयैः सलयैरिव पाणिभिः॥ ९-३५

śrutisukhabhramarasvanagītayaḥ kusumakomaladantaruco babhuḥ |
upavanāntalatāḥ pavanāhataiḥ kisalayaiḥ salayairiva pāṇibhiḥ || 9-35

shrutisukhabhramarasvanagItayaH kusumakomaladantaruco babhuH |
upavanAntalatAH pavanAhataiH kisalayaiH salayairiva pANibhiH || 9-35


shruti-sukha bhramara svana gItayaH kusuma komala danta rucaH babhuH upavana anta latAH pavana AhataiH kisalayaiH sa-layaiH iva pANibhiH

9-35. shruti-sukha bhramara svana gItayaH= ear-pleasing, honeybees', humming, as songs;  kusuma komala danta rucaH= flowers, called delicate, toothy grins, with such a beauty;  upavana anta latAH= in gardens, creepers;  pavana AhataiH kisalayaiH= by wind, tossed, with leaflets; sa-layaiH pANibhiH iva= with rhythm beating, hands, as if;  babhuH = shone forth.

Humming of bees for their song, flowers for the grinning teeth, and wind-shaken leaflets for their clap-tapping, the creepers on the borders of the gardens appeared to be keeping rhythm-clapping to vernal music. [9-35]

In garden-borders tuneful creepers sang / With pleasing hum of bees, while tender flowers / Seemed gleaming teeth, and wind-shook buds were hands / To beat the dance's time.


ललितविभ्रमबन्धविचेक्षणम् सुरभिगन्धपराजितकेसरम्।
पतिषु निर्विविशुर्मधुमङ्गनाः स्मरसखम् रसखण्डनवर्जितम्॥ ९-३६

lalitavibhramabandhavicekṣaṇam surabhigandhaparājitakesaram |
patiṣu nirviviśurmadhumaṅganāḥ smarasakham rasakhaṇḍanavarjitam || 9-36

lalitavibhramabandhavicekShaNam surabhigandhaparAjitakesaram |
patiShu nirvivishurmadhuma~NganAH smarasakham rasakhaNDanavarjitam || 9-36


lalita vibhrama bandha vicekShaNam surabhi gandha parAjita kesaram patiShu nirvivishuH madhum a~NganAH smara-sakham rasa-khaNDana varjitam

9-36. a~NganAH= womenfolk; lalita vibhrama bandha vicekShaNam= charming, flutter, in displaying, proficient - the wine that causes the display of charming flutter;  surabhi gandha parAjita kesaram= with its own fragrance, that defeats, vakula flowers - such a wine;  smara-sakham = lovegod's friend - which wine causes amatory sports;  madhum= such a wine;  patiShu= in respect of their husbands; rasa-khaNDana varjitam= pleasure, breaking, without;  nirvivishuH = enjoyed.

Wine - the friend of love, which surpassed the fragrance of vakula flowers, which was pr0fcient in producing graceful sportiveness - was drunk by pretty women only to such an extent as not to produce a condition which would interrupt enjoyment with their husbands.

Fair women quaffed / The grateful wine, which stirred to wanton grace, / More fragrant than Love's ally, Vakula, / That never fosters strife.


शुशुभिरे स्मितचारुतराननाः स्त्रिय इव श्लथशिञ्जितमेखलाः।
विकचतामरसा गृहदीर्घिका मदकलोदकलोलविहम्गमाः॥ ९-३७

śuśubhire smitacārutarānanāḥ striya iva ślathaśiñjitamekhalāḥ |
vikacatāmarasā gṛhadīrghikā madakalodakalolavihamgamāḥ || 9-37

shushubhire smitacArutarAnanAH striya iva shlathashi~njitamekhalAH |
vikacatAmarasA gR^ihadIrghikA madakalodakalolavihamgamAH || 9-37


shushubhire smita cArutara AnanAH striya iva shlatha shi~njita mekhalAH vikaca tAmarasA gR^iha dIrghikA mada-kala udaka-lola-vihamgamAH

9-37. vikaca tAmarasA= having full-blown lotuses;  mada-kala= under the influence of excitement;  udaka-lola-vihamgamAH= in water, undulating, birds - water-fowls;  gR^iha dIrghikA= rectangle pleasure-ponds attached to houses - swimming pools;  smita cArutara AnanAH= with smiles, beautifully, faced;  shlatha shi~njita mekhalAH= with slipping, sounding, girdles;  striya iva= women, as with;  shushubhire = [swim-pools] shone forth.

Swimming pools attached to houses having full-blown lotuses and aquatic birds that make pleasant but indistinct sounds under the influence of excitement appeared like charming women with pretty faces while smiles heightening beauty, and whose waist-bands made jingling sounds when they are slipping and slithering. [9-37]


उपययौ तनुताम् मधुखण्डिता हिमकरोदयपाण्डुमुखच्छविः।
सदृशमिष्टसमागमनिर्वृतिम् वनितयानितया रजनीवधुः॥ ९-३८

upayayau tanutām madhukhaṇḍitā himakarodayapāṇḍumukhacchaviḥ |
sadṛśamiṣṭasamāgamanirvṛtim vanitayānitayā rajanīvadhuḥ || 9-38

upayayau tanutAm madhukhaNDitA himakarodayapANDumukhacChaviH |
sadR^ishamiShTasamAgamanirvR^itim vanitayAnitayA rajanIvadhuH || 9-38


upayayau tanutAm madhu khaNDitA hima-kara-udaya pANDu mukha cChaviH sadR^isham iShTa samAgama nirvR^itim vanitayA anitayA rajanI vadhuH

9-38. madhu khaNDitA= by spring season, shortened - 1) disappointed in regard to wine;  (2) disappointed on account of the heat of the month of Chaitra or madhumAsahima-kara= cool-beamed one - moon's;  udaya pANDu mukha cChaviH= morning time, with paled, face's, beauty;  rajanI vadhuH= night, called damsel;  iShTa samAgama nirvR^itim= with her cherished, lover, company, denied;  anitayA = she who got it - separation from lover;  vanitayA sadR^isham= such a damsel, like;  tanutAm upayayau= emaciation, she obtained.

a] On par with khaNDita heroine the damsel called eventide of spring season waited with all her vespertine beauty for her lover called madhumAsa, spring season, who is flirting otherewhere and has not turned up as yet, whereby this heroine grew pale-faced as with the short-lived morn time moon of spring season, and by not getting the company of her cherished lover she started to emaciate as with any girl emaciating unmedicably when the company of her lover is denied.

b] The damsel called night has been wronged, as it were, by the month of Chaitra, or madhumAsa with the lustre of her face rendered pale by the appearanceof the moon grew thin i. e. of a short duration like a young damsel by whom the pleasure of the ardently desired company of her lover is not gained. - KMJ

c] The Night-lady, wronged (cut-short) by the spring and with the colour of her face palish owing to the rise of the cool-rayed (wanting in ardent love) moon grew thin (i. e. short) like a youthful damsel that does not obtain the happiness of the coveted company (of her lover ). -MRKale

d] The Night-damsel, the lustre of whose face was rendered pale on account of the rise of the cool-rayed moon being cut short by the Spring, grew thin like a female that is denied the happiness of her wished-for lover’s company. Nandaargiikar.

Thin grew the Night,/Close-pressed by Spring;  her face's lustre paled/As waxed the Moon;  as pales a maiden's cheek/Whose lover fails her.

Eight kinds of poetic heroines are: svAdhIna patika, vAsakasajjika, virahotkaNThita, vipralabdha, khaNDita, kalahAntarita, proShitabhatR^ika, abhisArika.


अपतुषारतया विशदप्रभैः सुरतसङ्गपरिश्रमनोदिभिः।
कुसुमचापमतेजयदम्शुभिर्हिमकरो मकरोर्जितकेतनम्॥ ९-३९

apatuṣāratayā viśadaprabhaiḥ suratasaṅgapariśramanodibhiḥ |
kusumacāpamatejayadamśubhirhimakaro makarorjitaketanam || 9-39

apatuShAratayA vishadaprabhaiH suratasa~NgaparishramanodibhiH |
kusumacApamatejayadamshubhirhimakaro makarorjitaketanam || 9-39


apa tuShAratayA vishada prabhaiH surata sa~Nga parishrama nodibhiH kusuma cApam atejayat amshubhiH himakaraH makara Urjita ketanam

9-39. himakaraH= cool-rayed one - moon;  apa tuShAratayA= by removal of, frostiness;  vishada prabhaiH= with very clear, moonlight;  surata sa~Nga parishrama nodibhiH amshubhiH = by sexual enjoyment, exhaustion, removing, with such moonbeams;  makara Urjita ketanam= with crocodile, enriched, flag - who is having such a flag with crocodile insignia - Lovegod;  kusuma cApam atejayat= flowery, bow [meaning arrows by upalakshaNa], sharpened.

When the frostiness has gone in spring season, moonlight has become very clear;  using such brightening moonbeams that dispel exhaustion of coition as whetstone, the Lovegod started to whet his flowery arrows only to torture the young. [9-39]

The moon by his rays, which emit clear light in consequence of the disappearance of mist, and which dispel the exhaustion from enjoyment, excited the God of Love whose banner is marked by a marine animal. - KMJ

 The cool-rayed moon caused the god of Love to sharpen his flowery bow by means of his rays which relieve the fatigue of enjoyment and whose light was now clear on account of the removal of the frosty weather. - Nand


हुतहुताशनदीप्ति वनश्रियः प्रतिनिधिः कनकाभरणस्य यत्।
युवतयः कुसुमं दधुराहितम् तदलके दलकेसरपेशलम्॥ ९-४०

hutahutāśanadīpti vanaśriyaḥ pratinidhiḥ kanakābharaṇasya yat |
yuvatayaḥ kusumaṁ dadhurāhitam tadalake dalakesarapeśalam || 9-40

hutahutAshanadIpti vanashriyaH pratinidhiH kanakAbharaNasya yat |
yuvatayaH kusuma.m dadhurAhitam tadalake dalakesarapeshalam || 9-40


huta huta ashana dIpti vana shriyaH pratinidhiH kanaka AbharaNasya yat yuvatayaH kusumam dadhuH Ahitam tat alake dala kesara peshalam

9-40. huta huta-ashana dIpti = glowing by oblations, of Ritual-fire, in glow;  yat= which - flower;  vana shriyaH kanaka AbharaNasya pratinidhiH= [to a damsel called] vernal beauty, [to her] a golden, ornament's, replacement;  dala kesara peshalam= [which flower with] petals, filaments, very fine;  Ahitam= brought - by lovers;  tat kusumam = that - flower of karNikArayuvatayaH alake dadhuH = damsels, in curls, they wore it.

This is the season in which young women adore their hair with karNikAra flowers brought by their lovers, whose petals and filaments will be extremely delicate, brightness as good as the sacrificial fire fed with oblations, and which bear a semblance of a gold-ornament of sylvan-beauty;  such a spring season has come now. [9-40]

The young ladies wore that flower having tender petals and filaments, which was stack by their lovers in their hair, which was to Vernal Beauty in the place of an ornament made of gold and which was as bright as fire blazing with oblations.

That bloom which glows like fire oblation-fed,/Fit ear-drop for the Goddess of the wood,/Soft-petalled, limber-tendrilled, lovers gave,/And brides twined in their locks.

The pity is that this flower karNikAra is odourless, though goldenly reddish, delicate and a visual treat of woodlands. The poet appears to be fond of them c.f. kumaarasambhava - varNa prakarShe sati karnikAram... etc. where the poet blames Brahma in creating it beautifully, but minus fragrance.


अलिभिरञ्जनबिन्दुमनोहरैः कुसुमपङ्क्तिनिपातिभिरङ्कितः।
न खलु शोभयति स्म वनस्थलीम् न तिलकस्तिलकः प्रमदामिव॥ ९-४१

alibhirañjanabindumanoharaiḥ kusumapaṅktinipātibhiraṅkitaḥ |
na khalu śobhayati sma vanasthalīm na tilakastilakaḥ pramadāmiva || 9-41

alibhira~njanabindumanoharaiH kusumapa~NktinipAtibhira~NkitaH |
na khalu shobhayati sma vanasthalIm na tilakastilakaH pramadAmiva || 9-41


alibhiH a~njana bindu manoharaiH kusuma pa~Nkti nipAtibhiH a~NkitaH na khalu shobhayati sma vanasthalIm na tilakaH tilakaH pramadAm iva

9-41.a~njana bindu manoharaiH= like mascara, spots, very beautiful;  kusuma pa~Nkti nipAtibhiH= on flower, ranges, falling;  alibhiH= by honeybees; a~NkitaH tilakaH= those that have [such spots] tilaka trees;  vanasthalIm= woodlands;  tilakaH pramadAm iva= with tilaka mark [on forehead], a damsel, as though;  na khalu shobhayati sma= not, verily, aggrandising, they are; na= that is not there.

The tilaka tree variegated with bees that are alighting on the lines of flowers appeared charming like marks of mascara which did not but grace the woodland just as the tilaka mark adorns the forehead of a young woman. [9-41]

Verily it is not that the tilaka tree did not decorate the sylvan site, - the tree marked as it was with bees alighting on rows of flowers and hence looking beautiful like spots of collyrium, as decorates a young woman the mark of musk painting.

tilaka also means a birthmark - as with a birthmark embellishing the cheek of a damsel the tilaka trees with honeybees embellished the cheek-like flowerbed of a garden.


अमदयन्मधुगन्धसनाथया किसलयाधरसम्गतया मनः।
कुसुमसम्भृतया नवमल्लिका स्मितरुचा तरुचारुविलासिनी॥ ९-४२

amadayanmadhugandhasanāthayā kisalayādharasamgatayā manaḥ |
kusumasambhṛtayā navamallikā smitarucā tarucāruvilāsinī || 9-42

amadayanmadhugandhasanAthayA kisalayAdharasamgatayA manaH |
kusumasambhR^itayA navamallikA smitarucA tarucAruvilAsinI || 9-42


amadayat madhu gandha sa nAthayA kisalaya adhara samgatayA manaH kusuma sambhR^itayA navamallikA smita rucA taru cAru vilAsinI

9-42. taru= to a tree; cAru vilAsinI= one who is a charming ladylove;  navamallikA= such a jasmine creeper;  madhu gandha sa nAthayA= 1] nectar's - 2] wine's, fragrance, having;  kisalaya adhara samgatayA= with leaflets [called] lips, having;  kusuma sambhR^itayA smita rucA= jasmine flowers, having, smiles, and with their pleasance;  manaH amadayat = pleasing to, hearts - it is.

The Jasmine creeper is the delightful beloved of any tree;  now, it is entwining a tree like a tipsy woman while its own jasminal fragrance is redolent of wine consumed;  spreading out its leaflets as with a woman muzzling her lips;  spreading around its flowers as with the beaming smiles of a ladylove, thus it is enrapturing the hearts of beholders. [9-42]

Here, the heroine's traits - nAyikA dharma-s are imposed on jasmine creeper.


अरुणरागनिषेधिभिरम्शुकैः श्रवणलब्धपदैश्च यवाङ्कुरैः।
परभृताविरुतैश्च विलासिनः स्मरबलैरबलैकरसाः कृताः॥ ९-४३

aruṇarāganiṣedhibhiramśukaiḥ śravaṇalabdhapadaiśca yavāṅkuraiḥ |
parabhṛtāvirutaiśca vilāsinaḥ smarabalairabalaikarasāḥ kṛtāḥ || 9-43

aruNarAganiShedhibhiramshukaiH shravaNalabdhapadaishca yavA~NkuraiH |
parabhR^itAvirutaishca vilAsinaH smarabalairabalaikarasAH kR^itAH || 9-43


aruNa rAga niShedhibhiH amshukaiH shravaNa labdha padaiH ca yava a~NkuraiH parabhR^itA virutaiH ca vilAsinaH smara balaiH abala ekarasAH kR^itAH

9-43. vilAsinaH= gallant persons;  aruNa rAga niShedhibhiH amshukaiH= morning, hue, surpassing, with such garments;  shravaNa labdha padaiH yava a~NkuraiH ca = on ears, obtained, a place, such barley, sprouts - sprouts decorated as earrings;  parabhR^itA virutaiH ca= kokilA-s, warbling, also;  smara balaiH= [with such and such] lovegod's, army;  abala ekarasAH kR^itAH= to the fair-sex, exclusively, made them to devote.

The garments surpassing the morning time red-hued brightness, shoots of barley that secured a place on the ears as ornaments and the warbling of the kokilA-s - these and other forces of Lovegod made the gallants exclusively devoted to the fair sex in this season.

Indians are familiar with the use of light red-coloured garments during spring. We see its relic in the presents of dresses sprinkled with red colour on vasanta panchami.


उपचितावयवा शुचिभिः कणैरलिकदम्बकयोगमुपेयुषी।
सदृशकान्तिरक्ष्यत मञ्जरी तिलकजालकजालकमौक्तिकैः॥ ९-४४

upacitāvayavā śucibhiḥ kaṇairalikadambakayogamupeyuṣī |
sadṛśakāntirakṣyata mañjarī tilakajālakajālakamauktikaiḥ || 9-44

upacitAvayavA shucibhiH kaNairalikadambakayogamupeyuShI |
sadR^ishakAntirakShyata ma~njarI tilakajAlakajAlakamauktikaiH || 9-44


upacita avayavA shucibhiH kaNaiH ali-kadambaka-yogam upeyuShI sadR^isha kAntiH alShyata ma~njarI tilaka-jA alaka jAlaka mauktikaiH

9-44. shucibhiH kaNaiH upacita avayavA= with white, pollen, enriched, limbs - of flowers;  ali-kadambaka-yogam upeyuShI= bees, swarms, conjugation, those that got - flowers;  tilaka-jA ma~njarI = tilaka tree, born one, a bunch of tilaka flowers;  alaka jAlaka mauktikaiH= on curls, a mesh like, bunch of pearls - worn by women as ornaments; sadR^isha kAntiH alShyata = in similar, fashion, they appeared.

The bunches of flowers of the tilaka tree fully-developed on all sides by means of white pollens and by their contact with swarms of bees appeared similar in beauty to the bunches of pearls hung on either side of temples of women, called alaka-jAlaka ornament. [9-44]


ध्वजपटम् मदनस्य धनुर्भृतश्छविकरम् मुखचुर्णमृतुश्रियः।
कुसुमकेसररेणुमलिव्रजाः सपवनोपवनोत्थितमन्वयुः॥ ९-४५

dhvajapaṭam madanasya dhanurbhṛtaśchavikaram mukhacurṇamṛtuśriyaḥ |
kusumakesarareṇumalivrajāḥ sapavanopavanotthitamanvayuḥ || 9-45

dhvajapaTam madanasya dhanurbhR^itashChavikaram mukhacurNamR^itushriyaH |
kusumakesarareNumalivrajAH sapavanopavanotthitamanvayuH || 9-45


dhvaja-paTam madanasya dhanuH bhR^itaH Chavi-karam mukha-curNam R^itu shriyaH kusuma kesara reNum ali-vrajAH sa-pavana upavana utthitam anvayuH

9-45. ali-vrajAH= honeybees, swarms of;  dhanuH bhR^itaH madanasya= sugarcane bow, wielding, of Lovegod;  dhvaja-paTam= like his flag cloth - unfurling and fluttering in sky with wind;  R^itu shriyaH Chavi-karam= season's, beauty, beauty, enhancer; mukha-curNam= such a face, powder - similar to present day talcum powder;  sa-pavana= with, the gust of wind;  upavana utthitam= in hinterlands , up-raised;  kusuma kesara reNum= flowers, filaments, dust of;  anvayuH= [bees] followed.

While the wind is raising whitish pollen it is spreading across the gardens, like the unfurled and fluttering flag of Lovegod, swarms of honeybees have beelined after it;  further, the white film of that powder floating in air appearedmore like the beauty enriching talcum powder of vernal-beauty. [9-45]

Swarms of bees followed the dust of the filaments of flowers in which there was wind - that dust which was the banner of the God of love armed with his bow, and which was the beautifying cosmetic for the face of Vernal-beauty.

Swift chased the honied tribes /That fragrant pollen, which the zephyrs light / Stirred, Love's own token, by that doughty Lord / Laid on the face of Spring, to keep her fair.

Indian face powder is not chalk oriented, but it an admixture of turmeric with many fragrant material like kastUri, javAdi, kesar, chandan, aloe resins etc forming a filmy powder.


अनुभवन्नवदोलमृतुत्सवम् पटुरपि प्रियकण्ठजिघृक्षया।
अनयदासनरज्जुपरिग्रहे भुजलताम् जलतामबलाजनः॥ ९-४६

anubhavannavadolamṛtutsavam paṭurapi priyakaṇṭhajighṛkṣayā |
anayadāsanarajjuparigrahe bhujalatām jalatāmabalājanaḥ || 9-46

anubhavannavadolamR^itutsavam paTurapi priyakaNThajighR^ikShayA |
anayadAsanarajjuparigrahe bhujalatAm jalatAmabalAjanaH || 9-46


anubhavan nava-dolamR^itu ujtsavam paTuH api priya kaNTha jighR^ikShayA anayat Asana-rajju-parigrahe bhuja-latAm jalatAm abalA-janaH

9-46. nava-dolam R^itu ujtsavam anubhavan= new-swing, seasonal, festival [Dolotsavam in nava-vasantha], while enjoying;  abalA-janaH= womenfolk;  paTuH api= experts in swinging, even though;  priya kaNTha jighR^ikShayA= lover's, necks, wishing to embrace;  Asana-rajju-parigrahe= seat-plank's, ropes, in catching hold of; bhuja-latAm= arms, creeper-like;  jalatAm [jaDatAm - ra, Da, la yoH abhedaH] = grip - on the ropes;  anayat= made to - loosened.

Enjoying the swing-festival in new spring season wherein swings with wooden planks and ropes were put up, the fair-sex though clever in the sport of swinging relaxed the hold of their creeper-like arms on the ropes of the seats of the swings, feigning their fall from swings, just out of their desire to embrace their lovers. [9-46]

Now sought fair women, languishing though strong, / The swings Spring brought them, that their lovers' necks / They might unblamed clasp, scarce touching ropes / That bound their seats.


त्यजत मानमलम् बत विग्रहैर्न पुनरेति गतम् चतुरम् वयः।
परभृताभिरितीव निवेदिते स्मरमते रमते स्म वधुजनः॥ ९-४७

tyajata mānamalam bata vigrahairna punareti gatam caturam vayaḥ |
parabhṛtābhiritīva nivedite smaramate ramate sma vadhujanaḥ || 9-47

tyajata mAnamalam bata vigrahairna punareti gatam caturam vayaH |
parabhR^itAbhiritIva nivedite smaramate ramate sma vadhujanaH || 9--47


yajata mAnam alam bata vigrahaiH na punaH eti gatam caturam vayaH parabhR^itAbhiH itIva nivedite smaramate ramate sma vadhujanaH

9-47. bata= oh, ye - womenfolk;  mAnam tyajata= hauteur, leave aside;  alam vigrahaiH= enough, with quarrels;  gatam caturam vayaH = gone by, enjoyable, age;  punaH na eti= again, not, comes;  iti= in this way;  smara mate= Lovegod's, opinions;  parabhR^itAbhiH nivedite [sati] iva = by kokilA-s, communicated, as if;  vadhujanaH ramate sma = women of age, enjoyed [life].

"Oh you fair ones! Leave aside your hauteur, enough with quarrels, the best period of life most suited to enjoyment once gone will never return..." these opinions of the Lovegod seems to have been vaunted by kokilA-s in this season, and womenfolk taking cue from them have started to enjoy life in this season. [9-47]


अथ यथासुखमार्तवमुत्सवम् समनुभुय विलासवतीसखः।
नरपतिश्चकमे मृगयारतिम् स मधुमन्मधुमन्मथसम्निभः॥ ९-४८

atha yathāsukhamārtavamutsavam samanubhuya vilāsavatīsakhaḥ |
narapatiścakame mṛgayāratim sa madhumanmadhumanmathasamnibhaḥ|| 9-48

atha yathAsukhamArtavamutsavam samanubhuya vilAsavatIsakhaH |
narapatishcakame mR^igayAratim sa madhumanmadhumanmathasamnibhaH || 9-48


atha yathA-sukham Artavam utsavam sam-anubhuya vilAsavatI sakhaH narapatiH cakame mR^igayA ratim sa madhumat madhu manmatha samnibhaH

9-48. atha= then;  madhumat= to Vishnu;  madhu= to Vasanta, the Spring; manmatha= to Manmatha, Lovegod;  samnibhaH= to these three - he who is a coequal - Dasharatha;  saH narapatiH= he, that king Dasharatha;  vilAsavatI sakhaH= to his ladyloves, who is a dear companion; Artavam utsavam= spring, festival;  yathA-sukham sam-anubhuya= unobstructedly, having enjoyed;  mR^igayA ratim cakame = in hunting games, mind, made.

Then, having freely enjoyed the seasonal festivities in the company of sportive women, the king Dasharatha who is a coequal to Vishnu, Vasanta season, and Lovegod Manmatha yearned after the pleasures of hunting game. [9-48]


परिचयम् चललक्ष्यनिपातने भयरुचोश्च तदिङ्गितबोधनम्।
श्रमजयात्प्रगुणाम् च करोत्यसौ तनुमतोऽनुमतः सचिवैर्ययौ॥ ९-४९

paricayam calalakṣyanipātane bhayarucośca tadiṅgitabodhanam |
śramajayātpraguṇām ca karotyasau tanumato'numataḥ sacivairyayau || 9-49

paricayam calalakShyanipAtane bhayarucoshca tadi~Ngitabodhanam |
shramajayAtpraguNAm ca karotyasau tanumato.anumataH sacivairyayau || 9-49


paricayam cala lakShya nipAtane bhaya ruShoH ca tat i~Ngita bodhanam shrama jayAt pra-guNAm ca karoti asau tanum ataH anumataH sacivaiH yayau

9-49. asau= this hunting game;  cala lakShya nipAtane= moving, targets, regarding felling;  paricayam karoti= familiarity, it makes;  bhaya ruShoH ca= regarding scared, or enraged [animals]; tat i~Ngita bodhanam karoti= that - about their, bodylanguage, acquaintance, it makes;  tanum shrama jayAt pra-guNAm ca karoti= body [of hunter], for fatigue, overcoming qualities, also, it enables;  ataH= thereby - by virtue of martial exercises included in real hunting spree;  sacivaiH anumataH= by ministers, permission;  yayau= he went for hunting game.

This hunting gives huntsman a familiarity in the art of bringing down moving objects whether they are animals in a game or warriors in combat;  it gives an acquaintance with the bodylanguage of the hunted when they are scared and enraged;  it makes the body possessed of excellent qualities owing to overcoming fatigue;  therefore, the ministers who find no fault in occasional game that included some training in martial arts, permitted Dasharatha to go and he went out on a hunting expedition, but not as a vice. [9-49]


गगनमश्वखुरोद्धतरेणुभिर्नृसविता स वितानमिवाकरोत्॥ ९-५०

mṛgavanopagamakṣamaveṣabhṛdvipulakaṇṭhaniṣaktaśarāsanaḥ |
gaganamaśvakhuroddhatareṇubhirnṛsavitā sa vitānamivākarot || 9-50

mR^igavanopagamakShamaveShabhR^idvipulakaNThaniShaktasharAsanaH |
gaganamashvakhuroddhatareNubhirnR^isavitA sa vitAnamivAkarot || 9-50


mR^iga vana upagama kShama veSha bhR^it vipula kaNTha niShakta shara-AsanaH gaganam ashva-khura uddhata reNubhiH nR^i-savitA savitAnam iva akarot

9-50. mR^iga vana upagama kShama veSha bhR^it= wild-beasts, forest, to enter, a befitting, costume, on donning;  vipula kaNTha niShakta shara-AsanaH= at muscular, neck, attached, bow;  nR^i-savitA- men's, Sun - such a king who is like the Sun among humans - a powerful king;  ashva-khura uddhata reNubhiH= by horses, hooves, raised, with dust;  gaganam savitAnam iva akarot = sky, a canopy, as with, made.

That powerful king Dasharatha putting on a costume suited to enter the hunting-forest, and his bow suspended on his muscular neck made the firmament possessed of a canopy, as it were, by means of the dust raised by the hoofs of the horses of the hunting-party. [9-50]

Please see KMJ's notes on the dress manners of a huntsman and the like info. nR^i-savitA is upamita samAsa i.e., like narendra, puruSha simha etc shreShTha vAchakA-s, superlatives, it is also a superlative as in nR^i-soma, a moon among people etc.


ग्रथितमौलिरसौ वनमालया तरुपलाशसवर्णतनुच्छदः।
तुरगवल्गनचञ्चलकुण्डलो विरुरुचे रुरुचेष्टितभुमिषु॥ ९-५१

grathitamaulirasau vanamālayā tarupalāśasavarṇatanucchadaḥ |
turagavalganacañcalakuṇḍalo viruruce ruruceṣṭitabhumiṣu || 9-51

grathitamaulirasau vanamAlayA tarupalAshasavarNatanucChadaH |
turagavalganaca~ncalakuNDalo viruruce ruruceShTitabhumiShu || 9-51


grathita mauliH asau vana-mAlayA taru palAsha sa-varNa tanu cChadaH turaga valgana ca~ncala kuNDalaH vi-ruruce ruru-ceShTita-bhumiShu

9-51. vana-mAlayA grathita mauliH = with garden, creepers, intertwined, headgear; taru palAsha sa-varNa tanu cChadaH= trees, leaves, equalling, body, covered - hisbodycovered  with agarment  having the colour of theleavesof trees;  turaga valgana ca~ncala kuNDalaH= by horses, galloping, moving, eardrops - one who has such ear-ornaments;  asau= he that Dasharatha;  ruru-ceShTita-bhumiShu= black-striped antelopes, moving, in such places;  vi-ruruce = shone forth.

This King Dasharatha camouflaged with his headgear tied up with a string of wild flowers and leaves,his body covered with a garment having the colourof the leaves of trees, and while his earrings moving about by the galloping of his horse, shone forth on the hunting grounds frequented by the ruru antelopes. [9-51]


तनुलताविनिवेशितविग्रहा भ्रमरसम्क्रमितेक्षणवृत्तयः।
ददृशुरध्वनि तम् वनदेवताः सुनयनम् नयनन्दितकोसलम्॥ ९-५२

tanulatāviniveśitavigrahā bhramarasamkramitekṣaṇavṛttayaḥ |
dadṛśuradhvani tam vanadevatāḥ sunayanam nayananditakosalam || 9-52

tanulatAviniveshitavigrahA bhramarasamkramitekShaNavR^ittayaH |
dadR^ishuradhvani tam vanadevatAH sunayanam nayananditakosalam || 9-52


tanu latA viniveshita vigrahA bhramara samkramita IkShaNa vR^ittayaH dadR^ishuH adhvani tam vana-devatAH su-nayanam naya nandita kosalam

9-52. tanu latA viniveshita vigrahA = in slender, creepers, invested, with bodies;  bhramara samkramita IkShaNa vR^ittayaH = in honeybees, transferred, eyes, actions of;  vana-devatAH= such sylvan deities;  su-nayanam= [him] who has charming eyes - Dasharatha;  naya nandita kosalam= by his system of government, who made happy, Kosala kingdom;  tam adhvani dadR^ishuH = him, on the way, they saw.

he sylvan deities with tl1eir bodies incorporated into tender creepers, the action of their eyes transferred to the bees, had a look of him who had beautiful eyes and who had made the people of Kosala happy by his system of government as he passed along his path. [9-52]


श्वगणिवागुरिकैः प्रथमास्थितम् व्यपगतानलदस्यु विवेश सः।
स्थिरतुरम्गमभुमि निपानवन्मृगवयोगवयोपचितम् वनम्॥ ९-५३

śvagaṇivāgurikaiḥ prathamāsthitam vyapagatānaladasyu viveśa saḥ |
sthiraturamgamabhumi nipānavanmṛgavayogavayopacitam vanam || 9-53

shvagaNivAgurikaiH prathamAsthitam vyapagatAnaladasyu vivesha saH |
sthiraturamgamabhumi nipAnavanmR^igavayogavayopacitam vanam || 9-53


shva-gaNi vAgurikaiH prathamA sthitam vyapagata anala dasyu vivesha saH sthira turamgama bhumi nipAnavat mR^iga vayo gavaya upacitam vanam

9-53. saH= he that Dasharatha;  shva-gaNi= by hunting-dogs and their squadron leaders;  vAgurikaiH= by fowlers, or huntsmen who spread snares to catch animals;  prathamA sthitam= firstly traversed;  vyapagata anala dasyu= [hunting ground] removed, of wildfire, or thieves who steal the hunt felled by real hunters;  sthira turamgama bhumi= stable, horse, field - hunting area without mud or sludge for easy passage of horses;  nipAnavat= having wells or ponds of drinkable water;  mR^iga vayo gavaya upacitam= by deer, by birds, by cows [oxen], frequented;  vanam vivesha= such a forest, he entered.

He entered the forest which was first traversed over by hunters and fowlers, which was cleared of wild-fires and thieves, in which now there was firm ground for horse ride, which had watering-places and in which game deer, birds, and wild oxen were plentiful. [9-53]


अथ नभस्य इव त्रिदशायुधम् कनकपिङ्गतडिद्गुणसम्युतम्।
धनुरधिज्यमनाधिरुपाददे नरवरो रवरोषितकेसरी॥ ९-५४

atha nabhasya iva tridaśāyudham kanakapiṅgataḍidguṇasamyutam |
dhanuradhijyamanādhirupādade naravaro ravaroṣitakesarī || 9-54

atha nabhasya iva tridashAyudham kanakapi~NgataDidguNasamyutam |
dhanuradhijyamanAdhirupAdade naravaro ravaroShitakesarI || 9-54


atha nabhasya iva tridasha Ayudham kanaka-pi~Nga taDit-guNa samyutam dhanuH adhijyam anAdhiH upAdade naravaraH rava-roShita-kesarI

9-54. atha= then;  an+AdhiH= without, worry - one who has no anxiety;  naravaraH= best one among men;  rava-roShita-kesarI= by twanging, enraged, lions;  kanaka-pi~Nga taDit-guNa samyutam= goldenly reddish, lighting-like, bowstring, [his bow] having [such a bowstring];tridasha Ayudham]= gods', weapon;  nabhasya iva= bhAdrapada-month, as with - like the bhAdrapada mAsa which causes torrential rains;  adhijyam dhanuH upAdade= readied, bow, he took up.

Now that best of men who had no excitement and a provoker of lions by twanging his bow, wielded a bow having a goldenly reddish bowstring that looked like a streak of lightening to shoot ineluctable arrows, just as the month of bhAldrapada holds up the weapon of the gods, namely rainbow, only to shower inevitable rains. [9-54]


तस्य स्तनप्रणयिभिर्मुहुरेणशाबै -

र्व्याहन्यमानहरिणीगमनम् पुरस्तात्।
आविर्बभुव कुशगर्भमुखम् मृगाणाम्

युथम् तदग्रसरगर्वितकृष्णसारम्॥ ९-५५

tasya stanapraṇayibhirmuhureṇaśābai -

rvyāhanyamānahariṇīgamanam purastāt |
āvirbabhuva kuśagarbhamukham mṛgāṇām

yutham tadagrasaragarvitakṛṣṇasāram || 9-55

tasya stanapraNayibhirmuhureNashAbai -
rvyAhanyamAnahariNIgamanam purastAt |
Avirbabhuva kushagarbhamukham mR^igANAm
yutham tadagrasaragarvitakR^iShNasAram || 9-55


tasya stana-praNayibhiH muhuH eNa-shAbaiH vyAhanyamAna hariNI gamanam purastAt Avirbabhuva kusha garbha mukham mR^igANAm yutham tat agra sara garvita kR^iShNa-sAram

9-55. stana-praNayibhiH= teat, loving;  eNa-shAbaiH= by deer, babies - fawns; muhuH = time and again;  vyAhanyamAna hariNI gamanam= obstructed, female deer's [hinds'], motion;  and; kusha garbha mukham= kusha, grass, in mouths;  tat agra sara= that [hinds,] before, going; garvita kR^iShNa-sAram mR^igANAm yutham= proud, black-striped, antelopes, herd;  tasya purastAt Avirbabhuva= in his, before, appeared.

In front of him there appeared a herd of deer, in which the motion of the hinds was frequently interrupted by their fawns eager to suckle their mothers' teats, while black-striped antelopes with mouthfuls Kusha grass are proudly strutting ahead of them. [9-55]


तत्प्रार्थितम् जवनवाजिगतेन राज्ञा

तुणीमुखोद्धृतशरेण विशीर्णपङ्क्ति।
श्यामीचकार वनमाकुलदृष्टिपातै

र्वातेरितोत्पलदलप्रकरैरिवार्द्रैः॥ ९-५६

tatprārthitam javanavājigatena rājñā

tuṇīmukhoddhṛtaśareṇa viśīrṇapaṅkti |
śyāmīcakāra vanamākuladṛṣṭipātai

rvāteritotpaladalaprakarairivārdraiḥ || 9-56

tatprArthitam javanavAjigatena rAdnyA
tuNImukhoddhR^itashareNa vishIrNapa~Nkti |
shyAmIcakAra vanamAkuladR^iShTipAtai
rvAteritotpaladalaprakarairivArdraiH || 9-56


tat prArthitam javana vAji gatena rAj~nyA tuNI mukha uddhR^ita shareNa vishIrNa pa~Nkti shyAmI cakAra vanam Akula dR^iShTi pAtaiH vAterita utpala dala pra-karaiH iva ArdraiH

9-56. javana vAji gatena= speedy, horse, one who is riding;  tuNI mukha uddhR^ita shareNa= from quiver's, mouth, drawn, arrow - one who has;  rAj~nyA= by king;  prArthitam= abhiyAnam= one that is encountered - herd of deer encountered in the chase;  vishIrNa pa~NktiH= disturbed, lines - one whose orderly lines of moving is disturbed - of deer;  tat= that - herd of deer;  ArdraiH Akula dR^iShTi pAtaiH= wet, agitated, looks, by falling - tearful looks spreading here and there in confusion;  vAterita utpala dala pra-karaiH iva= by wind, swept, black-lotus, petals, heaps of, as with;  vanam shyAmI cakAra= woodland, blackish, they [the looks] made.

The wide-eyed glances of deer with biggest possible jet-black pupils that will always be in a flurry are now further scurried with an arrow of the king chasing on a fleet horse, and when they are cast around the forest with tears and excitement they appeared to be blackening the forest as if the windswept petals of black-lotuses when scattered about will blacken the forest. [9-56]

Them the well-horsed King / O'ertook, and from his quiver drew a shaft: / They burst their ranks, their troubled glances seemed / To light up all the wood, as breezes fling / From sombre lotus-leaves the balmy drops.

This and some more verses following are in vasanta tilaka meter.


लक्ष्यीकृतस्य हरिणस्य हरिप्रभावः
प्रेक्ष्य स्थिताम् सहचरीम् व्यवधाय देहम्।
आकर्णकृष्टमपि कामितया स धन्वी
बाणम् कृपामृदुमनाः प्रतिसम्जहार॥ ९-५७

lakṣyīkṛtasya hariṇasya hariprabhāvaḥ
prekṣya sthitām sahacarīm vyavadhāya deham |
ākarṇakṛṣṭamapi kāmitayā sa dhanvī
bāṇam kṛpāmṛdumanāḥ pratisamjahāra || 9-57

lakShyIkR^itasya hariNasya hariprabhAvaH
prekShya sthitAm sahacarIm vyavadhAya deham |
AkarNakR^iShTamapi kAmitayA sa dhanvI
bANam kR^ipAmR^idumanAH pratisamjahAra || 9-57


lakShyI kR^itasya hariNasya hari-prabhAvaH prekShya sthitAm sahacarIm vyavadhAya deham AkarNa-kR^iShTam api kAmitayA sa dhanvI bANam kR^ipA-mR^idu-manAH pratisamjahAra

9-57. hari-prabhAvaH= he who is equal in prowess to Indra;  dhanvI= expert archer;  lakShyI kR^itasya= targeted;  hariNasya deham= male deer's, body;  vyavadhAya sthitAm= interposing her bodybetween her male and his arrow;   sahacarIm= such a female deer of that male deer;  prekShya= on seeing;  kAmitayA=  himself being an ardent lover;  kR^ipA-mR^idu-manAH= moved at heart through compassion;  AkarNa-kR^iShTam api=  though drawn up to the ear;  bANam = arrow;  sa pratisamjahAra= he withdrew.

That expert archer equalled in prowess to Indra on beholding the female deer stood interposing between his arrow and the targeted male deer retracted his arrow though drawn up to the ear, for he himself is an ardent lover and his heart is filled with compassion. [9-57]


तस्यापरेष्वपि मृगेषु शरान्मुमुक्षोः
कर्णान्तमेत्य बिभिदे निबिडोऽपि मुष्टिः।
त्रासातिमात्रचटुलैः स्मरतः सुनेत्रैः
प्रौढप्रियानयनविभ्रमचेष्टितानि॥ ९-५८

tasyāpareṣvapi mṛgeṣu śarānmumukṣoḥ
karṇāntametya bibhide nibiḍo'pi muṣṭiḥ |
trāsātimātracaṭulaiḥ smarataḥ sunetraiḥ
prauḍhapriyānayanavibhramaceṣṭitāni || 9-58

tasyApareShvapi mR^igeShu sharAnmumukShoH
karNAntametya bibhide nibiDo.api muShTiH |
trAsAtimAtracaTulaiH smarataH sunetraiH
prauDhapriyAnayanavibhramaceShTitAni || 9-58


tasya apareShu api mR^igeShu sharAn mumukShoH karNa antam etya bibhide nibiDaH api muShTiH trAsa ati-mAtra caTulaiH smarataH su-netraiH prauDha priyA nayana vibhrama ceShTitAni

9-58. trAsa= owing to fear;  ati-mAtra caTulaiH su-netraiH = excessively tremulous, with such eyes;  prauDha= women of a mature age who are no longer bashful or timid in the presence of her lord;  priyA nayana vibhrama ceShTitAni= their sportive or amorous movements;  smarataH= while remembering;  apareShu mR^igeShu api sharAn mumukShoH= on other, deer, even, arrows, who wished to release;  tasya muShTiH= his, fist - on bowstring;  nibiDaH api= very firm, even though;  karNa antam etya= [that fist] up to era, end, having reached [even though]; bibhide = abated.

The fist of that king, about to discharge arrows against other deer too, though firmly clenched on the bowstring, and though the bowstring was stretched up to his ear had lightened up on the grip, as the beautiful rolling eyes of the targeted deer, now excessively tremulous through fear, reminded him of the amorous actions of the rolling eyes of his grown up beloveds. [9-58]

At other deer/When he would shoot, his firm-clenched hand, full drawn/Up to the ear, as of itself unclasped,/Moved by the liquid orbs that rolled in fear,/Recalling loving looks of tender wives..


उत्तस्थुषः सपदि पल्वलपङ्कमध्या
जग्राह स द्रुतवराहकुलस्य मार्गम्
सुव्यक्तमार्द्रपदपङ्क्तिभिरायताभिः॥ ९-५९

uttasthuṣaḥ sapadi palvalapaṅkamadhyā
nmustāprarohakavalāvayavānukīrṇam |
jagrāha sa drutavarāhakulasya mārgam
suvyaktamārdrapadapaṅktibhirāyatābhiḥ || 9-59

uttasthuShaH sapadi palvalapa~NkamadhyA
nmustAprarohakavalAvayavAnukIrNam |
jagrAha sa drutavarAhakulasya mArgam
suvyaktamArdrapadapa~NktibhirAyatAbhiH || 9-59


uttasthuShaH sapadi palvala pa~Nka madhyAt mustA praroha kavala avayava anukIrNam jagrAha sa druta varAha kulasya mArgam suvyaktam Ardra pada pa~NktibhiH AyatAbhiH

9-59. saH= he;  [leaving off the deer herd]; which path is;  mustA praroha= musta grass, shoots - Cyperus Rotundus - a fragrant grass variety, growing in;  kavala avayava= eaten, fragments - leftovers - on spotting leftover musta grass-shoots after wild-boars have eaten;  anukIrNam= spread with such half eaten grass;  AyatAbhiH= a lengthy path;  Ardra pada pa~NktibhiH= [path covered with] wet, footprints [of boars], in rows;  suvyaktam= a clear path;  sapadi= just then;  palvala pa~Nka madhyAt= ponds, from mud, from the midst of;  uttasthuShaH= that have got up [and gone]; druta varAha kulasya mArgam= that fled [from mud of ponds], boar's, herd's, pathway;  jagrAha= [he] took up.

Leaving the deer herd he followed the track of a herd of wild boar who precipitately ran away after getting out of the mud in a cool puddle -- that track on which wild boars have strewn the leftovers of half-eaten musta grass and which bear their long line of wet footprints. [9-59]

A path he followed, where the half-chewed grass/Had fallen, and broad wet footprints clearly showed/Where ran a herd of boars, escaped with speed/From muddy pools they rolled in.


तम् वाहनादवनतोत्तरकायमीष
द्विध्यन्तमुद्धृतसटाः प्रतिहन्तुमीषुः।
नात्मानमस्य विविदुः सहसा वराहा
वृक्षेषु विद्धमिषुभिर्जघनाश्रयेषु॥ ९-६०

tam vāhanādavanatottarakāyamīṣa
dvidhyantamuddhṛtasaṭāḥ pratihantumīṣuḥ |
nātmānamasya vividuḥ sahasā varāhā
vṛkṣeṣu viddhamiṣubhirjaghanāśrayeṣu || 9-60

tam vAhanAdavanatottarakAyamISha
dvidhyantamuddhR^itasaTAH pratihantumIShuH |
nAtmAnamasya vividuH sahasA varAhA
vR^ikSheShu viddhamiShubhirjaghanAshrayeShu || 9-60


tam vAhanAt avanata-uttara-kAyam IShat vidhyantam uddhR^ita-saTAH pratihantum IShuH na AtmAnam asya vividuH sahasA varAhA vR^ikSheShu viddham iShubhiH jaghana AshrayeShu

9-60. varAhAH= wild-boars;  vAhanAt IShat avanata-uttara-kAyam= from horse [straddle], a little, bent, fore-part of body - leaning a little forward from upright position;  vidhyantam= ready to shoot;  tam= him - Dasharatha;  uddhR^ita-saTAH= with their bristles standing up - boars;  pratihantum IShuH = to retaliate, wishing - boars;  asya iShubhiH= by his, arrows; sahasA= suddenly;  jaghana AshrayeShu vR^ikSheShu = backs, sheltering, trees - when the boars were sitting at the base of trees with hinds stuck in them;  AtmAnam [vR^ikSheShu ] viddham na vividuH = themselves, [in the very same trees], as transfixed, not, aware of.

The wild-boars, with their bristles standing up, wished as a return to attack him who sitting on horseback and with slightly bent down torso was piercing them with arrows;  but they did not perceive that his arrows have suddenly transfixed them to the very trees against which they rested their haunches. [9-60]


तेनाभिघातरभसस्य विकृष्य पत्री
वन्यस्य नेत्रविवरे महिषस्य मुक्तः।
निर्भिद्य विग्रहमशोणितलिप्तपुङ्ख
स्तम् पातयाम् प्रथममास पपात पश्चात्॥ ९-६१

tenābhighātarabhasasya vikṛṣya patrī
vanyasya netravivare mahiṣasya muktaḥ |
nirbhidya vigrahamaśoṇitaliptapuṅkha
stam pātayām prathamamāsa papāta paścāt || 9-61

tenAbhighAtarabhasasya vikR^iShya patrI
vanyasya netravivare mahiShasya muktaH |
nirbhidya vigrahamashoNitaliptapu~Nkha
stam pAtayAm prathamamAsa papAta pashcAt || 9-61


tena abhighAta rabhasasya vikR^iShya patrI vanyasya netra-vivare mahiShasya muktaH nirbhidya vigraham a+shoNita-lipta-pu~NkhaH tam pAtayAm prathamam Asa papAta pashcAt

9-61. abhighAta rabhasasya= [a wild buffalo that was in an] attitude of eagerness to attack him;  vanyasya mahiShasya= such a wild buffalo's;  netra-vivare= into the socket of the eye;  tena vikR^iShya muktaH patrI= by him, well stretched, and released, arrow;  vigraham nirbhidya = buffalo's body, on piercing;  a+shoNita-lipta-pu~NkhaH= not, with blood, stained, end-feathers;  tam prathamam pAtayAm Asa= him [buffalo] firstly, felled; pashcAt papAta= later, felled [the buffalo].

Then Dasharatha drew an arrow well and discharged into the socket of the eye of a wild buffalo that was in an attitude of eagerness to attack him;  piercing through the body of that buffalo that arrow firstly aggressed without its feathers being soiled by blood, and later felled the body of buffalo.

One shaft he sped,/Which in a charging bison's eyeball lodged,/Slew the fell beast, and, dashing through the flesh,/Dropt to the ground, its feathers clean of blood.


प्रायो विषाणपरिमोक्षलघूत्तमाङ्गा
न्खड्गाम्श्चकार नृपतिर्निशितैः क्षुरप्रैः।
शृङ्गम् स दृप्तविनयाधिकृतः परेषा
मत्युच्छ्रितम् न ममृषे न तु दीर्घमायुः॥ ९-६२

prāyo viṣāṇaparimokṣalaghūttamāṅgā
nkhaḍgāmścakāra nṛpatirniśitaiḥ kṣurapraiḥ |
śṛṅgam sa dṛptavinayādhikṛtaḥ pareṣā
matyucchritam na mamṛṣe na tu dīrghamāyuḥ || 9-62

prAyo viShANaparimokShalaghUttamA~NgA
nkhaDgAmshcakAra nR^ipatirnishitaiH kShurapraiH |
shR^i~Ngam sa dR^iptavinayAdhikR^itaH pareShA
matyucChritam na mamR^iShe na tu dIrghamAyuH || 9-62


prAyaH viShANa parimokSha laghu uttama a~NgAn khaDgAn cakAra nR^ipatiH nishitaiH kShura-praiH shR^i~Ngam sa dR^ipta-vinaya adhikR^itaH pareShAm ati-ucChritam na mamR^iShe na tu dIrgham AyuH

9-62. nR^ipatiH= that king; nishitaiH kShura-praiH= with a sharp, horse-shoe bladed arrow;  khaDgAn= rhinos;  prAyaH= generally;  viShANa parimokSha laghu uttama a~NgAn= horns, by removing, lightened, with heads;  cakAra= made;  [kutaH= why because]; dR^ipta vinaya adhikR^itaH= proudish ones, to bring to book, one who is authorised - the king who has to set right the arrogant;  saH= he;  pareShAm ati-ucChritam shR^i~Ngam= of others, held aloft, horn - rather supremacy;  na mamR^iShe= did not, tolerate;  tu= but;  dIrgham AyuH na= their longecity, not.

With his sharp horse-shoe bladed arrows the king made almost all the rhinoceros to be possessed of lightened heads by chopping off of their horns. He whose duty it was to keep the proud in a right path did not tolerate the horny nature of others, i.e. the supremacy of others, but it is not that he did not bear their longevity. [9-62]


फुल्लासनाग्रविटपानिव वायुरुग्णान्।
शिक्षाविशेषलघुहस्ततया निमेषा
त्तुणीचकार शरपुरितवक्त्ररन्ध्रान्॥ ९-६३

phullāsanāgraviṭapāniva vāyurugṇān |
śikṣāviśeṣalaghuhastatayā nimeṣā
ttuṇīcakāra śarapuritavaktrarandhrān || 9-63

phullAsanAgraviTapAniva vAyurugNAn |
shikShAvisheShalaghuhastatayA nimeShA
ttuNIcakAra sharapuritavaktrarandhrAn || 9-63


vyAghrAn abhIH abhimukha utpatitAn guhAbhyaH phulla Asana agra viTapAn iva vAyu-rugNAn shikShA visheSha laghu-hastatayA nimeShAt tuNI cakAra shara pUrita vaktra randhrAn

9-63. abhIH= that dauntless one;  guhAbhyaH abhimukha utpatitAn= from caves, in effrontery, falling upon - such tigers;  vAyu-rugNAn= by wind, felled;  phulla Asana agra viTapAn iva= blossom-loaded, Asana [a tree Terminalia Alanta iomentosa, having flowers of a variegated colour), trees, [ those tigers that are] like [these treetops]; shara pUrita vaktra randhrAn vyAghrAn= with arrows, filled, mouth, cavities;  shikShA visheSha laghu-hastatayA= with training, by special, sleight of hand [in archery]; nimeShAt tuNI cakAra = in a trice, as quiver, made - made the wide opened mouth of tiger as if they quivers holding his arrows..

In consequence of the agility of the hand from long practice, the dauntless king in the twinkling of the eye turned the wide opened mouth of tigers into quivers, as it were, of those tigers that rushed upon him from their caves, by filling their mouth cavities with arrows, and made them resemble the blossom laden branches of the Asana trees broken down by the wind. [9-63]

Both the tigers and Asana tree branches with flowers have a colourful look.


निर्घातोग्रैः कुञ्जलीनाञ्जिघाम्सुर्ज्यानिर्घोषैः क्षोभयामास सिम्हान्।
नुनम् तेषामभ्यसुयापरोऽभुद्वीर्योदग्रे राजशब्दो मृगेषु॥ ९-६४

nirghātograiḥ kuñjalīnāñjighāmsurjyānirghoṣaiḥ kṣobhayāmāsa simhān |
nunam teṣāmabhyasuyāparo'bhudvīryodagre rājaśabdo mṛgeṣu || 9-64

nirghAtograiH ku~njalInA~njighAmsurjyAnirghoShaiH kShobhayAmAsa simhAn |
nunam teShAmabhyasuyAparo.abhudvIryodagre rAjashabdo mR^igeShu || 9-64


nirghAtograiH ku~njalInA~n jighAmsuH jyA-nirghoShaiH kShobhayAmAsa simhAn
nunam teShAm abhyasuyA paraH abhut vIryodagre rAja-shabdaH mR^igeShu

9-64. ku~njalInA~n simhAn jighAmsuH= resting quietly in bowers, such lions, he who wished to kill; nirghAtograiH= sound produced by the clashing of contending winds;  jyA-nirghoShaiH= with such twanging of bowstring; kShobhayAmAsa= agitated, disturbed;  teShAm vIryodagre= their, by valour;  mR^igeShu rAja-shabdaH= among, animals, by king, title; abhyasuyA paraH abhut = he may have become jealous;  nunam= maybe.

That king desirous of killing the lions resting in their lairs of thickets firstly disturbed them by the twanging of his bowstring as loud as the howl of contending winds;  in this he perhaps had jealousy as the most prominent feature, which jealousy was most assuredly actuated in regard to the word 'lord' in the title of lions as 'lord of the beasts, lord of the jungle', whose exalted position among beasts is through valour alone. [9-64]

To slay the lions crouching in their dens,/He roused them first with thunderous bowstring's twang,/Harsh-sounding, for he grudged the Royal name,/Which prize of valour 'mong the beasts they bore:

Metre: shAlini


तान्हत्वा गजकुलबद्धतीव्रवैरान्काकुत्स्थः कुटिलनखाग्रलग्नमुक्तान्।
आत्मानम् रणकृतकर्मणाम् गजानामानृण्यम् गतमिव मार्गणैरमम्स्त॥ ९-६५

tānhatvā gajakulabaddhatīvravairān
kākutsthaḥ kuṭilanakhāgralagnamuktān |
ātmānam raṇakṛtakarmaṇām gajānā
mānṛṇyam gatamiva mārgaṇairamamsta|| 9-65

tAnhatvA gajakulabaddhatIvravairAn
kAkutsthaH kuTilanakhAgralagnamuktAn |
AtmAnam raNakR^itakarmaNAm gajAnA
mAnR^iNyam gatamiva mArgaNairamamsta || 9-65


tAn hatvA gaja-kula-baddha-tIvra-vairAn kAkutsthaH kuTila-nakha-agra-lagna-muktAn AtmAnam raNa-kR^itakarmaNAm gajAnAm AnR^iNyam gatam iva mArgaNaiH amamsta

9-65. kAkutsthaH= Dasharatha;  gaja-kula-baddha-tIvra-vairAn= with elephants, race, incumbent, exceptional, animosity - those lions that have an inborn animosity with elephant race;  kuTila-nakha-agra-lagna-muktAn= in whose curved, nails, on edges, adhering, pearls - lions that have pearls sticking on their curved claws when they pawed the elephants;  tAn hatvA= them the lions, on felling;  AtmAnam= himself;  raNa-kR^itakarmaNAm= in wars, those that have helped himgajAnAm= to such elephants;  AnR^iNyam gatam iva= debtlessness, he has gone into, as if;  mArgaNaiH= with arrows [that helped him in felling lions]; amamsta= he deemed.

Having killed those who were ever on terms of furious animosity with the elephant-race and who had pearls adhered to their curved nails of their paws Kakutstha considered himself to have been, as it were, freed from the indebtedness to elephants by means of his arrows, for the elephant race helped him a lot in wars. [9-65]

Metre: shAlini


चमरान्परितः प्रवर्तिताश्वः क्वचिदाकर्णविकृष्टभल्लवर्षी।
नृपतीनिव तान्वियोज्य सद्यः सितबालव्यजनैर्जगाम शान्तिम्॥ ९-६६

camarānparitaḥ pravartitāśvaḥ kvacidākarṇavikṛṣṭabhallavarṣī |
nṛpatīniva tānviyojya sadyaḥ sitabālavyajanairjagāma śāntim || 9-66

camarAnparitaH pravartitAshvaH kvacidAkarNavikR^iShTabhallavarShI |
nR^ipatIniva tAnviyojya sadyaH sitabAlavyajanairjagAma shAntim || 9-66


camarAn paritaH pravartita ashvaH kvacit AkarNa vikR^iShTa bhalla varShI nR^ipatIn iva tAn viyojya sadyaH sita vAla vyajanaiH jagAma shAntim

9-66. kvacit= at some place; camarAn paritaH pravartita ashvaH= chAmara animals [Bos grunniens], around, urged, his horse; AkarNa vikR^iShTa bhalla varShI= up to ear, drawn, spears, one who rains them;  nR^ipatIn iva= [petty] kings, as with;  tAn= them;  sita vAla vyajanaiH viyojya= white, tails, called fans, made devoid of;  sadyaH shAntim jagAma= immediately, peace, he obtained.

In some places he who urged his horse in pursuit of the yaks and sent forth a shower of crescent-shaped spears drawn up to the ear after those yaks, was at once satisfied on account of having deprived the chAmara animals of their white bushy snappers viz., the fan-like tufts at the extremities of their tails, just as he does with other petty kings of their royal fanning instruments. [9-66]


अपि तुरगसमीपादुत्पतन्तम् मयुरम्
न स रुचिरकलापम् बाणलक्ष्यीचकार।
सपदि गतमनस्कश्चित्रमाल्यानुकीर्णे
रतिविगलितबन्धे केशपाशे प्रियायाः॥ ९-६७

api turagasamīpādutpatantam mayuram
na sa rucirakalāpam bāṇalakṣyīcakāra |
sapadi gatamanaskaścitramālyānukīrṇe
rativigalitabandhe keśapāśe priyāyāḥ || 9-67

api turagasamIpAdutpatantam mayuram
na sa rucirakalApam bANalakShyIcakAra |
sapadi gatamanaskashcitramAlyAnukIrNe
rativigalitabandhe keshapAshe priyAyAH || 9-67


api turaga samIpAt utpatantam mayuram na sa rucira kalApam bANa lakShyI cakAra sapadi gata manaskaH citra mAlya anukIrNe rati vigalita bandhe keshapAshe priyAyAH

9-67. saH= he that Dasharatha;  turaga samIpAt utpatantam api= horse's, nearby, up-swinging, even though;  rucira kalApam= one that has a beautiful, fan-like tail;  mayuram= such a peacock;  citra mAlya anukIrNe= with variegated, flowers, tucked; rati vigalita bandhe= in lovemaking, loosened, braid-tie;  priyAyAH keshapAshe= his ladylove's, loosened hair; sapadi gata manaskaH= just then, gone, his mind - just remembered unloose hair of his beloved with variegated flowers stuck in them, that just resemble the fan-like tail of peacock;  na bANa lakShyI cakAra= not, as arrow's, target, he made.

He did not make the peacock as a target of his arrow, though that bird danced with its gorgeous tail in the targetable proximity of his horse, as he instantly bethought of the mass of hair of his beloved decorated with variegated flowers but dishevelled by the loosening of its hair-band during amatory sports. [9-67]

Metre: mAlini


तस्य कर्कशविहारसम्भवम् स्वेदमाननविलग्नजालकम्।
आचचाम सतुषारशीकरो भिन्नपल्लवपुटो वनानिलः॥ ९-६८

tasya karkaśavihārasambhavam svedamānanavilagnajālakam |
ācacāma satuṣāraśīkaro bhinnapallavapuṭo vanānilaḥ || 9-68

tasya karkashavihArasambhavam svedamAnanavilagnajAlakam |
AcacAma satuShArashIkaro bhinnapallavapuTo vanAnilaH || 9-68


tasya karkasha vihAra sambhavam svedam Anana vilagna jAlakam AcacAma sa-tuShAra shIkaraH bhinna pallava puTo vana anilaH

9-68. karkasha vihAra sambhavam= by hard, [hunting] exercise, caused;  Anana vilagna jAlakam= on face, sticking, like a mesh; tasya svedam= his, sweat;  sa-tuShAra shIkaraH= with, cold, dew, drops;  bhinna pallava puTaH= which opened asunder the folds of the tender leaves;  vana anilaH AcacAma = wood's, air, sipped off.

The woodland-wind which was saturated with cold dew drops and which opened asunder the folds of the tender leaves sipped off the perspiration produced by the hard exercise of the chase, and which collected into a net-work on his face. [9-68]

Metre: rathoddhata


इति विस्मृतान्यकरणीयमात्मनः सचिवावलम्बितधुरम् धराधिपम्।
परिवृद्धरागमनुबन्धसेवया मृगया जहार चतुरेव कामिनी॥ ९-६९

iti vismṛtānyakaraṇīyamātmanaḥ sacivāvalambitadhuram dharādhipam |
parivṛddharāgamanubandhasevayā mṛgayā jahāra catureva kāminī || 9-69

iti vismR^itAnyakaraNIyamAtmanaH sacivAvalambitadhuram dharAdhipam |
parivR^iddharAgamanubandhasevayA mR^igayA jahAra catureva kAminI || 9-69


iti vismR^ita anya karaNIyam AtmanaH saciva avalambita dhuram dhara adhipam parivR^iddha rAgam anubandha sevayA mR^igayA jahAra caturA iva kAminI

9-69.iti= in this way;  AtmanaH= for himself;  vismR^ita anya karaNIyam= forgotten, other, things to do; saciva avalambita dhuram= by ministers, undertaken, kingdom's weight;  anubandha sevayA parivR^iddha rAgam= by continuous, hunting, increased, passion [in hunting]; dhara adhipam= such a king;  mR^igayA caturA kAminI iva jahAra= hunting, called an artful, mistress, as with, stole - him.

In this manner, like an artful mistress, the hunting sport allured away the King who forgot everything else that was his duty, whose responsibility had been undertaken by his ministers and whose ardour for hunting had been heightened by continuous enjoyment. [9-69]


स ललितकुसुमप्रवालशय्याम् ज्वलितमहौषधिदीपिकासनाथाम्।
नरपतिरतिवाहयाम्बभुव क्वचिदसमेतपरिच्छदस्त्रियामाम्॥ ९-७०

sa lalitakusumapravālaśayyām jvalitamahauṣadhidīpikāsanāthām |
narapatirativāhayāmbabhuva kvacidasametaparicchadastriyāmām || 9-70

sa lalitakusumapravAlashayyAm jvalitamahauShadhidIpikAsanAthAm |
narapatirativAhayAmbabhuva kvacidasametaparicChadastriyAmAm || 9-70


sa lalita kusuma pravAla shayyAm jvalita mahauShadhi dIpikA sanAthAm narapatiH ativAhayAm babhuva kvacit a+sameta-paricChadaH triyAmAm

9-70. saH narapatiH = he that Dasharatha, the king;  lalita kusuma pravAla shayyAm= pleasing, flowers, leaflets, as bed; jvalita mahauShadhi dIpikA sanAthAm= lighted, great herbs, as lamps, having - phosphorescent herbs for night-lamps;  triyAmAm= that night;  kvacit= somewhere;  a+sameta-paricChadaH= not, along with, retinue - not attended by any one in retinue;  ativAhayAm babhuva= spent, he became.

 Unattended by any retinue that king passed the night in some place during which soft flowers and leaves formed his bed, while the phosphorescent herbs served as night-lamps. [9-70]

 Please see KMJ's notes for further details.


उषसि स गजयुथकर्णतालैः पटुपटहध्वनिभिर्विनीतनिद्रः।
अरमत मधुराणि तत्र शृण्वन्विहगविकुजितवन्दिमङ्गलानि॥ ९-७१

uṣasi sa gajayuthakarṇatālaiḥ paṭupaṭahadhvanibhirvinītanidraḥ |
aramata madhurāṇi tatra śṛṇvanvihagavikujitavandimaṅgalāni || 9-71

uShasi sa gajayuthakarNatAlaiH paTupaTahadhvanibhirvinItanidraH |
aramata madhurANi tatra shR^iNvanvihagavikujitavandima~NgalAni || 9-71


uShasi sa gaja yutha karNa tAlaiH paTupaTaha dhvanibhiH vinIta nidraH aramata madhurANi tatra shR^iNvan vihaga vikujita vandi ma~NgalAni

9-71. uShasi= in morning; paTupaTaha dhvanibhiH= sharp sounds like that the Dhakka drums;  gaja yutha karNa tAlaiH= of elephant, herds, ears, flapping;  vinIta nidraH= one whose sleep is removed - one who woke up;  saH= he;  tatra= there, even in woods;  madhurANi= sweet sounds;  vihaga vikujita vandi ma~NgalAni= by birds, warbled, [as if] by bards, sang, auspicious songs;  shR^iNvan aramata = while listening, he enjoyed.

In the early morning that king whose sleep had been dispelled by the regular flappings of the ears of elephants which produced a sharp sound like that of Dhakka drums, amused himself by listening to the warbling of birds as if they are the melodious songs of bards. [9-71]


अथ जातु रुरोर्गृहीतवर्त्मा विपिने पार्श्वचरैरलक्ष्यमाणः।
श्रमफेनमुचा तपस्विगाढाम् तमसाम् प्राप नदीम् तुरम्गमेण॥ ९-७२

atha jātu rurorgṛhītavartmā vipine pārśvacarairalakṣyamāṇaḥ |
śramaphenamucā tapasvigāḍhām tamasām prāpa nadīm turamgameṇa || 9-72

atha jAtu rurorgR^ihItavartmA vipine pArshvacarairalakShyamANaH |
shramaphenamucA tapasvigADhAm tamasAm prApa nadIm turamgameNa || 9-72


atha jAtu ruroH gR^ihIta vartmA vipine pArshva caraiH alakShyamANaH shrama phena mucA tapasvi gADhAm tamasAm prApa nadIm turamgameNa

9-72. atha= then;  jAtu= at certain time - during many days of hunting;  ruroH gR^ihIta vartmA= of an antelope, taken, pathway - following the track of a ruru deer;  vipine pArshva caraiH alakShyamANaH= in woods, by attendants, unseen - going beyond the ken of side-guards;  shrama phena mucA turamgameNa= by hard, riding, foam, spiting, with such a horse;  tapasvi gADhAm tamasAm nadIm prApa= by sages, frequented, Tamasa, river, he reached,

Then, on one occasion the king, who was following the track of a ruru deer in the forest without his being observed by his attendants, came with his horse all in foam through hard work to the river Tamasa much frequented by ascetics. [9-72]

 But - so Fate willed it - one unlucky day,/Unmarked by all his train he tracked a stag/Through forest-paths, and reached the Tamasa/(His horse all foaming, spent, foredone with heat),/Whose banks grave Hermits haunt.


कुम्भपुरणभवः पटुरुच्चैरुच्चचार निनदोऽम्भसि तस्याः।
तत्र स द्विरदबृम्हितशङ्की शब्दपातिनमिषुम् विससर्ज॥ ९-७३

kumbhapuraṇabhavaḥ paṭuruccairuccacāra ninado'mbhasi tasyāḥ |
tatra sa dviradabṛmhitaśaṅkī śabdapātinamiṣum visasarja || 9-73

kumbhapuraNabhavaH paTuruccairuccacAra ninado.ambhasi tasyAH |
tatra sa dviradabR^imhitasha~NkI shabdapAtinamiShum visasarja || 9-73


kumbha puraNa bhavaH paTuH uccaiH uccacAra ninadaH ambhasi tasyAH tatra sa dvirada bR^imhita sha~NkI san shabda-pAtinam iShum visasarja

9-73. tasyAH ambhasi = in that Tamasa river, waters;  kumbha puraNa bhavaH= pot, by filling, caused;  paTuH uccaiH ninadaH= much, loud, noise;  uccacAra= came to ears;  tatra= in the matter of that sound;  saH= he;  dvirada bR^imhita sha~NkI san= by elephants, caused [noise,] doubting;  shabda-pAtinam iShum visasarja= by sound, falling, arrow, he released.

In the waters of Tamasa river there arose a clear deep sound more like the sound arising from filling a jar;  suspecting it to be the scream of an elephant he discharged an arrow targeting the source of that sound. [9-73]

Metre: svAgata


नृपतेः प्रतिषिद्धमेव तत्कृतवान्पङ्क्तिरथो विलङ्घ्य यत्।
अपथे पदमर्पयन्ति हि श्रुतवन्तोऽपि रजोनिमीलिताः॥ ९-७४

nṛpateḥ pratiṣiddhameva tatkṛtavānpaṅktiratho vilaṅghya yat |
apathe padamarpayanti hi śrutavanto'pi rajonimīlitāḥ || 9-74

nR^ipateH pratiShiddhameva tatkR^itavAnpa~Nktiratho vila~Nghya yat |
apathe padamarpayanti hi shrutavanto.api rajonimIlitAH || 9-74


nR^ipateH pratiShiddham eva tat kR^itavAn pa~Nkti-rathaH vila~Nghya yat a+pathe padam arpayanti hi shrutavantaH api rajaH nimIlitAH

9=-74. tat= that act - of releasing arrow on elephant;  nR^ipateH pratiShiddham eva= to a king, forbidden, only; yat= which act; pa~Nkti-rathaH= synonym for Dasharatha, since pankti means ten;  vila~Nghya kR^itavAn= on transgression [of scriptures], he did so;  shrutavantaH api= well-versed ones, even if they are;  rajo nimIlitAH= passion, blinded by;  a+pathe padam arpayanti hi= on wrong path, their foot, they place,indeed.

That which Dasharatha did without consideration was an act forbidden to a king. At times even men conversant with the scriptures when blinded by passion do set foot on a wrong path..

lakshmIkAmo yuddhAt anyatra karivadham na kuryAt - an elephant should not be killed except on battlefield. Metre: vaitAlItyam


हा तातेति क्रन्दितमाकर्ण्य विषण्ण
स्तस्यान्विष्यन्वेतसगुढम् प्रभवम् सः।
शल्यप्रोतम् प्रेक्ष्य सकुम्भम् मुनिपुत्रम्
तापादन्तःशल्य इवासीत्क्षितिपोऽपि॥ ९-७५

hā tāteti kranditamākarṇya viṣaṇṇa
stasyānviṣyanvetasaguḍham prabhavam saḥ |
śalyaprotam prekṣya sakumbham muniputram
tāpādantaḥśalya ivāsītkṣitipo'pi || 9-75

hA tAteti kranditamAkarNya viShaNNa
stasyAnviShyanvetasaguDham prabhavam saH |
shalyaprotam prekShya sakumbham muniputram
tApAdantaHshalya ivAsItkShitipo.api || 9-75


hA tAta iti kranditam AkarNya viShaNNaH tasya anviShyan vetasa guDham prabhavam saH shalya protam prekShya sa-kumbham muniputram tApAt antaH shalya iva asIt kShitipaH api

9-75. hA tAta= oh, father;  iti kranditam AkarNya= in this way, yelling, having heard;  viShaNNaH= [king is] suddenly seized with remorse;  tasya= for its source;  vetasa guDham prabhavam anviShyan= in Vetasa reeds, concealed, source of sound, while investigating;  shalya protam= with arrow, pierced;  sa-kumbham= one with a jar;  muniputram prekShya= son of a sage, having seen;  saH kShitipaH api= he, a king, although;  tApAt antaH shalya iva= by remorse, inside [his body], with a barb, as if;  asIt= he became.

The king is seized with remorse on hearing a piteous cry 'Oh father' from among the reeds;  while searching for the source of that sound concealed among reeds, he beheld the son of a sage with a jar pierced by his arrow and though himself the protector of the world he felt that a dart fixed in his own heart if he had through excessive grief a. [9-75]

Hearing the piteous cry 'Oh father!' the king, seized with remorse;  while searching for the source of that sound concealed among reeds, he beheld the son of a sage with a jar pierced by his arrow;  then, though he himself is the protector of the world, he felt through excessive grief as if he had a dart fixed in his own heart. [9-75]

"Oh, Father !" rang a cry: grief-struck, the King/ Pressed on to find its source among the reeds,/And found a Muni's son, with jar in hand,/Pierced by an arrow;  like a dart deep pain/ Transfixed the King's own heart.

Metre: mayUra


तेनावतीर्य तुरगात्प्रथितान्वयेन
पृष्टान्वयः स जलकुम्भनिषण्णदेहः।
तस्मै द्विजेतरतपस्विसुतम् स्खलद्भि
रात्मानमक्षरपदैः कथयाम्बभुव॥ ९-७६

tenāvatīrya turagātprathitānvayena
pṛṣṭānvayaḥ sa jalakumbhaniṣaṇṇadehaḥ |
tasmai dvijetaratapasvisutam skhaladbhi
rātmānamakṣarapadaiḥ kathayāmbabhuva || 9-76

tenAvatIrya turagAtprathitAnvayena
pR^iShTAnvayaH sa jalakumbhaniShaNNadehaH |
tasmai dvijetaratapasvisutam skhaladbhi
rAtmAnamakSharapadaiH kathayAmbabhuva || 9-76


tena avatIrya turagAt prathita anvayena pR^iShTa anvayaH saH jala kumbha niShaNNa dehaH tasmai dvija itara tapasvi sutam skhaladbhiH AtmAnam akShara padaiH kathayAm babhuva

9-76. prathita anvayena tena= [by one born in] reputed, linage, by him - Dasharatha;  turagAt avatIrya= from horse, on alighting;  pR^iShTa anvayaH = questioned, lineage, he - the boy of a sage;  jala kumbha niShaNNa dehaH= he whose body is leaning on water pot;  saH= that boy;  tasmai= to him - to Dasharatha;  skhaladbhiH akShara padaiH= with faltering, [with one or two letters], as speech;  AtmAnam= about himself;  dvija itara tapasvi sutam= brAhmaNa, other than, sage's, son;   kathayAm babhuva= the boy said;  Otherwise the killer will get brahma-hatyA doSham.

That king from a renowned dynasty then on alighting from the horse asked the boy whose body by now is resting on the water pot about his descent particulars;  that boy told him with faltering single-lettered syllables that he was the son of an anchorite but other than twice-born. [9-76]


तच्चोदितः स तमनुद्धृतशल्यमेव
पित्रोः सकाशमवसन्नदृशोर्निनाय।
ताभ्याम् तथागतमुपेत्य तमेकपुत्र
मज्ञ्यानतः स्वचरितम् नृपतिः शशम्स॥ ९-७७

taccoditaḥ sa tamanuddhṛtaśalyameva
pitroḥ sakāśamavasannadṛśornināya |
tābhyām tathāgatamupetya tamekaputra
majñyānataḥ svacaritam nṛpatiḥ śaśamsa || 9-77

taccoditaH sa tamanuddhR^itashalyameva
pitroH sakAshamavasannadR^ishorninAya |
tAbhyAm tathAgatamupetya tamekaputra
maj~nyAnataH svacaritam nR^ipatiH shashamsa || 9-77


tat coditaH sa tam anuddhR^ita shalyam eva pitroH sakAsham avasanna dR^ishoH ninAya tAbhyAm tathAgatam upetya tam eka putram aj~nyAnataH sva-caritam nR^ipatiH shashamsa

9-77. tat coditaH= by that boy, implored;  nR^ipatiH= the king;  an+uddhR^ita shalyam eva = not, extracted, arrow, though;  tam= him = the boy; avasanna dR^ishoH pitroH sakAsham ninAya = who lost their eye-sight, to such parents, proximity, he took;  tathAgatameka putram tam upetya= in that condition, their lonely son, him, on reaching;  aj~nyAnataH sva-caritam= in ignorance, what he has done;  tAbhyAm shashamsa= to them the parents, he reported.

When that dying boy implored upon the king to take his body to his parents, the king took him there without extracting the impaled arrow, and narrated to his parents, both of whom lost their eyesight, about the fatal condition of their only son occasioned by his own action done through ignorance. [9-77]

In vAlmIki rAmAyaNa Dasharatha reports this in a different way - "I have gone to the parents of the boy and brought them to the place where the boy has fallen, and made them to touch his body to feel..." etc atha aham ekaH tam desham nItvA tau..." This kind of narration may be proper to Ramayana for it is a satyetihAsam, but unbefitting in these rasaika prathAna kAvyA-s. So, kAlidAsa has changed this.


तौ दम्पती बहु विलप्य शिशोः प्रहर्त्रा
शल्यम् निखातमुदहारयतामुरस्तः।
सोऽभूत्परासुरथ भुमिपतिम् शशाप
हस्तार्पितैर्नयनवारिभिरेव वृद्धः॥ ९-७८

tau dampatī bahu vilapya śiśoḥ prahartrā
śalyam nikhātamudahārayatāmurastaḥ |
so'bhūtparāsuratha bhumipatim śaśāpa
hastārpitairnayanavāribhireva vṛddhaḥ || 9-78

tau dampatI bahu vilapya shishoH prahartrA
shalyam nikhAtamudahArayatAmurastaH |
so.abhUtparAsuratha bhumipatim shashApa
hastArpitairnayanavAribhireva vR^iddhaH || 9-78


tau dampatI bahu vilapya shishoH prahartrA shalyam nikhAtam udahArayatAm urastaH saH abhut parAsuH atha bhumipatim shashApa hasta arpitaiH nayana vAribhiH eva vR^iddhaH

9-78. tau dampatI bahu vilapya= those two, of the couple, bitterly, lamented;  shishoH urastaH nikhAtam shalyam= in boy's, chest, implanted, arrow;  prahartrA udahArayatAm= by the shooter himself, got it extricated;  resultantly;  saH para+asuH abhUt= he that boy, alienated, lives = life is alienated - dead, he became;  atha vR^iddhaH= then, the old man;  hasta arpitaiH= in hand, collected;   nayana vAribhiH eva= with eyes, water, alone - without taking water from kamaNDalu etc, using the tears as medium to curse;  bhumipatim shashApa= king, he cursed.

The couple having bitterly lamented and got the implanted arrow to be extracted by the shooter himself;  whereupon the boy became lifeless;  whereby the old man cursed the king with the very waters shed from his eyes gathered in his hands. [9-78]

Sore grieving did those parents from his breast / Draw out the shaft which murderous hand had sped; / The lad expired: next, washing his old hands / In floods of tears, the father cursed the King,


दिष्टान्तमाप्स्यति भवानपि पुत्रशोका
दन्त्ये वयस्यहमिवेति तमुक्तवन्तम्।
आक्रान्तपुर्वमिव मुक्तविषम् भुजम्गम्
प्रोवाच कोसलपतिः प्रथमापराद्धः॥ ९-७९

diṣṭāntamāpsyati bhavānapi putraśokā
dantye vayasyahamiveti tamuktavantam |
ākrāntapurvamiva muktaviṣam bhujamgam
provāca kosalapatiḥ prathamāparāddhaḥ || 9-79

diShTAntamApsyati bhavAnapi putrashokA
dantye vayasyahamiveti tamuktavantam |
AkrAntapurvamiva muktaviSham bhujamgam
provAca kosalapatiH prathamAparAddhaH || 9-79


diShTAntam Apsyati bhavAn api putra shokAt antye vayasi aham iva iti tam uktavantam AkrAnta purvam iva mukta viSham bhujamgam provAca kosalapatiH prathama aparAddhaH

9-79. hè rAjan= oh, king;  bhavAn api antye vayasi= you, also, at ending, age - in old age;  aham iva= me, like;  putra shokAt diShTAntam Apsyati= for son, with grief, end, you will be getting;  iti uktavantam= thus, he who is said so - Dasharatha;  AkrAnta purvam mukta viSham bhujamgam iva= trodden, firstly, [later] releasing, poison, serpent, as with - like a serpent that spurts out poison on being first trodden upon;  tam= to him - old man;  prathama aparAddhaH kosalapatiH= the first to be guilty, king of Kosala;  provAca= said this.

The king of the Kosala, the first to be guilty, on whom the curse was hurled in these words - "you too like myself in your old age will get your death through grief for your son..." spoke to the old man who was like a serpent that spurts out poison on being first trodden upon. [9-79]


सानुग्रहो भगवता मयि पातितोऽयम्।
कृष्याम् दहन्नपि खलु क्षितिमिन्धनेद्धो
बीजप्ररोहजननीम् ज्वलनः करोति॥ ९-८०

sānugraho bhagavatā mayi pātito'yam |
kṛṣyām dahannapi khalu kṣitimindhaneddho
bījaprarohajananīm jvalanaḥ karoti || 9-80

sAnugraho bhagavatA mayi pAtito.ayam |
kR^iShyAm dahannapi khalu kShitimindhaneddho
bIjaprarohajananIm jvalanaH karoti || 9-80


shApaH api a+dR^iShTa tanaya Aanana padma shobhe sAnugrahaH bhagavatA mayi pAtitaH ayam kR^iShyAm dahan api khalu kShitim indhana iddhaH bIja praroha jananIm jvalanaH karoti

9-80. a+dR^iShTa tanaya Aanana padma shobhe= unseen, son's, face, called lotus, its [face of the boy] pleasance;  mayi = such as I am - to me;  bhagavatA pAtitaH shApaH api= by godlike you, hurled, curse, also;  sa+anugrahaH= is attended with It. bles3ing;  indhana iddhaH jvalanaH= with firewood, made to glow, fire;  kR^iShyAm kShitim dahan api= agricultural, land, made to burn, even if; bIja praroha jananIm= seeds, to sprout, and take birth;  karoti khalu= makes, indeed.

Even the curse imprecated by your good-self on me, who have not yet seen the pleasance of the lotus-lace of a son, is attended with a blessing;  The fire which blazes with fuel though burning arable soil makes it productive of sprouts from seed.

A curse to be fraught with favour is really an anomaly which the poet illustrates by a well-known fact of the land being firstly burnt for agricu1tural purposes.


इत्थम् गते गतघृणः किमयम् विधत्ताम्
वध्यस्तवेत्यभिहितो वसुधाधिपेन।
एधान्हुताशनवतः स मुनिर्ययाचे
पुत्रम् परासुमनुगन्तुमनाः सदारः॥ ९-८१

ittham gate gataghṛṇaḥ kimayam vidhattām
vadhyastavetyabhihito vasudhādhipena |
edhānhutāśanavataḥ sa muniryayāce
putram parāsumanugantumanāḥ sadāraḥ || 9-81

ittham gate gataghR^iNaH kimayam vidhattAm
vadhyastavetyabhihito vasudhAdhipena |
edhAnhutAshanavataH sa muniryayAce
putram parAsumanugantumanAH sadAraH || 9-81


ittham gate gata-ghR^iNaH kim ayam vidhattAm vadhyaH tava iti abhihitaH vasudha adhipena edhAn hutAshanavataH sa muniH yayAce putram parAsum anu-gantu-manAH sadAraH

9-81. ittham gate= when it happened this way;  vasudha adhipena= by the king - it is said in this way;  gata-ghR^iNaH= by hard-hearted man- by me - Dasharatha;  tava vadhyaH= for you, who is a killable one;  ayam kim vidhattAm= this me, what, is to be done;  iti abhihitaH= in this way, one who is asked - old man;  saH muniH= that, sage;  sa- dAraH= along with wife;  parAsum putram anu-gantu-manAH= dead, son, to follow, with such mind;  hutAshanavataH edhAn yayAce= burning, firewood, he wanted.

Thus situated, Dasharatha asked the sage "what shall this hard-hearted man, who deserves death at your hands, do now?" and the old ascetic who wished to follow his deceased son asked the king to fetch burning fuel for self-immolation along with his wife. [9-81]


प्राप्तानुगः सपदि शासनमस्य राजा
सम्पाद्य पातकविलुप्तधृतिर्निवृत्तः।
शापम् दधज्ज्वलनमौर्वमिवाम्बुराशिः॥ ९-८२

prāptānugaḥ sapadi śāsanamasya rājā
sampādya pātakaviluptadhṛtirnivṛttaḥ |
śāpam dadhajjvalanamaurvamivāmburāśiḥ || 9-82

prAptAnugaH sapadi shAsanamasya rAjA
sampAdya pAtakaviluptadhR^itirnivR^ittaH |
shApam dadhajjvalanamaurvamivAmburAshiH || 9-82


prApta anugaH sapadi shAsanam asya rAjA sampAdya pAtaka vilupta dhR^itiH nivR^ittaH antar niviShTa padam Atma-vinAsha hetum shApam dadhat jvalanam aurvam iva ambu-rAshiH

9-82. prApta anugaH= he whose attendants had now arrived;  rAjA= such a king;  sapadi= promptly;  asya shAsanam sampAdya= that old man's, bidding, on fetching;  pAtaka vilupta dhR^itiH= by sinful act committed by him, gone away, whose fortitude left him off;  antar niviShTa padam = [curse] that has taken a foothold in him;  Atma-vinAsha hetum shApam= for self-ruin, becoming a cause, such a curse;  ambu-rAshiH aurvam jvalanam iva= ocean, sage aurva's fire - baDabAgni - as with;  dadhat nivR^ittaH= while bearing it, he returned.

The king, whose attendants had now arrived, caused the ascetic's order to be promptly executed;  then that king with his fortitude gone away on account of the sinful act committed by him, for he bears a self-ruinous curse that found a footing in his heart, like an ocean that bears a flagrant fire in its entrails, called baDabAgni, returned to his capital Kosala. [9-82]



इति कालिदास कृत रघुवम्श महाकाव्ये नवमः सर्गः

iti kālidāsa kṛta raghuvamśa mahākāvye navamaḥ sargaḥ

Thus this is 9th chapter in Kalidasa's Raghuvamsha, The Outstanding Poem of India



previous chapter 8 contents Next chapter 10
Revised :  Desiraju Hanumanta Rao - July 2010


abbreviations, words used  etc - explained

Krishnarao Mahadeva Joglekar, 1916 - KMJ, or Joglekar

Gopala Raghunath Nandargikar, 1897  - GRN, Nand

pithy, terse sayings or foots of poem appearing in comment section - from The Story of Raghu's Line by Kalidasa;  translated  by P. De Lacy Johnston, Published by Adine House, London, 1902 - De Lacy or Lacy


upama is roughly said as metaphor, transferred epithet, or condensed simile, or expanded simile, or whatever, but not stabilised, as with atishayokti and utpreksha both made to fall under the category of a hyperbole.

u.mA o : upamAna - comparable object;  or the object itself.

u.me  oc : upameya - object compared.

sA.dha c: sAdhAraNa dharma: commonality in sharing attributes.

sA. vA cw: sAdharaNa vAcaka: coupula, conjunctional word used.

anu.dha uq : anugAmi dharma : underlying quality of factors.

bimba om, or O: object to be mirrored.

prati-bimba mo: reflected object with mirror symmetry, mirrored object.


shleSa innuendo: lexically mixing, imbibed in;  better we use this innuendo= 2 a remark with a double meaning, usu. suggestive;  till pundits object.

zeugma : a figure of speech using a verb or adjective with two nouns, to one of which it is strictly applicable while the word appropriate to the other is not used (e.g. with weeping eyes and [sc. grieving] hearts).

syllepsis : a figure of speech in which a word is applied to two others in different senses (e.g. caught the train and a bad cold) or to two others of which it grammatically suits one only (e.g. neither they nor it is working) - but not innuendo, or double meaning.

atishayokti - hybo: hyperbole.

utpreksha - mglq: magniloqui, gasconade.


Out of many mind-boggling Sanskrit poetics, upama is one, and only 23 of its shades are presented here as illustration. Please construe that hero is telling these se ntences to his heroine.


desiraju hanumanta rao, August 09

desirajuhrao at yahoo.com