Dynasty of Emperor Raghu
|10 chapter -- 86 verses|
From this chapter the first known abridgement of Ramayana, known as kAlidAsa rAmAyaNa, is commenced in the course of telling Raghuvamsham, running up to 12th chapter. Readers are requested to refer to the notes of Joglekar for more expatiation, legends associated with said subject matter etc.
Gods and men were harassed by Ravana the giant-demon with ten heads, whom none could overcome. The gods in a body went to Vishnu and besought his aid. It was most benignantly promised them and they were told b Vishnu that he would descend upon the earth to fulfil his promise, as the son of Dasharatha. Shortly afterwards Kausalya gives birth to Rama; Kaikeyi to Bharata; Sumitra to twins Lakshmana and Shatrughna. Rama and Lakshmana are peculiarly drawn to one another and so are B Bharata and Shatrughna. - KMG
Notes and commentary of Kishanrao Madhavarao Joglekar on this 10th canto is made available here 940 KB pdf for further reading.
पृथिवीम् शासतस्तस्य पाकशासनतेजसः।
किन्चिदूनमनूनर्द्धेः शरदामयुतम् ययौ॥ १०-१
pṛthivīm śāsatastasya pākaśāsanatejasaḥ ।
kimcidūnamanūnarddheḥ śaradāmayutam yayau || 10-1
pR^ithivIm shAsatastasya pAkashAsanatejasaH |
kimcidUnamanUnarddheH sharadAmayutam yayau || 10-1
pR^ithivIn shAsataH tasya pAka-shAsana tejasaH kimcit Unam a+nUna+R^iddheH sharadAm ayutam yayau
10-1. pR^ithivIn shAsataH= the earth, while he was ruling; pAka-shAsana tejasaH= Indra, who equalled in resplendence; anUnarddheH - [a+nUna+R^iddheH]= not, inferior, in wealth [of Indra]; tasya= to him; kimcit Unam= a little, less than; sharadAm ayutam yayau = autumns, thousand [many, myriad], passed by.
A little less than a myriad of autumns rolled away while he, who equalled Indra in grandeur and who was in no way less to him in affluence, ruled the earth. [10-1]
LONG ruled the King, in fadeless splendour robed, / Like Indra mighty till ten thousand years / Were well-nigh sped.
न चोपलेभे पूर्वेषामृणनिर्मोक्षसाधनम्।
सुताभिधानम् स ज्योतिः सद्यः शोकतमोपहम्॥ १०-२
na copalebhe pūrveṣāmṛṇanirmokṣasādhanam।
sutābhidhānam sa jyotiḥ sadyaḥ śokatamopaham || 10-2
na copalebhe pUrveShAmR^iNanirmokShasAdhanam |
sutAbhidhAnam sa jyotiH sadyaH shokatamopaham || 10-2
na ca upalebhe pUrveShAm R^iNa nirmokSha sAdhanam suta abhidhAnam saH jyotiH sadyaH shoka tamo apaham
10-2. saH= he that Dasharatha; pUrveShAm= to his ancestors; R^iNa nirmokSha sAdhanam=debt, to get rid of, an instrument - called son; and which instrument is further; sadyaH shoka-tamo apaham= immediately [on the birth of a son] gloom of sorrow, dispeller [to the father]; suta abhidhAnam jyotiH= son, called, light; na ca upalebhe = not, still, he got.
And still he did not come into the possession of the light called 'a Son' which at once dispels the gloom of sorrow and is the means of obtaining liberation from the debt due to ancestors. [10-2]
Yet gained he not the wealth, / "Son" named, to pay the debt he owed the Sires, / That light which swiftly chases sorrow's gloom.
अतिष्ठत्प्रत्ययापेक्षसम्ततिः स चिरम् नृपः।
atiṣṭhatpratyayāpekṣasamtatiḥ sa ciram nṛpaḥ।
prāṅmanthādanabhivyaktaratnotpattirivārṇavaḥ || 10-3
atiShThatpratyayApekShasamtatiH sa ciram nR^ipaH|
prA~NmanthAdanabhivyaktaratnotpattirivArNavaH || 10-3
atiShThat pratyaya ApekSha samtatiH sa ciram nR^ipaH prA~k manthAt an+abhivyakta ratna utpattiH iva arNavaH
10-3. pratyaya ApekSha santatiH= a direct or active cause, expecting - his progeny awaited a direct cause to manifest themselves as his sons - rAma-avatAra prayojanam; hence; saH nR^ipaH that king Dasharatha - had to remain like an ocean; manthAt prA~k= churning, before its; an+abhivyakta ratna utpattiH= not, manifest, jewels, production; arNavaH iva= ocean, like a; ciram atiShThat = for a long-time, he remained.
That monarch Dasharatha remained childless for a long-time like an ocean which does not manifest its jewels until it is churned, for his progeny waited for a direct cause for its appearance. [10-3]
ऋष्यशृङ्गादयस्तस्य सन्तः सन्तानकाङ्क्षिणः।
आरेभिरे जितात्मानः पुत्रीयामिष्टिमृत्विजः॥ १०-४
ṛṣyaśṛṅgādayastasya santaḥ santānakāṅkṣiṇaḥ।
ārebhire jitātmānaḥ putrīyāmiṣṭimṛtvijaḥ || 10-4
R^iShyashR^i~NgAdayastasya santaH santAnakA~NkShiNaH |
Arebhire jitAtmAnaH putrIyAmiShTimR^itvijaH || 10-4
R^iShyashR^i~Nga AdayaH tasya santaH santAna kA~NkShiNaH Arebhire jitAtmAnaH putrIyAm iShTim R^itvijaH
10-4. R^iShyashR^i~Nga AdayaH= sage Rishyasringa, et al; R^itvijaH= Ritwiks - venerable priests; and; santaH= great-souls; jitAtmAnaH [yatAtmanaH]= who have conquered their souls; santAna kA~NkShiNaH tasya= progeny, desiring, for him; putrIyAm iShTim= son-giving, Vedic Ritual; Arebhire = they have commenced.
The venerable priests headed by Sage Rishyasringa, who were all self-subdued, commenced the son-giving Vedic Ritual, called putra-kAmeShTi, for that Dasharatha who was eager of getting an issue. [10-4]
तस्मिन्नवसरे देवाः पौलस्त्योपप्लुता हरिम्।
tasminnavasare devāḥ paulastyopaplutā harim।
abhijagmurnidāghārtāśchāyāvṛkṣamivādhvagāḥ || 10-5
tasminnavasare devAH paulastyopaplutA harim|
abhijagmurnidAghArtAshChAyAvR^ikShamivAdhvagAH || 10-5
tasmin avasare devAH paulastya upaplutA harim abhijagmuH nidAgha ArtAH ChAyA vR^ikSham iva adhvagAH
10-5. tasmin avasare= at this time; devAH paulastya upaplutA = gods, by Ravana, harassed; nidAgha ArtAH adhvagAH= by heat, oppressed, pedestrians [seeking]; ChAyA vR^ikSham iva= shade giving, tree, as with; harim abhijagmuH = to Hari, approached.
About this time, the gods being harassed by Ravana approached Sri Hari, as with pedestrians oppressed by heat resort to a thick shady tree. [10-5]
ते च प्रापुरुदन्वन्तम् बुबुधे चादिपूरुषः।
अव्याक्षेपो भविष्यन्त्याः कार्यसिद्धेर्हि लक्षणम्॥ १०-६
te ca prāpurudanvantam bubudhe cādipūruṣaḥ।
avyākṣepo bhaviṣyantyāḥ kāryasiddherhi lakṣaṇam || 10-6
te ca prApurudanvantam bubudhe cAdipUruShaH|
avyAkShepo bhaviShyantyAH kAryasiddherhi lakShaNam || 10-6
te ca prApuH udanvantam bubudhe ca Adi-pUruShaH avyAkShepaH bhaviShyantyAH kArya siddheH hi lakShaNam
10-6. te ca udanvantam prApuH= they [gods], [Milky] Ocean, reached; Adi-pUruShaH ca bubudhe= Primeval Person, also, woke up - from his yoga nidra; avyAkShepaH= non-existence of distance - here absence of delay; bhaviShyantyAH kArya-siddheH hi lakShaNam= in future, for success of an undertaking, verily, is an indication.
Gods reached the Milk-Ocean and the Primeval Being awoke. Absence of delay between these two actions, gods approaching Sri Hari and his waking up from yoga-nidra, is verily an indication of future success in accomplishment of an undertaking. [10-6]
भोगिभोगासनासीनम् ददृशुस्तम् दिवौकसः।
bhogibhogāsanāsīnam dadṛśustam divaukasaḥ।
tatphaṇāmaṇḍalodarcirmaṇidyotitavigraham || 10-7
bhogibhogAsanAsInam dadR^ishustam divaukasaH|
tatphaNAmaNDalodarcirmaNidyotitavigraham || 10-7
bhogi bhoga-Asana AsInam dadR^ishuH tam divaukasaH tat phaNA maNDala udarcir maNi dyotita vigraham
10-7. divaukasaH= celestials; bhogi bhoga-Asana AsInam= on serpent, a comfortable seat, one who is sitting on it - Hari sitting on thousand-hooded serpent AdisheSha; tat phaNA maNDala = of that serpent's, hoods, group; udarcir maNi= by glowing, [phosphorescent] jewels - available on all hoods; dyotita vigraham= illuminated, with such a body - of Hari; tam= him; dadR^ishuH = they saw.
The celestials beheld Sri Hari seated on a comfortable couch called the thousand-hooded serpent Adi-sheSha, while the ascending rays of phosphorescent jewels available on the collection of hoods of that serpent brightly illumined his physique. [10-7]
The cobra de capello is supposed to carry a brilliant phosphorescent jewel on its hood.
श्रियः पद्मनिषण्णायाः क्षौमान्तरितमेखले।
अङ्के निक्षिप्तचरणमास्तीर्णकरपल्लवे॥ १०-८
śriyaḥ padmaniṣaṇṇāyāḥ kṣaumāntaritamekhale।
aṅke nikṣiptacaraṇamāstīrṇakarapallave || 10-8
shriyaH padmaniShaNNAyAH kShaumAntaritamekhale|
a~Nke nikShiptacaraNamAstIrNakarapallave || 10-8
shriyaH padma niShaNNAyAH kShauma antarita mekhale a~Nke nikShipta caraNam AstIrNa kara pallave
10-8. padma niShaNNAyAH shriyaH = in lotus, ensconced, Lakshmi; kShauma antarita mekhale= in silk-sari, covered, her girdle; AstIrNa kara pallave= with outstretched [on both of her thighs], arms, sprouts-like - exquisite bodied one; a~Nke nikShipta caraNam = [on such a palm placed on] thigh of Lakshmi, kept, his foot; tam devAH dadR^ishuH = [such as he is] him, gods, have seen.
Sitting on that serpent-couch he placed a foot in the delicate palm of exquisite bodied Goddess Lakshmi who ensconced in a lotus kept both of her arms on either of her thigh; and she on her part setting his foot on a palm-pedestal hid her girdle beneath her silk-saree, lest the hard metals and jewels of that girdle hurt his sole; such as he is him the celestials beheld. [10-8]
दिवसम् शारदमिव प्रारम्भसुखदर्शनम्॥ १०-९
divasam śāradamiva prārambhasukhadarśanam || 10-9
divasam shAradamiva prArambhasukhadarshanam || 10-9
prabuddha puNDarIka akSham bAla Atapa nibha amshukam divasam shAradam iva prArambha sukha darshanam
10-9. prabuddha puNDarIka akSham= fully opened, white-lotuses like, one having such eyes; bAla Atapa nibhAm amshukam= morning time, sun's glow like, one whose garment is; prArambha= those who make great effort to know god, for them; sukha darshanam= who is an easy access; shAradam divasam iva [sthitam]= [who like an] autumnal, day, like - very pleasant to see; tam devAH dadR^ishuH = [such as he is] him, gods, have seen.
prabuddha puNDarIka akSham= one that got full-blown white lotuses as its eyes - autmn; bAla Atapa nibha amshukam= having light sunshine as its garment; prArambha sukha darshanam= from the start which is pleasant to behold; shAradam divasam iva= such a autumnl day, like, [sthitam= one who is sitting there; tam devAH dadR^ishuH = [such as he is] him, gods, have seen.
Him whose eyes were like full-blown white lotuses, whose garment was like the morning time sunshine, whose sight was easily gained by sages, and who was therefore, like the autumnal day which had full-blown white lotuses for its eyes and morning time sunshine for its garment, and which is delightful to look at, at its commencement; him the celestials beheld. [10-8]
कौस्तुभाख्यमपाम् सारम् बिभ्राणम् बृहतोरसा॥ १०-१०
kaustubhākhyamapām sāram bibhrāṇam bṛhatorasā || 10-10
kaustubhAkhyamapAm sAram bibhrANam bR^ihatorasA || 10-10
prabhA anulipta shrIvatsam lakShmI vibhrama darpaNam kaustubha Akhyam apAm sAram bibhrANam bR^ihat urasA
10-10. prabhA anulipta shrIvatsam= its radiance, circumflexing, on a scar on his chest - called shrIvatsa; lakShmI vibhrama darpaNam= which for Lakshmi, to see her beauty, served as a mirror; kaustubha Akhyam= such a jewel kaustubha, known by such a name; apAm sAram= which is an essence of oceanic waters - born while churning ocean; bR^ihat urasA bibhrANam= by his broad, chest, one who is wearing; tam devAH dadR^ishuH = [such as he is] him, gods, have seen.
Him who wore a jewel called kaustubha on his broad chest which is the essence of oceanic waters, which circumflexes its radiance on the scar on his chest called shrIvatsa, and which serves as a mirror to Lakshmi when clung on his chest, such as he is him the celestials beheld. [10-10]
आविर्भूतमपाम् मध्ये पारिजातमिवापरम्॥ १०-११
āvirbhūtamapām madhye pārijātamivāparam || 10-11
AvirbhUtamapAm madhye pArijAtamivAparam || 10-11
bahubhiH viTapa AkAraiH divya AbharaNa bhUShitaiH AvirbhUtam apAm madhye pArijAtam iva aparam
10-11. viTapa AkAraiH= branches of trees, in shape - four arms of Hari; divya AbharaNa bhUShitaiH= with divine, ornaments, decorated; bahubhiH= one who is with such four arms; apAm madhye= in the midst of waters of ocean; AvirbhUtam aparam pArijAtam iva = came up, another, divine tree pArijAta, as with; tam devAH dadR^ishuH = [such as he is] him, gods, have seen.
Him who on account of his tree-branch-like four arms adorned with divine ornaments appeared like another pArijAta tree of divine origin showing itself up in the midst of oceanic waters; him the celestials beheld. [10-11]
hetibhiścetanāvadbhirudīritajayasvanam || 10-12
hetibhishcetanAvadbhirudIritajayasvanam || 10-12
daitya strI gaNDa lekhAnAm mada rAga vilopibhiH hetibhiH cetanAvadbhiH udIrita jaya svanam
10-12. daitya strI gaNDa lekhAnAm= of demons, on their women's, cheeks, erasable tattoo-foliage-like designs; mada rAga vilopibhiH= excitement, glow of, removers - those that kill demons thereby deprive glow on the faces of their wives - Hari's weapons; cetanAvadbhiH hetibhiH= by ever-active, weapons; udIrita jaya svanam= proclaiming, victory lauds; tam devAH dadR^ishuH = [such as he is] him, gods, have seen.
Him for whom the eulogies of victory were proclaimed by his ever-active five weapons, namely -pAnchajanya - conch, sudarshana - discus, kaumodaki - mace, nandaka - sword, and shAra~Nga - bow; which destroy the glow of excitement on the faces of the wives of his enemies, namely the demons; him the celestials beheld. [10-12]
उपस्थितम् प्राञ्जलिना विनीतेन गरुत्मता॥ १०-१३
upasthitam prāñjalinā vinītena garutmatā || 10-13
upasthitam prA~njalinA vinItena garutmatA || 10-13
mukta sheSha virodhena kulisha vraNa lakShmaNA upasthitam prA~njalinA vinItena garutmatA
10-13. mukta sheSha virodhena= who abandoned, with serpent Adi-sheSha, his animosity - garuDa abandoned animosity only with one serpent called Adi-sheSha, rest of the serpents are his enemies; kulisha vraNa lakShmaNA= by thunderbolt, made wounds, having such scars; prA~njalinA= with palm-fold; vinItena garutmatA = by humble one, garuDa; upasthitam = one who is being adored - Hari; tam devAH dadR^ishuH = [such as he is] him, gods, have seen.
Him, who was waited upon with adjoined palms by the humble garuDa, the divine eagle, who had abandoned his enmity towards the serpent Adi-sheSaha and who bore the scars of wounds inflicted by the thunderbolt of Indra; him the gods beheld. [10-13]
भृग्वादीननुगृह्णन्तम् सौखशायनिकानृषीन्॥ १०-१४
bhṛgvādīnanugṛhṇantam saukhaśāyanikānṛṣīn || 10-14
bhR^igvAdInanugR^ihNantam saukhashAyanikAnR^iShIn || 10-14
yoga nidra anta vishadaiH pAvanaiH avalokanaiH bhR^igu AdIn anugR^ihNantam 'saukhashAyanikAn' R^iShIn
10-14. yoga nidra anta vishadaiH= yogic, sleep, after, evincing satisfaction [of that yogic sleep]; pAvanaiH= that are sanctifying - looks; avalokanaiH= that are looking [here and there - looks]; saukhashAyanikAn= have you slept well? - Thus making enquiries; bhR^igu AdIn R^iShIn = Bhrigu et al, sages; anugR^ihNantam = favouring - that are favouring those sages; tam devAH dadR^ishuH = [such as he is] him, gods, have seen.
Him whose sanctifying looks that evinced satisfaction at the end of his meditative sleep was showing special liking to Bhrigu and other sages who were making enquiries about his undisturbed meditative sleep, the gods beheld. [10-14]
sukha shayanam pR^icChanti iti sukha shAyanikAH = those that are enquiring about an undisturbed sleep of someone else; in singular it is: sukha shAyanikaH; likewise it is sausnAtikaH - have you taken a good bath etc which will be generally enquired after some religious baths.
प्रणिपत्य सुरास्तस्मै शमयित्रे सुरद्विषाम्।
अथैनम् तुष्टुवुः स्तुत्यमवाङ्मनसगोचरम्॥ १०-१५
praṇipatya surāstasmai śamayitre suradviṣām।
athainam tuṣṭuvuḥ stutyamavāṅmanasagocaram || 10-15
praNipatya surAstasmai shamayitre suradviShAm|
athainam tuShTuvuH stutyamavA~Nmanasagocaram || 10-15
praNipatya surAH tasmai shamayitre sura-dviShAm atha enam tuShTuvuH stutyam avA~Nmanasa gocaram
10-15. atha surAH= then, gods; sura-dviShAm shamayitre= gods, enemies [demons], one who silences them; tasmai praNipatya= him, on reverencing; stutyam= one who is laudable; avA~Nmanasa gocaram= one who is far beyond words and mind; [tam= him]; enam tuShTuvuH= in this way, they eulogised.
The gods, thereafter, reverenced that destroyer of demons, namely Hari, and propitiated him who is worthy of praise and who stands beyond the comprehension either of speech or mind, in the following manner. [10-15]
नमो विश्वसृजे पूर्वम् विश्वम् तदनु बिभ्रते।
अथ विश्वस्य सम्हर्त्रे तुभ्यम् त्रेधास्थितात्मने॥ १०-१६
namo viśvasṛje pūrvam viśvam tadanu bibhrate।
atha viśvasya samhartre tubhyam tredhāsthitātmane || 10-16
namo vishvasR^ije pUrvam vishvam tadanu bibhrate|
atha vishvasya samhartre tubhyam tredhAsthitAtmane || 10-16
namo vishva-sR^ije pUrvam vishvam tadanu bibhrate atha vishvasya samhartre tubhyam tredhA sthitAtmane
10-16. pUrvam vishva-sR^ije= firstly, as creator; tadanu= consequently; vishvam bibhrate= creation, as one who is bearing; atha= later; vishvasya samhartre= of creation, one who become destroyer; [evam= in this way]; tredhA sthitAtmane= in three ways, one who is there; tubhyam namaH = to you, our salutations.
Salutations to thee who manifests himself in three forms - first as Creator, thereafter as the protector of the Creation, and then as destroyer of the Universe... [10-16]
रसान्तराण्येकरसम् यथा दिव्यम् पयोऽश्नुते।
देशे देशे गुणेष्वेवमवस्थास्त्वमविक्रियः॥ १०-१७
rasāntarāṇyekarasam yathā divyam payo'śnute।
deśe deśe guṇeṣvevamavasthāstvamavikriyaḥ || 10-17
rasAntarANyekarasam yathA divyam payo.ashnute|
deshe deshe guNeShvevamavasthAstvamavikriyaH || 10-17
rasa-antarANi ekarasam yathA divyam payaH ashnute deshe deshe guNeShu evam avasthAH tvam a+vikriyaH
10-17. eka-rasam= one having uniform taste - rainwater; divyam payaH= such divine, water - fallen from sky as rain; deshe deshe = [falling] in different places; rasa antarANi= different tastes; yathA ashnute= as to how, it gets; evam= in that way; a+vikriyaH tvam = not, mutable, you; guNeShu avasthAH ashnute= [different] qualities, in [different] conditions, you get.
Just as the water from skies having uniform taste acquires different tastes on its falling in different places, so in like manner doest thou, though immutable, assumest different conditions in different qualities... [10-17]
अमेयो मितलोकस्त्वमनर्थी प्रार्थनावहः।
अजितो जिष्णुरत्यन्तमव्यक्तो व्यक्तकारणम्॥ १०-१८
ameyo mitalokastvamanarthī prārthanāvahaḥ।
ajito jiṣṇuratyantamavyakto vyaktakāraṇam || 10-18
ameyo mitalokastvamanarthI prArthanAvahaH|
ajito jiShNuratyantamavyakto vyaktakAraNam || 10-18
ameyaH mitalokaH tvam anarthI [na+arthI] prArthana-AvahaH ajitaH jiShNuH atyantam avyaktaH vyakta-kAraNam
10-18. tvam= you are; ameyaH= immeasurable; mita-lokaH= [but you have] measured, the universe - you alone can say that this universe is this much - as you have measured it in your trivikrama incarnation; anarthI [na+arthI]= [you have] no, desires - above desires and wants; prArthana AvahaH= desires [of all], [you are a] fulfiller of; a+jitaH= [you are] not conquered - by any; jiShNuH= [you are] capable of conquering any; atyantam avyaktaH= thoroughly imperceptible; vyakta-kAraNam= [yet you are] perceptible by effects of causes.
Thou art thyself incomprehensible yet thou comprehendest the Universe; thou art above desires yet thou art the fulfiller of all the desires of supplicants; though unconquered yet thou art victorious; though thoroughly imperceptible thou art the perceptible cause of all material objects... [10-18]
हृदयस्थमनासन्नमकामम् त्वाम् तपस्विनम्।
दयालुमनघस्पृष्टम् पुराणमजरम् विदुः॥ १०-१९
hṛdayasthamanāsannamakāmam tvām tapasvinam।
dayālumanaghaspṛṣṭam purāṇamajaram viduḥ || 10-19
hR^idayasthamanAsannamakAmam tvAm tapasvinam|
dayAlumanaghaspR^iShTam purANamajaram viduH || 10-19
hR^idayastham anAsannam akAmam tvAm tapasvinam dayAlum anagha-spR^iShTam purANam ajaram viduH
10-19. hè deva= oh, god; tvAm= [though] you are; hR^idayastham= available in heart; an+Asannam= not, nigh at hand; a+kAmam= not, having desires; tapasvinam= yet a meditator [meditating with certain aim or desire]; dayAlum= full of compassion; anagha-spR^iShTam = unaffected by any wickedness; purANam= oldest Being; a+jaram= not, decayed; viduH= all sages know you like this.
Sages declare thee to be ever and anon available in one's own heart yet not nigh at hand for a grasp; an ascetic yet without any desire; compassionate yet unaffected by grief; oldest Being yet not subject to decay... [10-19]
सर्वप्रभुरनीशस्त्वमेकस्त्वम् सर्वरूपभाक्॥ १०-२०
sarvaprabhuranīśastvamekastvam sarvarūpabhāk || 10-20
sarvaj~nyaH tvam avij~nyAtaH sarva-yoniH tvam Atma-bhUH sarva prabhuH anIshaH tvam ekaH tvam sarva rUpa bhAk
10-20. hè deva= oh, god; tvam= you are; sarvaj~nyaH= omniscient; a+vij~nyAtaH= [but] not, fully understood [by anyone]; tvam= you are; sarva-yoniH= for everything, the source; Atma-bhUH= [yet you are] self-born; tvam sarva prabhuH= you are lord of all; a+nIshaH= [yet] you have no lord on you; tvam ekaH= you are single; sarva rUpa bhAk= [but] in all, forms, thou appearest.
Thou art Omniscient, yet unintelligible for others; thou art birthless, yet a provenance of all; thou art Lordless, yet the Lord of all; thou art single, yet assumest all variety of forms... [10-20]
सप्तसामोपगीतम् त्वाम् सप्तार्णवजलेशयम्।
सप्तार्चिमुखमाचख्युः सप्तलोकैकसम्श्रयम्॥ १०-२१
saptasāmopagītam tvām saptārṇavajaleśayam।
saptārcimukhamācakhyuḥ saptalokaikasamśrayam || 10-21
saptasAmopagItam tvAm saptArNavajaleshayam|
saptArcimukhamAcakhyuH saptalokaikasamshrayam || 10-21
sapta sAma upagItam tvAm sapta arNava jale shayam sapta arci mukham AcakhyuH sapta loka eka samshrayam
10-21. tvAm = you - they will say as one who is; sapta sAma upagItam= by seven, sAma hymns, extolled; sapta arNava jale shayam= seven, oceans, in waters, reposing; sapta arci mukham= seven, tongue of fire, having for his mouth; sapta loka eka samshrayam= for even, worlds, the only, support; AcakhyuH= they say.
They have praised Thee who hast been glorified by seven hymns; a recliner on the waters of seven seas; having seven-flames for thy mouth and as a Being the only support of the seven worlds... [10-21]
The seven hymns: gAyatra, rathantara, vAmadevya, bR^ihatsAma, vairUpa, vairAja, shakvarI.
Seven seas: lavaNa, ikshu, surA, sarpis, dadhi, kshIra, jala - sAgarAH.
Seven tongues of fire: karAli, dhUmini, shveta, lohita, nIla-lohita, suvarNa, padma-rAga - through which offertories are received in Vedic-rituals.
Seven worlds: bhU, bhuvar, suvar, maharloka, jana, tapo, satya - lokAH.
चतुर्वर्गफलम् ज्ञानम् कालावस्थाश्चतुर्युगाः।
चतुर्वर्णमयो लोकस्त्वत्तः सर्वम् चतुर्मुखात्॥ १०-२२
caturvargaphalam jñānam kālāvasthāścaturyugāḥ।
caturvarṇamayo lokastvattaḥ sarvam caturmukhāt || 10-22
caturvargaphalam j~nAnam kAlAvasthAshcaturyugAH|
caturvarNamayo lokastvattaH sarvam caturmukhAt || 10-22
catur-varga phalam j~nAnam kAla-avasthAH caturyugAH catur-varNamayaH lokaH tvattaH sarvam catur-mukhAt
10-22. catur-varga phalam j~nAnam= four aims of human existence, knowledge thereof; kAla-avasthAH caturyugAH= time-frames, four ages thereof; catur-varNamayaH lokaH= fourfold division of humans, and world thereof; sarvam catur-mukhAt= all, from your four-faces; tvattaH= from you alone - they came into existence.
Knowledge leading to the attainment of four aims of human existence - dharma, artha, kAma, mokshA-s; periods of time forming the four eras - kR^ita, treata, dvApa, kali -yugA-s; fourfold division of humans forming this world - all have emanated from Thee when thou coming into contact with rajo-guNa hast become four-faced Brahma, the Physical Creator. [10-22]
अभ्यासनिगृहीतेन मनसा हृदयाश्रयम्।
ज्योतिर्मयम् विचिन्वन्ति योगिनस्त्वाम् विमुक्तये॥ १०-२३
abhyāsanigṛhītena manasā hṛdayāśrayam।
jyotirmayam vicinvanti yoginastvām vimuktaye || 10-23
abhyAsanigR^ihItena manasA hR^idayAshrayam|
jyotirmayam vicinvanti yoginastvAm vimuktaye || 10-23
abhyAsa nigR^ihItena manasA hR^idaya-Ashrayam jyotirmayam vicinvanti yoginaH tvAm vimuktaye
10-23. abhyAsa nigR^ihItena manasA= with practice, controlled, mind; yoginaH= yogi-s; hR^idaya-Ashrayam= you who are dwelling in one's own heart; jyotirmayam= you who are in the form of self-luminous light - without wick, oil and receptacle; tvAm vicinvanti= you, they seek; vimuktaye = seeking emancipation.
Self-controlled ascetics seeking emancipation seek thee with constant practise of meditation, but thou dwellest in their own hearts in the form of light... [10-23]
अजस्य गृह्णतो जन्म निरीहस्य हतद्विषः।
स्वपतो जागरूकस्य याथार्थ्यम् वेद कस्तव॥ १०-२४
ajasya gṛhṇato janma nirīhasya hatadviṣaḥ।
svapato jāgarūkasya yāthārthyam veda kastava || 10-24
ajasya gR^ihNato janma nirIhasya hatadviShaH|
svapato jAgarUkasya yAthArthyam veda kastava || 10-24
ajasya gR^ihNataH janma nirIhasya hata-dviShaH svapataH jAgarUkasya yAthArthyam veda kaH tava
10-24. a+jasya janma gR^ihNataH= an unborn one, [many] births, who is taking - incarnations; nir+Ihasya hata-dviShaH= one without action, [but taking action in] eliminating adversaries; svapataH jAgarUkasya= one who enjoys yogic sleep, [yet who is] ever awoke; such as you are; tava = your; yAthArthyam kaH veda = actuality, who, knows.
Who knowest actuality of thine who though unborn dost take many a corporeal form; who though quiescent dost destroy thy adversaries, and who though dost enjoy yogic-sleep yet ever awake... [10-24]
शब्दादीन्विषयान्भोक्तुम् चरितुम् दुश्चरम् तपः।
पर्याप्तोऽसि प्रजाः पातुमौदासीन्येन वर्तितुम्॥ १०-२५
śabdādīnviṣayānbhoktum caritum duścaram tapaḥ।
paryāpto'si prajāḥ pātumaudāsīnyena vartitum || 10-25
shabdAdInviShayAnbhoktum caritum dushcaram tapaH|
paryApto.asi prajAH pAtumaudAsInyena vartitum || 10-25
shabda AdIn viShayAn bhoktum caritum dushcaram tapaH paryAptaH asi prajAH pAtum audAsInyena vartitum
10-25. shabda AdIn viShayAn bhoktum= shabda, sparsha, rUpa,rasa, gandha, etc, material objects, to enjoy - in the incarnations you took up; dushcaram tapaH caritum= impossible for others, ascesis, to undertake; prajAH pAtum = people, to safeguard; audAsInyena vartitum= with detachedness, to remain; paryAptaH asi = competent, you are.
Thou art the only one to enjoy sensory objects like sound, touch, form, taste and smell in various incarnations of thine, yet remain far beyond them in thine original form; thou dost perform ascesis that is impossible for others; thou art the only one to protect the people and at the same time to remain indifferent... [10-25]
बहुधाप्यागमैर्भिन्नाः पन्थानः सिद्धिहेतवः।
त्वय्येव निपतन्त्योघा जाह्नवीया इवार्णवे॥ १०-२६
bahudhāpyāgamairbhinnāḥ panthānaḥ siddhihetavaḥ।
tvayyeva nipatantyoghā jāhnavīyā ivārṇave || 10-26
bahudhApyAgamairbhinnAH panthAnaH siddhihetavaH|
tvayyeva nipatantyoghA jAhnavIyA ivArNave || 10-26
bahudhA api AgamaiH bhinnAH panthAnaH siddhi hetavaH tvayi eva nipatanti oghAH jAhnavIyA iva arNave
10-26. AgamaiH= by systems of philosophies - like nyAya, sAnkya, visheShika etc; bahudhA bhinnAH api= diversely, different, even though; siddhi hetavaH panthAnaH= for accomplishment, of the goal of human existence, their pathways; jAhnavIyA oghAH arNave iva= river Ganga's, streams, [falling in] ocean, as with; tvayi eva nipatanti = [all the paths of philosophy] in you, alone, culminate.
Although diverse are the paths laid down by the philosophical treatises as being the cause of the accomplishment of the goal of human existence they all culminate in thee alone, like the streams of River Ganga in ocean. [10-26]
गतिस्त्वम् वीतरागाणामभूयःसम्निवृत्तये॥ १०-२७
gatistvam vītarāgāṇāmabhūyaḥsamnivṛttaye || 10-27
gatistvam vItarAgANAmabhUyaHsamnivR^ittaye || 10-27
tvayi Aveshita cittAnAm tvat samarpita karmaNAm gatiH tvam vItarAgANAm abhUyaH samnivR^ittaye
10-27. tvayi Aveshita cittAnAm= in you, placed, those with such hearts; tvat samarpita karmaNAm= in you, submitted, their actions; vItarAgANAm= those devoid of passion; abhUyaH samnivR^ittaye= for their non-recurrence of life; tvam gatiH = you alone, are the recourse.
Thou art the refuge to gain the moksha, non-recurrence of life, to those who are devoid of passions and have devoted their hearts and consigned their actions in thee... [10-27]
प्रत्यक्षोऽप्यपरिच्छेद्यो मह्यादिर्महिमा तव।
आप्तवागनुमानाभ्याम् साध्यम् त्वाम् प्रति का कथा॥ १०-२८
pratyakṣo'pyaparicchedyo mahyādirmahimā tava।
āptavāganumānābhyām sādhyam tvām prati kā kathā || 10-28
pratyakSho.apyaparicChedyo mahyAdirmahimA tava|
AptavAganumAnAbhyAm sAdhyam tvAm prati kA kathA || 10-28
pratyakShaH api aparicChedyaH mahyAdiH mahimA tava Apta vAk anumAnAbhyAm sAdhyam tvAm prati kA kathA
10-28. pratyakShaH api= [world is your creation and it is] cognisable evidently, although; mahyAdiH= earth, sky etc that are evident; tava mahimA= your, greatness; a+paricChedyaH= not, broken down - to definitions, hence indefinable; Apta vAk= utterance of credible or reliable persons or texts; anumAnAbhyAm= by inference; sAdhyam= that which can be proved or demonstrated - that your are there; [hence] tvAm prati= in your regard; kA kathA= what can be said more.
Indefinable is thy greatness though perceptible in thy creation like earth, sky and others; then, what words sufficeth to establish thee except inferences and noetic writs... [10-28]
Poets derive arthApatti - alankAra, the circumstantial implication, by using words like kA kathA = what can be said; kim uta = what more is there etc. arthApatti is - if one thing is established, the concomitant aspect of it is automatically established. This is called danDA pUpikA nyAyam - "stick of cakes syndrome". If one can establish that rats took away the stick skewered to cakes [pUpam, vaDa, gArelu], it is autoly establishes that the very same rats ate those cakes. So also, if anumAnam, inference, is like this: kshityAdikam sakartR^ikam kAryatvAt ghaTavat... earth etc are the outcome of certain cause like pot from clod... we have to believe that certain efficient cause is there as a priori. Again, when it is said as AptavAkyam of scripts: yatovA imAni bhUtAni jAyante... from which these beings emerged etc... we tend to believe that there is a source of beings as efficient cause, leaving that cause as indefinable, immeasurable or indemonstrable. So, what the gods have said in their prayers is not flabbergasting but the actuality with shrIhari.
केवलम् स्मरणेनैव पुनासि पुरुषम् यतः।
अनेन वृत्तयः शेषा निवेदितफलास्त्वयि॥ १०-२९
kevalam smaraṇenaiva punāsi puruṣam yataḥ।
anena vṛttayaḥ śeṣā niveditaphalāstvayi || 10-29
kevalam smaraNenaiva punAsi puruSham yataH|
anena vR^ittayaH sheShA niveditaphalAstvayi || 10-29
kevalam smaraNena eva punAsi puruSham yataH anena vR^ittayaH sheShAH nivedita phalAH tvayi
10-29. smaraNena= by remembering you - by chanting etc; kevalam= fully; puruSham punAsi yataH= an individual, [you are] purifying, whereof; anena eva= by that remembrance, only; tvayi = in you; sheShAH vR^ittayaH nivedita phalAH = remaining, actions of men, have their results manifested in you.
When thou wholly purifiest an individual when he just reminisces thee, then what to speak of the remaining actions of that individual in regard to thyself like hallowing or ritualising, or getting a glimpse of thine auspicious form; they all have results manifest in thee... [10-29]
Since we always reminisce about you and even got a glimpse of you now, our prayers also must come true...
उदधेरिव रत्नानि तेजाम्सीव विवस्वतः।
स्तुतिभ्यो व्यतिरिच्यन्ते दूराणि चरितानि ते॥ १०-३०
udadheriva ratnāni tejāmsīva vivasvataḥ।
stutibhyo vyatiricyante dūrāṇi caritāni te || 10-30
udadheriva ratnAni tejAmsIva vivasvataH|
stutibhyo vyatiricyante dUrANi caritAni te || 10-30
udadheH iva ratnAni tejAmsi iva vivasvataH stutibhyaH vyatiricyante dUrANi caritAni te
10-30. udadheH ratnAni iva= of ocean, jewels, as with; vivasvataH tejAmsi iva= sun's, sunrays, as with; dUrANi te caritAni= beyond [comprehension, incomprehensible], your, acts; stutibhyaH vyatiricyante = all the praise, they transcend [beyond numeration, illimitable].
Infinite are thy deeds like oceanic jewels or sunrays, and illimitable are they in the pidgins of all the praise... [10-30]
अनवाप्तमवाप्तव्यम् न ते किञ्चन विद्यते।
लोकानुग्रह एवैको हेतुस्ते जन्मकर्मणोः॥ १०-३१
anavāptamavāptavyam na te kiñcana vidyate।
lokānugraha evaiko hetuste janmakarmaṇoḥ || 10-31
anavAptamavAptavyam na te ki~ncana vidyate|
lokAnugraha evaiko hetuste janmakarmaNoH || 10-31
anavAptam avAptavyam na te ki~ncana vidyate loka anugraha eva ekaH hetuH te janma karmaNoH
10-30. an+avAptam= not, to be possessed; avAptavyam= that which is possessed; te ki~ncana na vidyate= to you, in the least, not, evident; loka anugraha eva ekaH hetuH= people, favouring, only, one, reason; te janma karmaNoH= [hence] your birth [incarnations], actions.
Nothing is there which thou hast not obtainedand hence, nothing whatsoever remains for thee to be obtained. Doing good to the people is the only object of your incarnations and actions. [10-30]
महिमानम् यदुत्कीर्त्य तव सम्ह्रियते वचः।
श्रमेण तदशक्त्या वा न गुणानामियत्तया॥ १०-३२
mahimānam yadutkīrtya tava samhriyate vacaḥ।
śrameṇa tadaśaktyā vā na guṇānāmiyattayā || 10-32
mahimAnam yadutkIrtya tava samhriyate vacaH|
shrameNa tadashaktyA vA na guNAnAmiyattayA || 10-32
mahimAnam yat utkIrtya tava samhriyate vacaH shrameNa tat ashaktyA vA na guNAnAm iyattayA
10-31. tava mahimAnam utkIrtya = your, greatness, having extolled; vacaH samhriyate= [our] words, are being curtailed; iti yat= that which [curtailment] is there; tat= that [that way of curtailing]; shrameNa = [only due to] exhaustion; or; ashaktyA vA= our incapability - to know all your qualities; guNAnAm iyattayA na= your attributes,this much or that much, not.
Now our praise is being pruned after having proclaimed thy greatness either through our exhaustion or our inability to further the extolling, but not on account of any limitation of thy great qualities..." [10-31]
yato vAcho nivartante aprApya manasA saha - mind and speech regress after some effort in knowing the Supreme Being, for he is beyond them.
इति प्रसादयामासुस्ते सुरास्तमधोक्षजम्।
भूतार्थव्याहृतिः सा हि न स्तुतिः परमेष्ठिनः॥ १०-३३
iti prasādayāmāsuste surāstamadhokṣajam।
bhūtārthavyāhṛtiḥ sā hi na stutiḥ parameṣṭhinaḥ || 10-33
iti prasAdayAmAsuste surAstamadhokShajam|
bhUtArthavyAhR^itiH sA hi na stutiH parameShThinaH || 10-33
iti prasAdayAmAsuH te surAH tam adhokShajam bhUta artha vyAhR^itiH sA hi na stutiH parameShThinaH
10-33. iti = in this way on extolling; te surAH= those, gods; tam adhokShajam prasAdayAmAsuH = him,Vishnu, they appeased; hi= why because; parameShThinaH= for that Lord of Lords; sA= those praises; bhUta artha vyAhR^itiH= correct statement of facts; stutiH na= but, flattery, it is not.
In this manner did the gods propitiate him who is beyond the comprehension of senses. That which they spoke was verily a correct statement of facts and no flattery of Vishnu. [10-33]
atho aksha ja = atho bhUtam aklsha+jam yasmin saH = aksha= eyes etc sensory organs; jam = that which knowledge caused by them - that knowledge is inferior to know him; parame sthAne tiShTati iti parameShThi.
तस्मै कुशलसम्प्रश्नव्यञ्जितप्रीतये सुराः।
tasmai kuśalasampraśnavyañjitaprītaye surāḥ।
bhayamapralayodvelādācakhyurnairṛtodadheḥ || 10-34
tasmai kushalasamprashnavya~njitaprItaye surAH|
bhayamapralayodvelAdAcakhyurnairR^itodadheH || 10-34
tasmai kushala samprashna vya~njita prItaye surAH bhayam apralaya udvelAt AcakhyuH nairR^ita udadheH
10-34 surAH= gods; kushala samprashna vya~njita prItaye= by his enquiry about their wellbeing, indicated, his kind feeling; tasmai= to him; a+pralaya udvelAt = during non-destructive time, that which is overflowing seashore; nairR^ita udadheH= about such demon, called ocean; bhayam AcakhyuH = fear, they reported.
To him whose kindly feelings towards gods were manifested by his enquiry about gods' welfare did the gods narrate the danger from the ocean called demon Ravana that had overflowed its shore at a time other than that of final destruction. [10-34]
स्वरेणोवाच भगवान् परिभूतार्णवध्वनिः॥ १०-३५
svareṇovāca bhagavān paribhūtārṇavadhvaniḥ || 10-35
svareNovAca bhagavAn paribhUtArNavadhvaniH || 10-35
atha velA samAsanna shaila-randhra anuvAdinA svareNa uvAca bhagavAn paribhUta arNava dhvaniH
10-35. atha= then; velA samAsanna shaila-randhra anuvAdinA= on seashore [of Milky Ocean], available, mountain, hole [cave], [his voice] emulating [an echo from cave]; svareNa= with such a voice; paribhUta arNava dhvaniH= drowning, ocean's, sound; bhagavAn uvAca= god, said.
Then subduing the oceanic roar Vishnu said this to gods with a voice booming like an echo from cave. [10-35]
पुराणस्य कवेस्तस्य वर्णस्थानसमीरिता।
बभूव कृतसम्स्कारा चरितार्थैव भारती॥ १०-३६
purāṇasya kavestasya varṇasthānasamīritā।
babhūva kṛtasamskārā caritārthaiva bhāratī || 10-36
purANasya kavestasya varNasthAnasamIritA|
babhUva kR^itasamskArA caritArthaiva bhAratI || 10-36
purANasya kaveH tasya varNa-sthAna-samIritA babhUva kR^ita samskArA caritArthA eva bhAratI
10-36. purANasya kaveH= primeval, omniscient one; tasya= his speech; varNa-sthAna-samIritA= with good phonetics, well said; kR^ita samskArA= highly polished speech; bhAratI caritArthA babhUva eva= goddess of speech - vANi, accomplished, she became, only.
With the polished and phonetically refined speech of that Primeval Omniscient, Vishnu, the object of the presiding deity of speech, namely vANi, became accomplished. [10-36]
बभौ सदशनज्योत्स्ना सा विभोर्वदनोद्गता।
निर्यातशेषा चरणाद्गङ्गेवोर्ध्वप्रवर्तिनी॥ १०-३७
babhau sadaśanajyotsnā sā vibhorvadanodgatā।
niryātaśeṣā caraṇādgaṅgevordhvapravartinī || 10-37
babhau sadashanajyotsnA sA vibhorvadanodgatA|
niryAtasheShA caraNAdga~NgevordhvapravartinI || 10-37
babhau sa-dashana-jyotsnA sA vibhoH vadana udgatA niryAta sheShA caraNAt ga~Nga iva urdhva pravartinI
10-37. vibhoH vadana udgatA= lord's, from face, the speech that came out; sa-dashana-jyotsnA= mingling with his, teeth's, lustre; sA= that deity of speech called bhAratI - vANi; caraNAt niryAta sheShA= from foot, while coming out, remaining [Ganga water]; urdhva pravartinI ga~Nga iva= upward, surging, Ganga, as with; babhau = shone forth.
Once River Ganga flowed from the big toe of Vishnu to earth, commingled with a variety of sparkling fauna aqua, and that was a spectacle and an old account; now that Vishnu started to speak, the gods are astonished whether this is the deity of speech commingled with her whitely white form coming out of his mouth, or the upsurge of remaining waters of that River Ganga from his mouth commingled with the sparkle of his teeth. [10-37]
जाने वो रक्षसाक्रान्तावनुभावपराक्रमौ।
अङ्गिनाम् तमसेवोभौ गुणौ प्रथममध्यमौ॥ १०-३८
jāne vo rakṣasākrāntāvanubhāvaparākramau।
aṅginām tamasevobhau guṇau prathamamadhyamau || 10-38
jAne vo rakShasAkrAntAvanubhAvaparAkramau|
a~NginAm tamasevobhau guNau prathamamadhyamau || 10-38
jAne vaH rakShasA AkrAntau anubhAva parAkramau a~NginAm tamasA iva ubhau guNau prathama madhyamau
10-38. hè devAH= oh, ye gods; vaH anubhAva parAkramau= your, dignity, valour; a~NginAm= of bodied ones - people; prathama madhyamau= first, second - in the triad of three guNA-s; ubhau guNau= both qualities - sattva, rajas guNA-s; tamasA iva= by tamoguNa, as with; rakShasA= by Ravana; AkrAntau= subdued; jAne= I know it.
"I am aware that Ravana had suppressed your dignity and valour, just as the third guNa, namely tamas, overpowers the first and middle qualities of men, viz., sattva and rajo guNA-s... [10-38]
विदितम् तप्यमानम् च तेन मे भुवनत्रयम्।
अकामोपनतेनेव साधोर्हृदयमेनसा॥ १०-३९
viditam tapyamānam ca tena me bhuvanatrayam।
akāmopanateneva sādhorhṛdayamenasā || 10-39
viditam tapyamAnam ca tena me bhuvana trayam akAma upanatena iva sAdhoH hR^idayam enasA
10-39. [kim ca= further]; a+kAma upanatena enasA = [sin] committed unconsciously, [thereby] that which sin befallen on [a good man]; sAdhoH hR^idayam iva= good man's, heart, as with; tena tapyamAnam= by him, Ravana, being tormented; bhuvana trayam ca= triad of worlds, as well; me viditam = to me, known.
"I know Ravana is tormenting the triad of worlds, just as an unconsciously committed sin torments the heart of a good man... [10-39]
कार्येषु चैककार्यत्वादभ्यर्थ्योऽस्मि न वज्रिणा।
स्वयमेव हि वातोऽग्नेः सारथ्यम् प्रतिपद्यते॥ १०-४०
kāryeṣu caikakāryatvādabhyarthyo'smi na vajriṇā।
svayameva hi vāto'gneḥ sārathyam pratipadyate || 10-40
kAryeShu caikakAryatvAdabhyarthyo.asmi na vajriNA|
svayameva hi vAto.agneH sArathyam pratipadyate || 10-40
kAryeShu ca eka kAryatvAt abhyarthyaH asmi na vajriNA svayameva hi vAtaH agneH sArathyam pratipadyate
10-40. [kim ca= further]; eka kAryatvAt= on account of the position or condition of having one and the same work; hence having the same goal; kAryeShu= in such affairs; vajriNA abhyarthyaH na asmi= by Indra, one who is to be requested, not, I am - I need not requested specifically, because we both aim at eliminating Ravana; hi= why because; vAtaH svayameva agneH sArathyam pratipadyate= wind, voluntarily, fire's, steersman-ship, attains.
"Because we have the same goal to achieve, namely elimination Ravana, Indra need not request me afresh in these affairs, for the wind irresistibly becomes the steersman of the fire. [10-40]
स्वासिधारापरिहृतः कामम् चक्रस्य तेन मे।
स्थापितो दशमो मूर्धा लभ्याम्श इव रक्षसा॥ १०-४१
svāsidhārāparihṛtaḥ kāmam cakrasya tena me।
sthāpito daśamo mūrdhā labhyāmśa iva rakṣasā || 10-41
svAsidhArAparihR^itaH kAmam cakrasya tena me|
sthApito dashamo mUrdhA labhyAmsha iva rakShasA || 10-41
sva asi-dhArA parihR^itaH kAmam cakrasya tena me sthApitaH dashamaH mUrdhA labhya amsha iva rakShasA
10-40. sva asi-dhArA parihR^itaH= by his own [by Ravana's own sword], sword's, sharp edge, left off; dashamaH mUrdhA= his tenth head; kAmam= perhaps; me cakrasya= to my, disc; labhya amsha iva= obtainable, part, as with; tena rakShasA sthApitaH= by that, rAkshasa, still being held in its place [on his shoulders].
Ravana might have left his tenth head without putting it to blade, perhaps as an appropriate tribute for my disc... [10-40]
Yea, in ages past, / When nine were smitten with his own great sword, / The Giant's tenth head stood, a destined prey / For my resistless Quoit.
C. f: KMJ's notes for details.
स्रष्टुर्वरातिसर्गात्तु मया तस्य दुरात्मनः।
अत्यारूढम् रिपोः सोढम् चन्दनेनेव भोगिनः॥ १०-४२
sraṣṭurvarātisargāttu mayā tasya durātmanaḥ।
atyārūḍham ripoḥ soḍham candaneneva bhoginaḥ || 10-42
sraShTurvarAtisargAttu mayA tasya durAtmanaH|
atyArUDham ripoH soDham candaneneva bhoginaH || 10-42
sraShTuH vara atisargAt tu mayA tasya durAtmanaH atyArUDham ripoH soDham candanena iva bhoginaH
10-41. tu [kim tu= but]; sraShTuH vara atisargAt= creator's, boo0n, ruling high; mayA= by me; tasya durAtmanaH ripoH atyArUDham= his, evil-minded, enemy's, ascendant power; bhoginaH atyArUDham= a serpent's, high-handed [behaviour]; candanena iva= by a sandalwood tree, as with; soDham= tolerated [by me].
I had to tolerate the excesses of that evil-minded enemy of gods owing to the preponderance of Creator Brahma's boon to him, as with a sandalwood tree tolerating a serpent when it becomes that tree's sequestrator... [10-41]
Long since his fate / Had overta'en him, but for Brahma's boon: / His insolence I suffered, as a tree / Long bears insulting serpents.
धातारम् तपसा प्रीतम् ययाचे स हि राक्षसः।
दैवात्सर्गादवध्यत्वम् मर्त्येष्वास्थापराङ्मुखः॥ १०-४३
dhātāram tapasā prītam yayāce sa hi rākṣasaḥ।
daivātsargādavadhyatvam martyeṣvāsthāparāṅmukhaḥ || 10-43
dhAtAram tapasA prItam yayAce sa hi rAkShasaH|
daivAtsargAdavadhyatvam martyeShvAsthAparA~NmukhaH || 10-43
dhAtAram tapasA prItam yayAce sa hi rAkShasaH daivAt sargAt avadhyatvam martyeShu AsthA parA~NmukhaH
10-43. saH rAkShasaH= that, rAkshasa; tapasA prItam dhAtAram= by ascesis, one who is satisfied, from such a Brahma; martyeShu AsthA parA~NmukhaH= of mortals, regard, turned away - regardless of mortals; daivAt sargAt a+vadhyatvam= from [all kinds of] gods -except humans; yayAce hi = he asked for, indeed.
When he had propitiated the Creator that demon sought immunity of death only from divine beings, like garuDa, gandharva, kinnara, kimpurusha, siddha, sAdhya, vidyAdhara, yakshA-s, becoming improvident of mortals.... [10- 43]
सोऽहम् दाशरथिर्भूत्वा रणभूमेर्बलिक्षमम्।
करिष्यामि शरैस्तीक्ष्णैस्तच्छिरःकमलोच्चयम्॥ १०-४४
so'ham dāśarathirbhūtvā raṇabhūmerbalikṣamam।
kariṣyāmi śaraistīkṣṇaistacchiraḥkamaloccayam || 10-44
so.aham dAsharathirbhUtvA raNabhUmerbalikShamam|
kariShyAmi sharaistIkShNaistacChiraHkamaloccayam || 10-44
saH aham dAsharathiH bhUtvA raNabhUmeH bali kShamam kariShyAmi sharaiH tIkShNaiH tat shiraH kamala uccayam
10-44. saH aham= such as I am - who tolerated this far - I will; dAsharathiH bhUtvA= Dasharatha's son, on becoming; tIkShNaiH sharaiH= with sharp, arrows; tat shiraH kamala uccayam= those, heads [of Ravana], called lotuses, bunch of; raNabhUmeH bali-kShamam kariShyAmi= to battlefield, a fit oblation, I will make.
Such as I am I on taking birth as the son of Dasharatha vellicate the bunch of his heads with my sharp arrows and make them as fit offertories to raNa-bhUmi-devatA, the sacred battlefield, as with a bunch of lotuses... [10-44]
अचिराद्यज्वभिर्भागम् कल्पितम् विधिवत्पुनः।
मायाविभिरनालीढमादास्यध्वे निशाचरैः॥ १०-४५
acirādyajvabhirbhāgam kalpitam vidhivatpunaḥ।
māyāvibhiranālīḍhamādāsyadhve niśācaraiḥ || 10-45
acirAdyajvabhirbhAgam kalpitam vidhivatpunaH|
mAyAvibhiranAlIDhamAdAsyadhve nishAcaraiH || 10-45
acirAt yajvabhiH bhAgam kalpitam vidhivat punaH mAyAvibhiH anAlIDham AdAsyadhve nishAcaraiH
10-45. hè devAH= oh, gods; yajvabhiH vidhivat kalpitam [havir] bhAgam= by the performers of Vedic ritual, scripturally, arranged, [ritual] dole; mAyAvibhiH nishAcaraiH= by tricksters, nightwalkers; an+AlIDham= not, licked - not hijacking it; acirAt punaH AdAsyadhve = not belatedly, again, you will receive.
Before long you will again receive your share of oblations that the performers of Vedic rituals duteously offer, without its being hijacked by deceitful nightwalkers... [10-45]
वैमानिकाः पुण्यकृतस्त्यजन्तु मरुताम् पथि।
पुष्पकालोकसम्क्षोभम् मेघावरणतत्पराः॥ १०-४६
vaimānikāḥ puṇyakṛtastyajantu marutām pathi।
puṣpakālokasamkṣobham meghāvaraṇatatparāḥ || 10-46
vaimAnikAH puNyakR^itastyajantu marutAm pathi|
puShpakAlokasamkShobham meghAvaraNatatparAH || 10-46
vaimAnikAH puNya-kR^itaH tyajantu marutAm pathi puShpaka Aloka samkShobham megha AvaraNa tatparAH
10-46. marutAm pathi vaimAnikAH= in ethereal, paths, those travelling in aircrafts; megha AvaraNa tatparAH= in clouds, who conceal themselves and their aircrafts, those eager to do so - at the sight of Ravana's aircraft puShpaka; puNya-kR^itaH= such meritorious souls; puShpaka Aloka samkShobham= puShpaka aircraft, on seeing, uneasiness; tyajantu = may discard now.
Let the meritorious souls moving about in aerial cars on the celestial airways, restive to conceal themselves and their aircrafts in the clouds at the sight of Ravana's aircraft, namely pushpaka, may now give up that dread... [10-46]
मोक्ष्यध्वे स्वर्गबन्दीनाम् वेणीबन्धनदूषितान्।
mokṣyadhve svargabandīnām veṇībandhanadūṣitān।
śāpayantritapaulastyabalātkārakacagrahaiḥ || 10-47
mokShyadhve svargabandInAm veNIbandhanadUShitAn|
shApayantritapaulastyabalAtkArakacagrahaiH || 10-47
mokShyadhve svarga bandInAm veNI bandhan adUShitAn shApa yantrita paulastya balAtkAra kaca grahaiH
10-47. shApa yantrita paulastya= by curse, controlled, Ravana's; balAtkAra kaca grahaiH= forcible, hair-bun, grasping - forcible molestation; a+dUShitAn= not, despoiled - chastity of hair-buns; svarga bandInAm veNI bandhan= celestial, captives', hair-buns; mokShyadhve = you will be able to set right.
When Ravana captivated celestial damsels dragging them by their hair, their hair was entangled and enmeshed, yet nalakkUbara's imprecation on Ravana protected it from being maligned; now, you gods can spruce up those undefiled braids of hair during your romantic spells..." [10-47]
रावणावग्रहक्लान्तमिति वागमृतेन सः।
अभिवृष्य मरुत्सस्यम् कृष्णमेघस्तिरोदधे॥ १०-४८
rāvaṇāvagrahaklāntamiti vāgamṛtena saḥ।
abhivṛṣya marutsasyam kṛṣṇameghastirodadhe || 10-48
rAvaNAvagrahaklAntamiti vAgamR^itena saH|
abhivR^iShya marutsasyam kR^iShNameghastirodadhe || 10-48
rAvaNa avagraha klAntam iti vAk amR^itena saH abhivR^iShya marut-sasyam kR^iShNa meghaH tirodadhe
10-48. saH kR^iShNa meghaH= he, who is like a dark cloud - Vishnu; rAvaNa avagraha klAntam= by Ravana, called drought, dried up; marut-sasyam= gods, called crop; iti= in this way; vAk amR^itena abhivR^iShya= by speech, called nectar, having showered; tirodadhe= returned - disappeared.
On showering ambrosian water called his speech on the desiccating crop called gods owing to the drought called Ravana, he that black cloud called Vishnu disappeared.
sAvayava rUpaka alnkAram.
पुरहूतप्रभृतयः सुरकार्योद्यतम् सुराः।
अम्शैरनुययुर्विष्णुम् पुष्पैर्वायुमिव द्रुमाः॥ १०-४९
purahūtaprabhṛtayaḥ surakāryodyatam surāḥ।
amśairanuyayurviṣṇum puṣpairvāyumiva drumāḥ || 10-49
purahUtaprabhR^itayaH surakAryodyatam surAH|
amshairanuyayurviShNum puShpairvAyumiva drumAH || 10-49
purahUta prabhR^itayaH sura kArya udyatam surAH amshaiH anuyayuH viShNum puShpaiH vAyum iva drumAH
10-49. purahUta prabhR^itayaH surAH= Indra, et al, gods; sura kArya udyatam= for gods, mission, rose up - he who readied himself - Vishnu; viShNum amshaiH anuyayuH= after Vishnu, with their constituents, [gods] followed; drumAH puShpaiH vAyum iva= trees, with their flowers, [following] wind, as with.
When Vishnu embarked on his human incarnation to fulfil the mission of gods, Indra and other gods too followed the suit by making a portion of their anima to incarnate on earth in the cast of vAnarA-s, to render help to Vishnu's incarnation, as static trees deemed to be following mobile wind just with the motile flagrancy of their flowers. [10-49]
अथ तस्य विशाम्पत्युरन्ते कामस्य कर्मणः।
पुरुषः प्रबभूवाग्नेर्विस्मयेन सहर्त्विजाम्॥ १०-५०
atha tasya viśāmpatyurante kāmasya karmaṇaḥ।
puruṣaḥ prababhūvāgnervismayena sahartvijām || 10-50
atha tasya vishAmpatyurante kAmasya karmaNaH|
puruShaH prababhUvAgnervismayena sahartvijAm || 10-50
atha tasya vishAmpatyuH ante kAmasya karmaNaH puruShaH prababhUva agneH vismayena saha R^tvijAm
10-50. atha= then; tasya vishAmpatyuH= that, king's; kAmasya karmaNaH ante= wishful, act, at the end of - at the end of putra kAmeSTi ritual; R^tvijAm vismayena saha= of priests, astonishment, along with; agneH puruShaH prababhUva = from ritual-fire, a ritual-man, emerged.
Then, at the conclusion of Vedic ritual of Dasharatha performed for a desired object, there ar0se a Divine Being from out of the Ritual-fire, along with the wonderment of the priests conducting that ritual. [10-50]
sahokti alankAra: both the Divine Being and wonderment of priests took birth at a single time.
हेमपात्रगतम् दोर्भ्यामादधानः पयश्चरुम्।
अनुप्रवेशादाद्यस्य पुम्सस्तेनापि दुर्वहम्॥ १०-५१
hemapātragatam dorbhyāmādadhānaḥ payaścarum।
anupraveśādādyasya pumsastenāpi durvaham || 10-51
hemapAtragatam dorbhyAmAdadhAnaH payashcarum|
anupraveshAdAdyasya pumsastenApi durvaham || 10-51
hema pAtra gatam dorbhyAm AdadhAnaH payaH-carum anupraveshAt Adyasya pumsaH tenApi durvaham
10=-51. Adyasya pumsaH anupraveshAt= Primeval Being,on entering into it; tenApi= though he has come from ritual-fire, hence divine, even by such a divine being; dur+vaham= impossible to carry; hema pAtra gatam payaH-carum= golden, vessel, put in, dessert; dorbhyAm AdadhAnaH = in both palms, he brought it.
That Divine Being, yaj~na puruSha, carried a small golden vessel in both of his hands in which there is a Divine dessert, and which by its weight has become not an easily portable vessel, for the Primeval Being has entered into that dessert. [10-51]
प्राजापत्योपनीतम् तदन्नम् प्रत्यग्रहीन्नृपः।
वृषेव पयसाम् सारमाविष्कृतमुदन्वता॥ १०-५२
prājāpatyopanītam tadannam pratyagrahīnnṛpaḥ।
vṛṣeva payasām sāramāviṣkṛtamudanvatā || 10-52
prAjApatyopanItam tadannam pratyagrahInnR^ipaH|
vR^iSheva payasAm sAramAviShkR^itamudanvatA || 10-52
prAjApatya upanItam tat annam pratyagrahIt nR^ipaH vR^iShA iva payasAm sAram AviShkR^itam udanvatA
10-52. nR^ipaH= king Dasharatha; prAjApatya upanItam= a divine person belonging Brahma, brought by him; tat annam= that, food; udanvatA AviShkR^itam payasAm sAram= by ocean, brought, milk's, essence - as with ambrosia brought by the Lord of Milk Ocean; vR^iShA iva= Indra, as with; pratyagrahIt = [king] received.
King Dasharatha gladly received that dessert presented to him by that Ritual Being as with Indra who gleefully received amRita when Milk Ocean presented it after churning the ocean. [10-52]
अनेन कथिता राज्ञो गुणास्तस्यान्यदुर्लभाः।
प्रसूतिम् चकमे तस्मिम्स्त्रैलोक्यप्रभवोऽपि यत्॥ १०-५३
anena kathitā rājño guṇāstasyānyadurlabhāḥ।
prasūtim cakame tasmimstrailokyaprabhavo'pi yat || 10-53
anena kathitA rAdnyo guNAstasyAnyadurlabhAH|
prasUtim cakame tasmimstrailokyaprabhavo.api yat || 10-53
anena kathitA rAj~nyo guNAH tasya anya durlabhAH prasUtim cakame tasmin strailokya prabhavaH api yat
10-53. tasya anya durlabhAH guNAH= his [Dasharatha's], to others, impossible, attributes; anena kathitA= by this, are said - by giving dessert to Dasharatha, his greatness is said; yat= by which reason; trailokya prabhavaH api= for triad of worlds, source, even he - Vishnu; tasmin rAj~nyo prasUtim cakame= from that king, to take birth, wished to.
Even He who was the source of the triad of worlds, that Vishnu desired take birth from that king Dasharatha, by which the sublimity of that king, unattainable by any other king, has been declared. [10-53]
स तेजो वैष्णवम् पत्न्योर्विभेजे चरुसम्ज्ञितम्।
द्यावापृथिव्योः प्रत्यग्रमहर्पतिरिवातपम्॥ १०-५४
sa tejo vaiṣṇavam patnyorvibheje carusamjñitam।
dyāvāpṛthivyoḥ pratyagramaharpatirivātapam || 10-54
sa tejo vaiShNavam patnyorvibheje carusamdnyitam|
dyAvApR^ithivyoH pratyagramaharpatirivAtapam || 10-54
saH tejaH vaiShNavam patnyoH vibheje caru samj~nyitam dyAvA pR^ithivyoH pratyagram aharpatiH iva Atapam
10-54. saH= he that Dasharatha; caru samj~nyitam vaiShNavam tejaH = dessert, named, Vishnu's, resplendence; patnyoH = to two wives - to Kausalya and Kaikeyi; dyAvA pR^ithivyoH= to heaven, to earth; aharpatiH= day's lord - Sun; pratyagram Atapam iva= morning time, sunshine, as with; vibheje= apportioned.
That king portioned out the resplendence of Vishnu designated as Divine dessert between his two wives, namely Kausalya and Kaikeyi, just as the lord of day, the Sun, divides his morning time sunshine between heaven and earth. [10-54]
According to kAlidAsa, Dasharatha distributed the heavenly pudding between his two privileged wives Kausalya and Kaikeyi, who, in their turn gave portions out of their shares to their co-wife Sumitra who, they knew, was Dasharatha's beloved. - C.f. KMJ's notes.
अर्चिता तस्य कौसल्या प्रिया केकयवम्शजा।
अतः सम्भाविताम् ताभ्याम् सुमित्रामैच्छदीश्वरः॥ १०-५५
arcitā tasya kausalyā priyā kekayavamśajā।
ataḥ sambhāvitām tābhyām sumitrāmaicchadīśvaraḥ || 10-55
arcitA tasya kausalyA priyA kekaya vamshajA ataH sambhAvitAm tAbhyAm sumitrAma aicChat IshvaraH
10-55. tasya kausalyA arcitA= to him, Kausalya, is an honourable one; kekaya vamshajA priyA = Kekaya, one from that dynasty, is beloved one; ataH= thereby; IshvaraH= that lord; sumitrAm tAbhyAm sambhAvitAm aicChat = Sumitra, by them [ byKausalya and Kaikeyi], to be honoured, he wished.
Kausalya was his honoured queen; the one born in the dynasty of Kekaya, namely queen Kaikeyi, was his beloved; and hence he wished that his third wife Sumitra should be honoured by both those queens, namely Kausalya and Kaikeyi. [10-55]
ते बहुज्ञस्य चित्तज्ञे पत्नौ पत्युर्महीक्षितः।
चरोरर्धार्धभागाभ्याम् तामयोजयतामुभे॥ १०-५६
te bahujñasya cittajñe patnau patyurmahīkṣitaḥ।
carorardhārdhabhāgābhyām tāmayojayatāmubhe || 10-56
te bahuj~nyasya citta-j~nye patnau patyuH mahIkShitaH caroH ardha-ardha bhAgAbhyAm tAm ayojayatAm ubhe
10-56. bahuj~nyasya= well versed one; mahIkShitaH= king; patyuH= husband; citta-j~nye= knowing the mind of such a husband; te ubhe patnau = those, two, wives - Kausalya and Kaikeyi; caroH ardha ardha bhAgAbhyAm= dessert's, with a portion of it - a portion from Kausalya and a portion from Kaikeyi - not half and half in literals sense; tAm ayojayatAm= her Sumitra, joined in - the progenitive process.
Both his offciant wives, Kausalya and Kaikeyi, well aware of the mind of Dasharatha, who is well versed, who was their lord and the ruler of the world, endowed Sumitra with a portion from each of their half share of the dessert. [10-56]
सा हि प्रणयवत्यासीत्सपत्न्योरुभयोरपि।
भ्रमरी वारणस्येव मदनिस्यन्दरेखयोः॥ १०-५७
sā hi praṇayavatyāsītsapatnyorubhayorapi।
bhramarī vāraṇasyeva madanisyandarekhayoḥ || 10-57
sA hi praNayavatyAsItsapatnyorubhayorapi|
bhramarI vAraNasyeva madanisyandarekhayoH || 10-57
sA hi praNayavatI AsIt sapatnyoH ubhayoH api bhramarI vAraNasya iva mada nisyanda rekhayoH
10-57. sA api= she, even - Sumitra; ubhayoH sapatnyoH api= in two of them, co-wives, even; bhramarI= a female-honeybee; vAraNasya mada nisyanda rekhayoH iva= elephant's, ichor, streams, lines of, as with; praNayavatI AsIt hi = attached, she became, indeed.
Sumitra too was equally attached to both of her co-wives like a female-bee loving the two streaks of ichor flowing on both the temples of elephant. [10-57]
ताभिर्गर्भः प्रजाभूत्यै दध्रे देवाम्शसम्भवः।
सौरीभिरिव नाडीभिरमृताख्याभिरम्मयः॥ १०-५८
tābhirgarbhaḥ prajābhūtyai dadhre devāmśasambhavaḥ।
saurībhiriva nāḍībhiramṛtākhyābhirammayaḥ || 10-58
tAbhirgarbhaH prajAbhUtyai dadhre devAmshasambhavaH |
saurIbhiriva nADIbhiramR^itAkhyAbhirammayaH || 10-58
tAbhiH garbhaH prajAbhUtyai dadhre deva amsha sambhavaH saurIbhiH iva nADIbhiH amR^itAkhyAbhiH ammayaH [ap+mahaH]
10-58. tAbhiH= by those three queens; prajAbhUtyai= for the welfare of the people; deva amsha sambhavaH garbhaH= developed from the portion of the Supreme Being, foetus; saurIbhiH= of solar [rays] amR^itAkhyAbhiH= amRita named; nADIbhiH= literally a pipe or a tubular stalk, from which by analogy, here it is 'a ray'.- Sunrays; ammayaH = ap+mayaH= watery; garbha= foetus; iva= as with; dadhre = they have borne.
A foetus developed from the portion of the Supreme Being is carried in the wombs of those three queens for the welfare of the people as embryonic water styled amRita is borne by four hundred sunrays. [10-58]
Out of innumerable sunrays, some four hundred rays called amRita bear the embryoid-rain only to shower rains after their development.
अन्तर्गतफलारम्भाः सस्यानामिव सम्पदः॥ १०-५९
antargataphalārambhāḥ sasyānāmiva sampadaḥ || 10-59
antargataphalArambhAH sasyAnAmiva sampadaH || 10-59
samam Apanna sattvAH tAH rejuH [babhU] ApANDuratviShaH antargata phala ArambhAH sasyAnAm iva sampadaH
10-59. samam= in one time; Apanna sattvAH= bechanced, another being - became pregnant; tAH= those queens; A+pANDuratviShaH= a little white coloured - with paled complexions; antargata phala ArambhAH= inside, fruits, [when] commenced - when fruits commenced to grow inside the crop; sasyAnAm sampadaH iva= crops, exuberance, as with; rejuH [babhU]= those queens shone forth.
The queens who had conceived at one and the same time and whoso complexion had, in consequence, became pale, shone like an exuberant field of grain in whose stalks lurked the formation of grain. [10-59]
From this stanza 60 to the end of stanza 63 various dreams of the queens are given.
गुप्तम् ददृशुरात्मानम् सर्वाः स्वप्नेषु वामनैः।
guptam dadṛśurātmānam sarvāḥ svapneṣu vāmanaiḥ।
jalajāsikadāśārṅgacakralāñchitamūrtibhiḥ || 10-60
guptam dadR^ishurAtmAnam sarvAH svapneShu vAmanaiH|
jalajAsikadAshAr~NgacakralA~nChitamUrtibhiH || 10-60
guptam dadR^ishuH AtmAnam sarvAH svapneShu vAmanaiH jalaja Asi gadA shAr~Nga cakra lA~nChita mUrtibhiH
10-60. sarvAH svapneShu= all the queens, in their dreams; jalaja Asi gadA shAr~Nga cakra lA~nChita mUrtibhiH= lotus, sword, mace, bow, disc, adorned with, a form; vAmanaiH= by small boys; guptam AtmAnam dadR^ishuH = protected, themselves, they [the queens] saw.
All of the queens respectively saw in their dreams that they were being protected by young lads adorning conch, sword, mace, bow and a disc in their hands. [10-60]
Because the queens have partaken in the Vaishnava dessert they dreamt of Vishnu's arrival in their wombs.
हेमपक्षप्रभाजालम् गगने च वितन्वता।
उह्यन्ते स्म सुपर्णेन वेगाकृष्टपयोमुचा॥ १०-६१
hemapakṣaprabhājālam gagane ca vitanvatā।
uhyante sma suparṇena vegākṛṣṭapayomucā || 10-61
hemapakShaprabhAjAlam gagane ca vitanvatA|
uhyante sma suparNena vegAkR^iShTapayomucA || 10-61
hema pakSha prabhA AjAlam gagane ca vitanvatA uhyante sma suparNena vega AkR^iShTa payo-mucA
10-64. ca = [kimca]= further; hema pakSha prabhA AjAlam vitanvatA= golden, wings, resplendence, multitudinous, by spreading out; vega AkR^iShTa payo-mucA= by his speed, hauled, water-releasers - clouds; suparNena= by such garuDa; gagane uhyante sma= on sky, being carried, [thus the queens] dreamt.
Further the queens dreamt that garuDa, the Divine Eagle, shedding multitudinous resplendence of his golden wings and strewing away thick masses of rainclouds owing to his speed, is carrying them aloft on skyway. [10-64]
बिभ्रत्या कौस्तुभन्यासम् स्तनान्तरविलम्बितम्।
पर्युपास्यन्त लक्ष्म्या च पद्मव्यजनहस्तया॥ १०-६२
bibhratyā kaustubhanyāsam stanāntaravilambitam।
paryupāsyanta lakṣmyā ca padmavyajanahastayā || 10-62
bibhratyA kaustubhanyAsam stanAntaravilambitam|
paryupAsyanta lakShmyA ca padmavyajanahastayA || 10-62
bibhratyA kaustubha nyAsam stanA-Antara vilambitam paryupAsyanta lakShmyA ca padma vyajana hastayA
10-62. ca= further they dreamt; stanA-Antara vilambitam = between breasts, that which is dangled; kaustubha nyAsam bibhratyA = kausthubha necklace, kept with her as a trust, she who is wearing it - Lakshmi; padma vyajana hastayA= lotus, as fan, bearing in hand; lakShmyA= by such a goddess Lakshmi; paryupAsyanta = [the queens are being] attended upon.
Further they dreamt that their daughter-in-law goddess Lakshmi wearing the Kaustubha jewel pendant on her cleavage is now fanning them with her handheld lotus, as is usual with any daughter-in-law. [10-62]
While coming to earth Vishnu kept the Kaustubha jewel with Lakshmi as a trust, hence she is wearing it now.
कृताभिषेकैर्दिव्यायाम् त्रिस्रोतसि च सप्तभिः।
ब्रह्मर्षिभिः परम् ब्रह्म गृणद्भिरुपतस्थिरे॥ १०-६३
kṛtābhiṣekairdivyāyām trisrotasi ca saptabhiḥ।
brahmarṣibhiḥ param brahma gṛṇadbhirupatasthire || 10-63
kR^itAbhiShekairdivyAyAm trisrotasi ca saptabhiH|
brahmarShibhiH param brahma gR^iNadbhirupatasthire || 10-63
kR^ita abhiShekaiH divyAyAm tri-srotasi ca saptabhiH brahma R^iShibhiH param brahma gR^iNadbhiH upatasthire
10-63. ca = kimca= further; divyAyAm tri-srotasi= divine, tri-streamed river - in Ganga; kR^ita abhiShekaiH= those who took bath; param brahma= [here] Vedic sayings - about nirguNa brahma; gR^iNadbhiH= those who are reciting; saptabhiH brahma R^iShibhiH upatasthire= by seven, Brahma sages, [the queens are] attended.
Further they dreamt that they were worshipped by the seven Brahma-sages who on taking bath in the heavenly tri-streamed river Ganga will start chanting the Vedantic hymns that quest after the Ultimate Being. [10-63]
ताभ्यस्तथाविधान्स्वप्नाञ्छ्रुत्वा प्रीतो हि पार्थिवः।
मेने परार्ध्यमात्मानम् गुरुत्वेन जगद्गुरोः॥ १०-६४
tābhyastathāvidhānsvapnāñchrutvā prīto hi pārthivaḥ।
mene parārdhyamātmānam gurutvena jagadguroḥ || 10-64
tAbhyastathAvidhAnsvapnA~nChrutvA prIto hi pArthivaH|
mene parArdhyamAtmAnam gurutvena jagadguroH || 10-64
tAbhyaH tathAvidhAn svapnA~n shrutvA prItaH [san] atha [hi] pArthivaH mene parArdhyam AtmAnam gurutvena jagat-guroH
10-64. atha= then; pArthivaH= the king Dasharatha; tAbhyaH tathAvidhAn svapnA~n shrutvA= from queens, that kind of, dreams, on hearing; prItaH [san]= highly gratified; AtmAnam= for himself; jagat-guroH= of the sire of universe; gurutvena= with fatherhood; parArdhyam= as an unequalled one; mene hi= he thought, indeed.
On learning the above said particulars of their dreams from the queens the king Dasharatha is highly gratified, and considered himself nonpareil on account of his being the sire of the sire of universe. [10-64]
विभक्त आत्मा विभुस्तासामेकः कुक्षिष्वनेकधा।
उवास प्रतिमाचन्द्रः प्रसन्नानामपामिव॥ १०-६५
vibhakta ātmā vibhustāsāmekaḥ kukṣiṣvanekadhā।
uvāsa pratimācandraḥ prasannānāmapāmiva || 10-65
vibhakta AtmA vibhustAsAmekaH kukShiShvanekadhA|
uvAsa pratimAcandraH prasannAnAmapAmiva || 10-65
vibhakta AtmA vibhuH tAsAm ekaH kukShiShu anekadhA uvAsa pratimA candraH prasannAnAm apAm iva
10-65. ekaH vibhuH= single, lord; tAsAm kukShiShu= in their, wombs; prasannAnAm apAm kukShiShu = tranquil, waters, in wombs [of lakes]; pratimA candraH iva= reflected, moon, as with; anekadhA vibhakta AtmA uvAsa = in many [four] ways, diving, himself, he reposed.
The Lord though himself one, having his form diversely distributed, reposed in the wombs of three queens, as one moon manifoldly reflects in manifoldtranquil waters. [10-65]
अथाग्र्यमहिषी राज्ञः प्रसूतिसमये सती।
पुत्रम् तमोऽपहम् लेभे नक्तम् ज्योतिरिवौषधिः॥ १०-६६
athāgryamahiṣī rājñaḥ prasūtisamaye satī।
putram tamo'paham lebhe naktam jyotirivauṣadhiḥ || 10-66
athAgryamahiShI rAdnyaH prasUtisamaye satI|
putram tamo.apaham lebhe naktam jyotirivauShadhiH || 10-66
atha agrya mahiShI rAj~nyaH prasUti samaye satI putram tama apaham lebhe naktam jyotiH iva auShadhiH
10-66. atha= then; rAj~nyaH satI agrya mahiShI= king's, husband-devote lady, eldest queen - Kausalya; prasUti samaye= delivery, at the time of; auShadhiH= certain herb; naktam tama apaham jyotiH iva= in nights, darkness, remover, a light, as with; putram lebhe= son, she got - she delivered.
Then, the eldest queen of the monarch, the chaste Lady Kausalya, gained at the time of the delivery a son who was the dispeller of ignorance as with a certain herb obtaining light during night-time that dispels darkness. [10-66]
राम इत्यभिरामेण वपुषा तस्य चोदितः।
नामधेयम् गुरुश्चक्रे जगत्प्रथममङ्गलम्॥ १०-६७
rāma ityabhirāmeṇa vapuṣā tasya coditaḥ।
nāmadheyam guruścakre jagatprathamamaṅgalam || 10-67
rAma ityabhirAmeNa vapuShA tasya coditaH|
nAmadheyam gurushcakre jagatprathamama~Ngalam || 10-67
rAma iti abhirAmeNa vapuShA tasya coditaH nAmadheyam guruH cakre jagat prathama ma~Ngalam
10-66. abhirAmeNa vapuShA coditaH= by charming, physique, impelled by; guruH= father Dasharatha; tasya= his - Rama's; jagat prathama ma~Ngalam= here taken in the sense of ''pre-eminent'; it may also be taken to mean ''from the very commencement' or 'even before the individual had acquired fame and the gratefulness of the people; rAma iti nAmadheyam cakre = Rama, thus as, naming, he [Dasharatha] made.
Impelled by the charming physique of the boy the father Dasharatha bestowed upon him the name Rama which syllabified the chief blessing to longing world. [10-66]
But the King, rejoiced / To see his winsome beauty, "Rama" named / His son, chief blessing to a longing world.
ramante - yoginaH, prajAH, pitrAdyA asmin - iti rAmaH: on seeing whom the sages, people and parents take delight - he is Rama.
रक्षागृहगता दीपाः प्रत्यादिष्टा इवाभवन्॥ १०-६८
rakṣāgṛhagatā dīpāḥ pratyādiṣṭā ivābhavan || 10-68
rakShAgR^ihagatA dIpAH pratyAdiShTA ivAbhavan || 10-68
raghu vamsha pradIpena tena apratima tejasA rakShA-gR^iha gatAH dIpAH pratyAdiShTA iva abhavan
10-68. raghu vamsha pradIpena= for Raghu's, dynasty, who is the light; apratima tejasA= one having unequalled, resplendence; tena= by that newborn - Rama; rakShA-gR^iha gatAH dIpAH= lying-in-chamber's, lights; pratyAdiShTA iva abhavan= bedimmed, as it were, they became.
The light of the lamps in lying-in chamber were, as it were, bedimmed owing to the incomparable brilliance of the beacon light of Raghu's dynasty, namely Rama, the newborn. [10-68]
शय्यागतेन रामेण माता शातोदरी बभौ।
सैकताम्भोजबलिना जाह्नवीव शरत्कृशा॥ १०-६९
śayyāgatena rāmeṇa mātā śātodarī babhau।
saikatāmbhojabalinā jāhnavīva śaratkṛśā || 10-69
shayyAgatena rAmeNa mAtA shAtodarI babhau|
saikatAmbhojabalinA jAhnavIva sharatkR^ishA || 10-69
shayyA gatena rAmeNa mAtA shAtodarI babhau saikata ambhoja balinA jAhnavI iva sharat kR^ishA
10-69. shAtodarI = one whose waist had slimmed down - after delivery; mAtA= with such a mother; shayyA gatena rAmeNa= one who is on bed with his mother, with such Rama; saikata ambhoja balinA= on sand-beds, lotuses, as offerings; sharat kR^ishA jAhnavI iva= by autumn, thinned, River Ganga, as with; babhau = mother shone forth.
With Rama at her side on bed that slender-bellied mother Kausalya looked like tenuous river Ganges of autumn with an oblation of lotuses on her sandy bank. [10-69]
कैकेय्यास्तनयो जज्ञे भरतो नाम शीलवान्।
जनयित्रीमलम्चक्रे यः प्रश्रय इव श्रियम्॥ १०-७०
kaikeyyāstanayo jajñe bharato nāma śīlavān।
janayitrīmalamcakre yaḥ praśraya iva śriyam || 10-70
kaikeyyAstanayo jadnye bharato nAma shIlavAn|
janayitrImalamcakre yaH prashraya iva shriyam || 10-70
kaikeyyAH tanayaH jaj~nye bharataH nAma shIlavAn janayitrIm alam cakre yaH prashraya iva shriyam
10-70. kaikeyyAH= for Kaikeyi; bharataH nAma= Bharata, named; shIlavAn tanayaH jaj~nye= a virtuous, son, took birth; yaH prashraya shriyam iva= who, modesty, to prosperity, as with; janayitrIm alam cakre = to his mother, he is an adornment.
A virtuous son named Bharata was born to Kaikeyi who adorned his mother as modesty does prosperity. [10-70]
सुतौ लक्ष्मणशत्रुघ्नौ सुमित्रा सुषुवे यमौ।
सम्यगाराधिता विद्या प्रबोधविनयाविव॥ १०-७१
sutau lakṣmaṇaśatrughnau sumitrā suṣuve yamau।
samyagārādhitā vidyā prabodhavinayāviva || 10-71
sutau lakShmaNashatrughnau sumitrA suShuve yamau|
samyagArAdhitA vidyA prabodhavinayAviva || 10-71
sutau lakShmaNa shatrughnau sumitrA suShuve yamau samyak ArAdhitA vidyA prabodha vinayau iva
10-71. sumitrA= lady Sumitra; lakShmaNa shatrughnau= Lakshmana, Shatrughna; yamau = two, twin; sutau= sons; samyak ArAdhitA vidyA= learning rightly acquired; prabodha vinayau iva= real knowledge, self-control, as with; suShuve = delivered.
Lady Sumitra gave birth to two sons Lakshmana and Shatrughna just as learning rightly acquired produces real knowledge and self-control. [10-71]
अन्वगादिव हि स्वर्गो गाम् गतम् पुरुषोत्तमम्॥ १०-७२
anvagādiva hi svargo gām gatam puruṣottamam || 10-72
anvagAdiva hi svargo gAm gatam puruShottamam || 10-72
nirdoSham abhavat sarvam AviShkR^ita guNam jagat anvagAt iva hi svargaH gAm gatam puruShottamam
10-72. sarvam jagat= all, world; nirdoSham= without calamities; AviShkR^ita guNam= manifested, god qualities; abhavat= it became; gAm gatam puruShottamam= to earth, who reached, that unexcelled one - Vishnu; svargaH anvagAt iva hi = heaven, followed [him] as it were, indeed.
The whole world became free from calamities and manifested good qualities such as happiness and contentment: Heaven as it were followed that excellent one, namely Vishnu, in his descent on this earth. [10-72]
Now stainless showed Creation, and the Earth / Displayed her virtues: Heaven to Earth came down / In train of the Supreme.
तस्योदये चतुर्मूर्तेः पौलस्त्यचकितेश्वराः।
विरजस्कैर्नभस्वद्भिर्दिश उच्छ्वसिता इव॥ १०-७३
tasyodaye caturmūrteḥ paulastyacakiteśvarāḥ।
virajaskairnabhasvadbhirdiśa ucchvasitā iva || 10-73
tasyodaye caturmUrteH paulastyacakiteshvarAH|
virajaskairnabhasvadbhirdisha ucChvasitA iva || 10-73
tasya udaye catur-mUrteH paulastya cakita IshvarAH virajaskaiH nabhasvadbhiH disha ucChvasitA iva
10-73. catur-mUrteH tasya udaye [sati] = in four forms, on his, appearance; paulastya cakita IshvarAH= by Ravana, frightened, those that have such lords - when lords of all quarters are frightened, the quarters too are scared to perform their functions; dishaH= such quarters of earth; virajaskaiH nabhasvadbhiH ucChvasitA iva= without dust, with air, heaved a sigh of relief, as it were.
The quarters of earth whose lords have been put into fright by Ravana heaved a sigh of relief, as it were, by blowing dustless winds, on the appearance of Supreme Person on earth in four corporeal forms of Rama, Lakshmana, Bharata and Shatrughna. [10-73]
rakṣoviprakṛtāvāstāmapaviddhaśucāviva || 10-74
rakShoviprakR^itAvAstAmapaviddhashucAviva || 10-74
kR^ishAnuH apa-dhUmatvAt prasannatvAt prabhAkaraH rakSho viprakR^itau AstAm apaviddha ashucau iva
10-74. rakSho viprakR^itau= by Ravana, intimidated; kR^ishAnuH prabhAkaraH= Ritual-fire, Sun [respectively]; apa-dhUmatvAt= removed, smoke; prasannatvAt= clearness; apaviddha ashucau iva= removed, grief, as it were; AstAm = they became.
Fire on account of his becoming smokeless and the sun on account of his clearness appeared, as it were, freed from the grief of torture inflicted by demon Ravana. [10-74]
Fire rising clear of smoke, / And Sun in cloudless sky, shook sorrow off, / Who late had groaned beneath the Giant's yoke.
मणिव्याजेन पर्यस्ताः पृथिव्यामश्रुबिन्दवः॥ १०-७५
maṇivyājena paryastāḥ pṛthivyāmaśrubindavaḥ || 10-75
maNivyAjena paryastAH pR^ithivyAmashrubindavaH || 10-75
dasha Anana kirITebhyaH tat kShaNam rAkShasa shriyaH maNi vyAjena paryastAH pR^ithivyAm ashru bindavaH
10-75. tat kShaNam= at the very moment - of Rama's appearance on earth; rAkShasa shriyaH ashru bindavaH = of the goddess of prosperity of demon Ravana, her tear drops; dasha Anana kirITebhyaH= from the octahedral demon's, crowns; maNi vyAjena= jewels, in the forms of; pR^ithivyAm paryastAH= on to earth, they slipped.
That very moment of Rama's appearance on earth the teardrops of the goddess of demon's prosperity were scattered down on the Earth in the form of gems from the crowns of the octahedral demon Ravana. [10-75]
पुत्रजन्मप्रवेश्यानाम् तूर्याणाम् तस्य पुत्रिणः।
आरम्भम् प्रथमम् चक्रुर्देवदुन्दुभयो दिवि॥ १०-७६
putrajanmapraveśyānām tūryāṇām tasya putriṇaḥ।
ārambham prathamam cakrurdevadundubhayo divi || 10-76
putrajanmapraveshyAnAm tUryANAm tasya putriNaH|
Arambham prathamam cakrurdevadundubhayo divi || 10-76
putra janma praveshyAnAm tUryANAm tasya putriNaH Arambham prathamam cakruH deva dundubhayaH divi
10-76. putriNaH tasya = one with sons - Dasharatha; putra janma praveshyAnAm= sons, birth, to be arranged in celebrations; tUryANAm= auspicious wind instruments etc; Arambham= commencement; prathamam= prior to; divi= in heaven; deva dundubhayaH cakruH = celestial drumbeats, made.
Before the commencement of windpipes and drums that the proud father Dasharatha had arranged to celebrate the arrival of his sons, heavenly pipes and drums started to blare out the arrival of Vishnu on earth. [10-76]
सन्तानकमयी वृष्टिर्भवने चास्य पेतुषी।
सन्मङ्गलोपचाराणाम् सैवादिरचनाऽभवत्॥ १०-७७
santānakamayī vṛṣṭirbhavane cāsya petuṣī।
sanmaṅgalopacārāṇām saivādiracanā'bhavat || 10-77
santAnakamayI vR^iShTirbhavane cAsya petuShI|
sanma~NgalopacArANAm saivAdiracanA.abhavat || 10-77
santAnakamayI vR^iShTiH bhavane ca asya petuShI sanma~Ngala upacArANAm sA eva Adi racanA.abhavat
10-77. asya bhavane= in his, palace; santAnakamayI vR^iShTiH ca petuShI= paradisiacal flowers, rain, also, fell; sA eva= that, alone; sanma~Ngala upacArANAm= arrangement of the auspicious rites to be performed on child birth; Adi racanA.abhavat= [that flower rain] became the first arrangement - in auspicious rites.
A shower of paradisiacal flowers fell on the palace of this monarch and that itself became the first arrangement of the auspicious rites performed on that joyful occasion of child births. [10-77]
कुमाराः कृतसम्स्कारास्ते धात्रीस्तन्यपायिनः।
आनन्देनाग्रजेनेव समम् ववृधिरे पितुः॥ १०-७८
kumārāḥ kṛtasamskārāste dhātrīstanyapāyinaḥ।
ānandenāgrajeneva samam vavṛdhire pituḥ || 10-78
kumArAH kR^itasamskArAste dhAtrIstanyapAyinaH|
AnandenAgrajeneva samam vavR^idhire pituH || 10-78
kumArAH kR^ita samskArAH te dhAtrI stanya pAyinaH Anandena agrajena iva samam vavR^idhire pituH
10-78. kR^ita samskArAH= whose childhood rites are completed; dhAtrI stanya pAyinaH= nurses, breast milk, who are drinking; te kumArAH= those boys; agrajena iva pituH Anandena = with their eldest brother, as if, father's, joy; samam= equally; vavR^idhire = grew up.
The princes, whose purificatory rites had been performed, sucking the breast-milk of the nurses grew up along with their eldest brother called the joy of monarch. [10-78]
Cleansed as the Law required, with fostering care / The Princes grew, while grew their Father's joy, / As 'twere their elder brother.
The joy of the father is figuratively said to be the eldest born of Dasharatha, because it took birth the moment yaj~na puruSha gave the divine dessert, i.e., agre jAtam - agrajam - earlier to the birth of Rama, and it grew with the growing boys.
स्वाभाविकम् विनीतत्वम् तेषाम् विनयकर्मणा।
मुमूर्च्छ सहजम् तेजो हविषेव हविर्भुजाम्॥ १०-७९
svābhāvikam vinītatvam teṣām vinayakarmaṇā।
mumūrccha sahajam tejo haviṣeva havirbhujām || 10-79
svAbhAvikam vinItatvam teShAm vinayakarmaNA|
mumUrcCha sahajam tejo haviSheva havirbhujAm || 10-79
svAbhAvikam vinItatvam teShAm vinaya karmaNA mumUrcCha sahajam tejaH haviSha iva havir-bhujAm
10-79. teShAm svAbhAvikam vinItatvam= of the boys, natural, humility; vinaya karmaNA = by the practise of modesty;havir-bhujAm= of Ritual-fire; sahajam tejaH= native vigour; haviSha iva= [intensified by firewood, oil, ghee etc] oblations, as with; mumUrcCha = intensified.
The inborn humility of the princes was augmented by the training in it just as the native vigour of Ritual-fire intensifies when the oblations are tossed in it. [10-79]
The use of plural havir-bhujAm, instead of havir-bhuk, Ritual-fire manifoldly consuming manifold oblations, is a simile to kumAra-chatuSTayam - four prince-brothers. upamAlankAram
परस्परविरुद्धास्ते तद्रगोरनघम् कुलम्।
parasparaviruddhāste tadragoranagham kulam।
alamudyotayāmāsurdevāraṇyamivartavaḥ || 10-80
parasparaviruddhAste tadragoranagham kulam|
alamudyotayAmAsurdevAraNyamivartavaH || 10-80
paraspara [a]viruddhAH te tat ragoH anagham kulam alam udyotayAmAsuH deva-araNyam iva R^itavaH
10-80. paraspara [a]viruddhAH te= not being against each other, those brothers; tat ragoH anagham kulam= splendour of, Raghu's, unblemished dynasty; R^itavaH deva-araNyam iva= seasons, in respect of heavenly gardens, as with; alam udyotayAmAsuH= greatly, made to shine forth.
Not being against each other usual to co-brothers, those brothers jointly made the splendour of the unblemished race of Raghu to shine forth like seasons though varied in nature will mutually beautify the celestial gardens. [10-80]
समानेऽपि च सौभ्रात्रे यथेभौ रामलक्ष्मणौ।
तथा भरतशत्रुघ्नौ प्रीत्या द्वन्द्वम् बभूवतुः॥ १०-८१
samāne'pi ca saubhrātre yathebhau rāmalakṣmaṇau।
tathā bharataśatrughnau prītyā dvandvam babhūvatuḥ || 10-81
samAne.api ca saubhrAtre yathebhau rAmalakShmaNau|
tathA bharatashatrughnau prItyA dvandvam babhUvatuH || 10-81
samAne.api ca saubhrAtre yathA ubhau rAma lakShmaNau tathA bharata shatrughnau prItyA dvandvam babhUvatuH
10-81. ca = kimca= further; saubhrAtre samAne.api= in brotherly affection, equal, though; yathA= as to how; rAma lakShmaNau ubhau prItyA dvandvam babhUvatuH= Rama, Lakshmana, both, by affection, a pair, became; tathA= likewise; bharata shatrughnau ubhau prItyA dvandvam babhUvatuH= Bharata, Shatrughna, both, by affection, a pair, they became.
Although good brotherly affection subsisted amongst them all still Bharata and Shatrughna formed a pair by attachment just as the two - Rama and Lakshmana formed one. [10-81]
तेषाम् द्वयोर्द्वयोरैक्यम् बिभिदे न कदाचन।
यथा वायुर्विभावस्वोर्यथा चन्द्रसमुद्रयोः॥ १०-८२
teṣām dvayordvayoraikyam bibhide na kadācana।
yathā vāyurvibhāvasvoryathā candrasamudrayoḥ || 10-82
teShAm dvayordvayoraikyam bibhide na kadAcana|
yathA vAyurvibhAvasvoryathA candrasamudrayoH || 10-82
teShAm dvayoH dvayoH aikyam bibhide na kadAcana yathA vAyuH vibhAvasvoH yathA candra samudrayoH
10-82. teShAm= among the four; dvayoH dvayoH= in one pair, another pair; vAyuH vibhAvasvoH yathA= wind, fire, as to how; candra samudrayoH yathA= moon, and ocean, as to how; aikyam kadAcana na bibhide= unity, at anytime, not, disrupted.
The unity between each of the pairs was never broken just as it is not between fire and wind, and the moon and the sea. [10-82]
ते प्रजानाम् प्रजानाथास्तेजसा प्रश्रयेण च।
मनो जह्रुर्निदाघान्ते श्यामाभ्रा दिवसा इव॥ १०-८३
te prajānām prajānāthāstejasā praśrayeṇa ca।
mano jahrurnidāghānte śyāmābhrā divasā iva || 10-83
te prajAnAm prajAnAthAH tejasA prashrayeNa ca manaH jahruH nidAgha ante shyAma abhrA divasA iva
10-83. prajAnAthAH te = lords of people, those; tejasA prashrayeNa ca= by their prowess, by their modesty, too; nidAgha ante= at summer's, end; shyAma abhrA divasA iva= dark, clouded, days, as with; prajAnAm manaH jahruH = people's, heart, they enraptured.
Those lords of the people, the four princes, enraptured the minds of their subjects just as days covered with dark clouds do at the termination of summer. [10-83]
स चतुर्धा बभौ व्यस्तः प्रसवः पृथिवीपतेः।
धर्मार्थकाममोक्षाणामवतार इवाङ्गवान्॥ १०-८४
sa caturdhā babhau vyastaḥ prasavaḥ pṛthivīpateḥ।
dharmārthakāmamokṣāṇāmavatāra ivāṅgavān || 10-84
sa caturdhA babhau vyastaH prasavaH pR^ithivI-pateH dharma artha kAma mokShANAm avatAra ivA~Nga vAn [bhAk]
10-84. saH caturdhA vyastaH pR^ithivI-pateH prasavaH= that fourfold divided issue of the lord 01 the earth; a~Nga vAn [bhAk]= one having individual bodies; dharma artha kAma mokShANAm= of quadruple pursuit of man; avatAra iva babhau= incarnation, as if, they shone forth.
'That fourfold divided issue of the lord 0f the earth was, as it were, the corporeal incarnation of duty, wealth, desire, and moksha - the emancipation from the trammels of the world. [10-84]
गुणैराराधयामासुस्ते गुरुम् गुरुवत्सलाः।
तमेव चतुरन्तेशम् रत्नैरिव महार्णवाः॥ १०-८५
guṇairārādhayāmāsuste gurum guruvatsalāḥ।
tameva caturanteśam ratnairiva mahārṇavāḥ || 10-85
guNaiH ArAdhayAmAsuH te gurum guru-vatsalAH tam eva catur-anta-Isham ratnaiH iva mahArNavAH
10-85. guru-vatsalAH= those having filial affection; te= those four princes; guNaiH= with their good attributes; gurum catur-anta-Isham tam eva= father, lord of four quarters, him, alone; mahArNavAH ratnaiH iva= great oceans, with jewels, as with; ArAdhayAmAsuH = they were devoting.
Those four princes with utmost filial devotion gratified their father Dasharatha by their virtues just as the four extensive oceans gratified that lord of the expanse bounded by the four quarters, namely Dasharatha, with their jewels. [10-85]
Four main oceans, mahA-arnavA-s, are always spoken of as girdling the earth; here they are put into juxtaposition with the four sons.
सुरगज इव दन्तैर्भग्नदैत्यासिधारै
र्नय इव पणबन्धव्यक्तयोगैरुपायैः।
पतिरवनिपतीनाम् तैश्चकाशे चतुर्भिः॥ १०-८६
suragaja iva dantairbhagnadaityāsidhārai
rnaya iva paṇabandhavyaktayogairupāyaiḥ।
patiravanipatīnām taiścakāśe caturbhiḥ || 10-86
sura gaja iva dantaiH bhagna daitya asi dhAraiH naya iva paNa-bandha vyakta yogaiH upAyaiH hariH iva yuga dIrghaiH dorbhiH amshaiH tadIyaiH patiH avani-patInAm taiH cakAshe caturbhiH
10-86. bhagna daitya asi dhAraiH= which hadblunted, demons, swords, sharpness - which had blunted the edges of the swords of demons; dantaiH= one with such tusks; sura gaja iva= four-tusked celestial elephant, as with; paNa-bandha vyakta yogaiH = for accomplishment of the object in view; upAyaiH= with such plans - sAma, dAna, bheda, danDa upAyA-s; naya iva= polity itself, as with; yuga dIrghaiH= [long like the]crosasbar of a chariot; dorbhiH= with such long arms; hariH iva= Vishnu, as with; tadIyaiH amshaiH= his [Vishnu's,]segments; caturbhiH taiH= with four sons, with them; avani-patInAm patiH= kin g of kings - Dasharatha; cakAshe = shone forth.
The king of kings Dasharatha with four ramified entities of Vishnu, namely his sons, shone forth like the four-tusked celestial elephant that had blunted the edges of the swords of demons; or like polity itself with the four means of success, namely sAma, dAna, bheda, danDa upAyA-s - conciliation, bribery, sowing dissension, and punishment, the utility of which is manifested by the accomplishment of the object in view; or like the one with four arms that are as long as the crossbar of a chariot, namely Vishnu. [10-86]
इति कालिदास कृत रघुवम्श महाकाव्ये दशमः सर्गः
iti kālidāsa kṛta raghuvamśa mahākāvye daśamaḥ sargaḥ
Krishnarao Mahadeva Joglekar, 1916 - KMJ, or Joglekar
Gopala Raghunath Nandargikar, 1897 GRN
pithy, terse sayings or foots of poem appearing in comment section - from The Story of Raghu's Line by Kalidasa; translated by P. De Lacy Johnston, Published by Adine House, London, 1902 - De Lacy or Lacy
upama is roughly said as metaphor, transferred epithet, or condensed simile, or expanded simile, or whatever, but not stabilised, as with atishayokti and utpreksha both made to fall under the category of a hyperbole.
u.mA o : upamAna - comparable object; or the object itself.
u.me oc : upameya - object compared.
sA.dha c: sAdhAraNa dharma: commonality in sharing attributes.
sA. vA cw: sAdharaNa vAcaka: coupula, conjunctional word used.
anu.dha uq : anugAmi dharma : underlying quality of factors.
bimba om, or O: object to be mirrored.
prati-bimba mo: reflected object with mirror symmetry, mirrored object.
shleSa innuendo: lexically mixing, imbibed in; better we use this innuendo= 2 a remark with a double meaning, usu. suggestive; till pundits object.
zeugma : a figure of speech using a verb or adjective with two nouns, to one of which it is strictly applicable while the word appropriate to the other is not used (e.g. with weeping eyes and [sc. grieving] hearts).
syllepsis : a figure of speech in which a word is applied to two others in different senses (e.g. caught the train and a bad cold) or to two others of which it grammatically suits one only (e.g. neither they nor it is working) - but not innuendo, or double meaning.
atishayokti - hybo: hyperbole.
utpreksha - mglq: magniloqui, gasconade.
Out of many mind-boggling Sanskrit poetics, upama is one, and only 23 of its shades are presented here as illustration. Please construe that hero is telling these se ntences to his heroine.
1] candra iva mukham manoj~nam = Like moon your face is heart-pleasing - upama alankAra.
2] candra iva mukham mukham iva candraH - That moon is like your face, and your face is like that moon - upameya upamA alankAra.
3] mukham iva mukham = face is face - ananvaya alankAra.
4] mukham iva candraH - moon is like your face - pratIpa alankAra
5] candram dR^iSTvA mukham smarAmi - on seeing I reminisce your face - smaraNa alankAra
6] mukham eva candraH - your face is moon alone - rUpaka alankAra
7] mukha candreNa tApaH shAmayati - on seeing moonlike face of yours, fervidity is lessening - pariNAma alankAra
8] kim idam mukham? uta aho! candraH - is this your face or that moon? - sandeha alankAra.
9] candra iti cakorAH tvat mukham anudhAvanti - thinking your face is moon songbirds are after it - bhrAntimat alankAra
10] candra iti cakorAH, kamala iti bhramarAH tvat mukhe ra~njanti - thinking your face to be moon, songbirds and bees [wish to take] delight in it.
11] camdro ayam, na mukham - this is moon, but not a face - apahnava
12] idam nUnam candraH - this is definitely the moon - utpreksha
13] candro ayam bhUpatiH - this king is the moon - atishayokti
14] mukhena candra kamale nirjite - moon or lotus is conquered by your face - tulya yogitA alankAra
15] nishi candraH tvat mukham ca hR^iSyati - night's moon delights your face - dIpaka alankAra
16] tvat mukha eva aham rajyAmi, candra eva cakoro rajyate - I take delight in your face, while songbirds take delight in that moon - prati vastu upama
17] divi candro yathA, bhuvi tathA tvat mukham bhAti - as to how the moon shines in the sky, thus your face shines forth on the earth - dR^iSTAnta alankAra
18] mukham candra shriyam bhibharti - your face is bearing the shine of that moon - nidarshana alankAra
19] niSkalankam mukham candrAt atiricyate - immaculate face of yours is surpassing that moon - vyatireka alankAra
20] tvat mukheva saha nishAsu candro hR^iSyati - along with your face, moon is also delightful in nights - saha ukti alankAra
21] mukham netra a.nka ruciram, smita jyostno upashobhitam - your face is delightful with eyes called its embellishments, and with moonshine like smiles - samAsa ukti alankAra
22] abjena tvat mukham tulyam hariNA hitasaktinA - your face vies with moon who has a deer in him, [or, your face vies with rising sun with lotus...] abhanga sabhanga shleSa alankAra
23] mukhasya puirataH candro niSprabhaH - before your face moon is loosing his shine a prastuta prashamsha.
desiraju hanumanta rao, July 10
desirajuhrao at yahoo.com