mahAkavi kAlidAsa
Dynasty of Emperor Raghu
11 chapter -- 93 verses

kAlidAsa rAmAyaNa


Vishwilmitra applies to Dasharatha to allow Rama to go with him to his hermitage and destroy the evil spirits infesting it. The father reluctantly consents, and send Lakshmana along with Rama. The boys themselves little suspect that they will have to fight with giants and demons on the way. Rama's first encounter is with the demoncss  tATaka who falls under his arrow. With the celestial weapons given by Vishvamitra both the boys free the hermitage of all annoyance. Now the hermit takes them to  Mithila, the capital of King Janaka, to be present at a Vedic ritual of king Janaka, on the pretext of bending of a huge bow olf Shiva which was a stipulation for the hand of Janaka's daugllter Seetha. Rama not only bends, but broaks the bow and gains the hand of Seetha in marriage; while Lakshmana marries her sister Urmila, while Bharata and Shatrughna marry Kushadhvaja's daughters who are Seetha's co-sisters. On their return journey they meet with the Brahmana warrior Parashurama, who vowed extermination of the Kshatriya race. He speaks disparagingly of Rama's success at Mithila and challenges him to bend the bow which he carries, namely Vishnu's bow. Rama succeeds in doing this and Parshurama retires shamed and vallquished. The two princes Rama and Lakshmana reach Ayodhya without any further adventure.

Readers are requested to refer to the notes and commentary of Kishanrao Madhavarao Joglekar on this 10 th canto  0.9 MB pdf   made available here, for details or past legends mentioned in here.



कौशिकेन स किल क्षितीश्वरो
काकपक्षधरमेत्य याचितः m
तेजसाम् हि न वयः समीक्ष्यते॥ ११-१

kauśikena sa kila kṣitīśvaro
rāmamadhvaravighātaśāntaye |
kākapakṣadharametya yācitaḥ
tejasām hi na vayaḥ samīkṣyate || 11-1

kaushikena sa kila kShitIshvaro
rAmamadhvaravighAtashAntaye |
kAkapakShadharametya yAcitaH
tejasAm hi na vayaH samIkShyate || 11-1


kaushikena saH kila kShitIshvaraH rAmam adhvara vighAta shAntaye kAka- pakSha- dharam etya yAcitaH tejasAm hi na vayaH samIkShyate

11-1. kaushikena etya= by Vishvamitra, having come; saH kShitIshvaraH= that king Dasharatha; adhvara vighAta shAntaye= Vedic ritual, disruption, to silence;kAka- pakSha- dharam rAmam yAcitaH kila [khalu] = jet-black curls wearing, Rama, is asked for, indeed; tejasAm vayaH na samIkShyate hi = valiant one's, age, not, be taken in consideration, indeed.

Now, it so happened that the descendant of Kaushika, namely Vishvamitra, approached king Dasharatha asking him to spare Rama, who yet wore jet-black side-locks of a boy, for the purpose of putting down the obstructions to his sacrifices; for, inconsequential is the age of a valiant one. [11-1]

HEAR now my tale: While Rama still was young,/And wore a boy's dark curls, came Kaushika/To beg him from the King, those foes to curb/ Who marred his sacrifice: in hero-souls/Mere age is not regarded.


कृच्छ्रलब्धमपि लब्धवर्णभाक्
तम् दिदेश मुनये सलक्ष्मणम्।
अप्यसुप्रणयिनाम् रघोः कुले
न व्यहन्यत कदाचिदर्थिता॥ ११-२

kṛcchralabdhamapi labdhavarṇabhāk
tam dideśa munaye salakṣmaṇam |
apyasupraṇayinām raghoḥ kule
na vyahanyata kadācidarthitā || 11-2

kR^icChralabdhamapi labdhavarNabhAk
tam didesha munaye salakShmaNam |
apyasupraNayinAm raghoH kule
na vyahanyata kadAcidarthitA || 11-2


kR^icChra labdham api labdha varNa bhAk tam didesha munaye sa lakShmaNam api asupraNayinAm raghoH kule na vyahanyata kadAcit arthitA

11-2. labdha varNa bhAk= one giving duo respect to the learned - Dasharatha;kR^icChra labdham api= got Rama with great difficulty, though; sa lakShmaNam ta.n= with Lakshmana, him - Rama;munaye didesha= to sage, gave; asu-praNayinAm api= those requiring even their lives;arthitA = entreaty; raghoH kule= in Raghu's dynasty; kadAcit na vyahanyata= at any time, not, denied.

That adorer of the learned Dasharatha, directed Rama together with Lakshmana to go along with sage Vishvamitra, though he gained those sons with great difficulty; never in the family of Ragu was denied the entreaty of those requiring even their lives. [11-2]


यावदादिशति पार्थिवस्तयोः
निर्गमाय पुरमार्गसंस्क्रियाम्।
तावदाशु विदधे मरुत्सखैः
सा सपुष्पजलवर्षिभिर्घनैः॥ ११-३

yāvadādiśati pārthivastayoḥ
nirgamāya puramārgasaṁskriyām |
tāvadāśu vidadhe marutsakhaiḥ
sā sapuṣpajalavarṣibhirghanaiḥ || 11-3

yAvadAdishati pArthivastayoH
nirgamAya puramArgasa.nskriyAm |
tAvadAshu vidadhe marutsakhaiH
sA sapuShpajalavarShibhirghanaiH || 11-3


yAvat Adishati pArthivaH tayoH nirgamAya pura mArga sa.nskriyAm tAvat Ashu vidadhe marut-sakhaiH sA sa puShpa jala varShibhiH ghanaiH

11-3. pArthivaH= the king; tayoH nirgamAya= of the two, for going ouit of city;pura mArga sa.nskriyAm= city's, roads, for decoration; yAvat Adishati= no sooner, he ordered; tAvat= than that time;marut-sakhaiH= wind's, friends - clouds;sa puShpa jala varShibhiH ghanaiH= with flowers, water, showering, by clouds; sA= she that Ayodhya;Ashu vidadhe = quickly, made - sprinkled rain an d with flowers on that city.

No sooner did the monarch order to neaten up the roads of Ayodhya city on the eve of the departure of boys than they were at once carried out by the friends of wind, namely the clouds, who sprinkled water and flowers on them. [11-3]

Forthwith the King /Bade deck the highways for their passing out,/Forthwith the clouds wind-driven arched the sky,/And rained down flowers.

Because Rama is commencing his adventures from now on, Indra asked Rain-god to sprinkle that much rain required for wetting down the rising dust on the roads, and flowers for a cushiony passage - as with a red-carpet.


तौ निदेशकरणोद्यतौ पितुः
धन्विनौ चरणयोर्निपेततुः।
भूपतेरपि तयोः प्रवत्स्यतोः
नम्रयोरुपरि बाष्पबिन्दवः॥ ११-४

tau nideśakaraṇodyatau pituḥ
dhanvinau caraṇayornipetatuḥ |
bhūpaterapi tayoḥ pravatsyatoḥ
namrayorupari bāṣpabindavaḥ || 11-4

tau nideshakaraNodyatau pituH
dhanvinau caraNayornipetatuH |
bhUpaterapi tayoH pravatsyatoH
namrayorupari bAShpabindavaH || 11-4


tau nidesha karaNa udyatau pituH dhanvinau caraNayoH nipetatuH bhUpateH api tayoH pravatsyatoH namrayoH upari bAShpa bindavaH

11-4. nidesha karaNa udyatau= ready to carry out the mandate of their father; dhanvinau tau= with bows, two of them;pituH caraNayoH nipetatuH= on father's, feet, fell; bhUpateH api= of the king, even; bAShpa bindavaH= tear drops; pravatsyatoH= on the boyswho were about to proceed; namrayoH= kneeling before him;tayoH upari = on them, [tears] fell.

Both Rama and Lakshmana with their bows ready to carry out the mandate of their father fell at his feet of their father for blessings: at the same time, drops of tears of joy of the king fell on the persons of both the boys who were about to proceed on their first expedition and were kneeling before him. [11-4]


तौ पितुर्नयनजेन वारिणा
धन्विनौ तमृषिमन्वगच्छताम्
पौरदृष्टिकृतमार्गतोरणौ॥ ११-५

tau piturnayanajena vāriṇā
kiṁcidukṣitaśikhaṇḍakāvubhau |
dhanvinau tamṛṣimanvagacchatām
pauradṛṣṭikṛtamārgatoraṇau || 11-5

tau piturnayanajena vAriNA
ki.ncidukShitashikhaNDakAvubhau |
dhanvinau tamR^iShimanvagacChatAm
pauradR^iShTikR^itamArgatoraNau || 11-5


tau pituH nayana-jena vAriNA ki.ncit ukShita shikhaNDakau ubhau dhanvinau tam R^iShim anvagacChatAm paura dR^iShTi kR^ita mArga toraNau

11-5. pituH nayana-jena vAriNA ki.ncit ukShita shikhaNDakau= father's, eyes, birthed, with water, a little, wetted, head hair - with their side-locks of hair slightly wetted with the water from the eyes of their parent; dhanvinau tau ubhau= archers, both of them;paura dR^iShTi kR^ita mArga toraNau= peoples, glances, made, buntings, on pathway;tam R^iShim anvagacChatAm = that sage Vishvamitra, they followed.

Those two archers with their side-locks slightly wetted with the water dropped from the eyes of their parent followed the sage Vishvamitra, while the glances of citizens alone have become the buntings on roads. [11-5]



लक्ष्मणानुचरमेव राघवम्
नेतुमैच्छदृषिरित्यसौ नृपः।
आशिषम् प्रयुयुजे न वाहिनीम्
सा हि रक्षणविधौ तयोः क्षमा॥ ११-६

lakṣmaṇānucarameva rāghavam
netumaicchadṛṣirityasau nṛpaḥ |
āśiṣam prayuyuje na vāhinīm
sā hi rakṣaṇavidhau tayoḥ kṣamā || 11-6

lakShmaNAnucarameva rAghavam
netumaicChadR^iShirityasau nR^ipaH |
AshiSham prayuyuje na vAhinIm
sA hi rakShaNavidhau tayoH kShamA || 11-6


lakShmaNa anucaram eva rAghavam netum aicChat R^iShiH iti asau nR^ipaH AshiSham prayuyuje na vAhinIm sA hi rakShaNa vidhau tayoH kShamA

11-6. R^iShiH= sage Vishvamitra; lakShmaNa anucaram eva rAghavam netum aicChat = Lakshmana, as follower, only, Rama, to take, [sage] wished; iti= in this way - on thinking;asau nR^ipaH = that king Dasharatha;AshiSham prayuyuje= blessing only, he gave; na vAhinI.n= but not full army;hi= why because;sA= that blessing alone;tayoH rakShaNa vidhau kShamA

The sage desired to take only Rama accompanied by Lakshmana; hence, the king assigned only his benedictions for them but not army; for, the former alone was quite efficient for the task of protecting the pair of boys. [11-6]


मातृवर्गचरणस्पृशौ मुनेः
तौ प्रपद्य पदवीम् महौजसः।
भास्करस्य मधुमाधवाविव॥ ११-७

mātṛvargacaraṇaspṛśau muneḥ
tau prapadya padavīm mahaujasaḥ |
bhāskarasya madhumādhavāviva || 11-7

mAtR^ivargacaraNaspR^ishau muneH
tau prapadya padavIm mahaujasaH |
bhAskarasya madhumAdhavAviva || 11-7


mAtR^i varga caraNa spR^ishau muneH tau prapadya padavIm mahaujasaH rejatuH gati vashAt pravartinau bhAskarasya madhu mAdhavau iva

11-7. mAtR^i varga caraNa spR^ishau= mothers, group, feet, who had touched;tau= those two boys;mahaujasaH muneH padavIm prapadya= highly powerful, sage's, path, on following;bhAskarasya gati vashAt= sun's, course, by virtue of; pravartinau= those who follow - sun; madhu mAdhavau iva= Chaitra, Vaishakha months, as with;rejatuH= shone forth.

The two boys touching the feet of their mothers followed the foot-steps of the highly powerful sage Vishvamitra, in which circuit they appeared like the Chaitra and Vaishakha months following the sun whose course is preordained. [11-7]

The Chaitra and Vaisakha months though sweltering to a degree there will be trees with flowers and fruits. Thus the boys are torrid to enemies and pleasant to the followers.


तोयदागमे इवोद्ध्यभिद्ययोः
नामधेयसदृशम् विचेष्टितम्॥ ११-८

śaiśavāccapalamapyaśobhata |
tooyadāgame ivoddhyabhidyayoḥ
nāmadheyasadṛśam viceṣṭitam || 11-8

shaishavAccapalamapyashobhata |
tooyadAgame ivoddhyabhidyayoH
nAmadheyasadR^isham viceShTitam || 11-8


vIci lola bhujayoH tayoH gatam shaishavAt capalam api ashobhata tooyada Agame iva uddhya bhidyayoH nAmadheya sadR^isham viceShTitam

11-8. vIci lola bhujayoH= by ripples, swinging, with such arms - arms swinging like ripples; tayoH = their; capalam api gatam = restless, though, their gait; tooyada Agame= water, on coming - in rainy season; uddhya bhidyayoH= udhya, bidhya - names of rivers; nAmadheya sadR^isham viceShTitam iva= in keeping with their names, comparable, as with; shaishavAt ashobhata = by their childhood, shone forth.

The gait of those boys whose arms were restless like the ripples of a river, though sportive on account of childishness looked charming like two called Uddhya and Bhidya, which in keeping with their names will be rushing at the advent of the rains. [11-8]

Childlike, unsteady paced they, fair to see,/With lissom arms like crested waves that dance,/As streams, when rain-clouds gather, work and whirl,/As suits their name.

These two rivers, whose location is unknown, are defined as: ujghati udakam iti udhyaH; bhinatti kuulam iti bhidhyaH; one that spurts water it is Udhya River; while the other that collapses banks with its rush is Bhidya River. These indicate the upshot mood of the boys for an adventure.


तौ बलातिबलयोः प्रभावतो
विद्ययोः पथि मुनिप्रदिष्टयोः।
मम्लतुर्न मणिकुट्टिमोचितौ
मातृपार्श्वपरिवर्तिनाविव॥ ११-९

tau balātibalayoḥ prabhāvato
vidyayoḥ pathi munipradiṣṭayoḥ |
mamlaturna maṇikuṭṭimocitau
mātṛpārśvaparivartināviva || 11-9

tau balAtibalayoH prabhAvato
vidyayoH pathi munipradiShTayoH |
mamlaturna maNikuTTimocitau
mAtR^ipArshvaparivartinAviva || 11-9


tau bala atibalayoH prabhAvataH vidyayoH pathi muni pradiShTayoH mamlatuH na maNi kuTTima ucitau mAtR^i pArshva parivartinau iva

11-9. maNi kuTTima ucitau tau= with precious, spread [on such roads], worthy to walk, those two boys; muni pradiShTayoH bala atibalayoH vidyayoH prabhAvataH = by sage Vishvamitra, initiated, bala, atibala, spells of hymns, by the efficacy of;mAtR^i pArshva parivartinau iva= at mother's, side, moving about, as if;pathi na mamlatuH = on their journey, not, fatigued.

In consequence of the power of the two spells of Vedic hymns called bala and atiibala imparted to them by the sage Vishvamitra in the course of their journey, both the boys who were accustomed, as they were, to roads spread with precious stones felt no fatigue in their fieldtrip as if they were at the side of their mothers. [11-9]


पूर्ववृत्तकथितैः पुराविदः
सानुजः पितृसखस्य राघवः।
उह्यमान इव वाहनोचितः
पादचारमपि न व्यभावयत्॥ ११-१०

pūrvavṛttakathitaiḥ purāvidaḥ
sānujaḥ pitṛsakhasya rāghavaḥ |
uhyamāna iva vāhanocitaḥ
pādacāramapi na vyabhāvayat || 11-10

pUrvavR^ittakathitaiH purAvidaH
sAnujaH pitR^isakhasya rAghavaH |
uhyamAna iva vAhanocitaH
pAdacAramapi na vyabhAvayat || 11-10


pUrva vR^itta kathitaiH purA-vidaH sa anujaH pitR^i sakhasya rAghavaH uhyamAna iva vAhana ucitaH pAda cAram api na vyabhAvayat

11-10. vAhana ucitaH= one habituated to vehicles; sa anujaH= along with, his brother;rAghavaH= such Rama;purA-vidaH pitR^i sakhasya= legends-knowing, father's friend - of Vishvamitra;pUrva vR^itta kathitaiH= earlier, happenings, while being told; uhyamAna iva= being carried away, as if - as if transported by those legends;pAda cAram api= on foot, treading, though; na vyabhAvayat= did not take [the toil of journey] to heart - did not mind.

Raghava and his brother used as they were to vehicles did not mind the toil of the journey on foot, for they are physically carried away, as it were, by the narrations of bygone occurrences from the mouth of their father's friend, namely Vishvamitra who was well versed in legendary lore. [11-10]


तौ सरांसि रसवद्भिरम्बुभिः
कूजितैः श्रुतिसुखैः पतत्रिणः।
वायवः सुरभिपुष्परेणुभिः
छायया च जलदाः सिषेविरे॥ ११-११

tau sarāṁsi rasavadbhirambubhiḥ
kūjitaiḥ śrutisukhaiḥ patatriṇaḥ |
vāyavaḥ surabhipuṣpareṇubhiḥ
chāyayā ca jaladāḥ siṣevire || 11-11

tau sarA.nsi rasavadbhirambubhiH
kUjitaiH shrutisukhaiH patatriNaH |
vAyavaH surabhipuShpareNubhiH
ChAyayA ca jaladAH siShevire || 11-11 


tau sarA.nsi rasavadbhiH ambubhiH kUjitaiH shruti sukhaiH patatriNaH vAyavaH surabhi puShpa reNubhiH ChAyayA ca jaladAH siShevire

11-11. tau= those two boys; sarA.nsi rasavadbhiH ambubhiH= lakes, with tasteful, waters;patatriNaH kUjitaiH shruti sukhaiH= birds, warbles, ear, pleasing ones;vAyavaH surabhi puShpa reNubhiH= breezes, fragrant, with flowers, pollen;jaladAH ChAyayA ca= clouds, shadiness, also; siShevire= they were served with all these.

Nature's hospitality had been accorded to the boys en route with tasteful waters of tanks, ear-pleasing warbling of birds, fragrance of breezes loaded with pollen, and with the shadiness of cloudcover. [11-11]

The lakes sweet waters gave, and birds gay songs,/Winds scented pollen waved, and clouds spread shade/For them so passing.


नाम्भसाम् कमलशोभिनाम् तथा
शाखिनाम् च न परिश्रमच्छिदाम्।
दर्शनेन लघुना यथा तयोः
प्रीतिमापुरुभयोस्तपस्विनः॥ ११-१२

nāmbhasām kamalaśobhinām tathā
śākhinām ca na pariśramacchidām |
darśanena laghunā yathā tayoḥ
prītimāpurubhayostapasvinaḥ || 11-12

nAmbhasAm kamalashobhinAm tathA
shAkhinAm ca na parishramacChidAm |
darshanena laghunA yathA tayoH
prItimApurubhayostapasvinaH || 11-12


na ambhasAm kamala shobhinAm tathA shAkhinAm ca na parishrama cChidAm darshanena laghunA yathA tayoH prItim ApuH ubhayoH tapasvinaH

11-12. tapasvinaH= ascetics [en route]; laghunA= their cherished; tayoH ubhayoH darshanena= of those two, by glimpse of;yathA prItim ApuH= as to how, gladness, they obtained; tathA= that kind of gladness; kamala shobhinAm ambhasA.n= [either] by lotus, adorned, lake waters; parishrama cChidAm shAkhinAm [darshanena] ca = fatigue, removing, one with branches - trees, or; na ApuH= not, obtaioned.

The ascetics en route did not feel as much delight by the sight of lake waters adorned with lotuses or by the fatigue removing trees adorned with many branches as by a glimpse of the pair of boys. [11-12]


प्राप्य दाशरथिरात्तकार्मुकः।
विग्रहेण मदनस्य चारुणा
सोऽभवत्प्रतिनिधिर्न कर्मणा॥ ११-१३

prāpya dāśarathirāttakārmukaḥ |
vigraheṇa madanasya cāruṇā
so'bhavatpratinidhirna karmaṇā || 11-13

prApya dAsharathirAttakArmukaH |
vigraheNa madanasya cAruNA
so.abhavatpratinidhirna karmaNA || 11-13


sthANu dagdha vapuShaH tapovanam prApya dAsharathiH Atta kArmukaH vigraheNa madanasya cAruNA saH abhavat pratinidhiH na karmaNA

11-13. saH Atta kArmukaH dAsharathiH = he, wielding a bow, Rama;sthANu dagdha vapuShaH madanasya tapovanam prApya= by Shiva, burnt, Lovegod's,penance grove, on reaching;cAruNA vigraheNa [madanasya ] pratinidhiH abhavat = with his beautiful, body, [Lovegod's] look-alike of, he became; na karmaNA= but not by his deed [of Lovegod].

Arriving at the penance grove where Shiva once burnt the corporeal for of Manmatha, that bow-wielder Rama by his charming physique looked more like Manmatha, but not by his deeds. [11-13]

The grove of penance when with lifted bow/Sweet Rama entered, by his lovely shape/But not by wanton act he showed like Love/Whom Shiva scorched.


तौ सुकेतुसुतया खिलीकृते
कौशिकाद्विदितशापया पथि।
निन्यतुः स्थलनिवेशिताटनी
लीलयैव धनुषी अधिज्यताम्॥ ११-१४

tau suketusutayā khilīkṛte
kauśikādviditaśāpayā pathi |
ninyatuḥ sthalaniveśitāṭanī
līlayaiva dhanuṣī adhijyatām || 11-14

tau suketusutayA khilIkR^ite
kaushikAdviditashApayA pathi |
ninyatuH sthalaniveshitATanI
lIlayaiva dhanuShI adhijyatAm || 11-14


tau suketu sutayA khilI-kR^ite kaushikAt vidita shApayA pathi ninyatuH sthalaniveshita aTanI lIlayA iva dhanuShI adhijyatAm

11-14. kaushikAt vidita shApayA= from Vishvamitra, on knowing, about the curse;suketu sutayA = a sage called Suketu, by his daughter - tATaka; khilI-kR^ite pathi= devastated, pathway;tau sthala niveshita aTanI= those two, at a proper place on ground, placing, curved ends of their bows; lIlayA iva= sportily, as though; dhanuShI adhijyatAm ninyatuH= bows, with bowstrings, they lead [the bowstring - strung bowstrings to curved ends of bows.

On the road devastated by sage Suketu's daughter, namely tATaka, whose curse had been learnt by the boys from sage Vishvamitra, that pair of heroes putting the curved ends of their bows on an appropriate place on ground, quite deftly fastened bowstrings. [11-14]

To maintain the sanctity of bows they are not placed or made to touch filthy places on ground.


ज्यानिनादमथ गृह्णती तयोः
प्रादुरास बहुलक्षपाछविः।
ताडका चलकपालकुण्डला
कालिकेव निबिडा बलाकिनी॥ ११-१५

jyāninādamatha gṛhṇatī tayoḥ
prādurāsa bahulakṣapāchaviḥ |
tāḍakā calakapālakuṇḍalā
kālikeva nibiḍā balākinī || 11-15

jyAninAdamatha gR^ihNatI tayoH
prAdurAsa bahulakShapAChaviH |
tADakA calakapAlakuNDalA
kAlikeva nibiDA balAkinI || 11-15


jyA ninAdam atha gR^ihNatI tayoH prAdurAsa bahula kShapA ChaviH tADakA cala kapAla kuNDalA kAlikA iva nibiDA balAkinI

11-15. atha= later, when they twanged the bowstrings; tayoH jyA ninAdam gR^ihNatI= their, bowstring's, sound, she who received it; bahula kShapA ChaviH= in dark-fortnight's, blackness, by her complexion; cala kapAla kuNDalA= with moving, skulls, as her earrings; tADakA= tATaka, the demoness; nibiDA= thick massed;balAkinI= with cranes [around it];kAlikA iva= a bank of dense clouds, as with; prAdurAsa = appeared before them.

Then hearing the twang of their bowstrings demoness tATaka whose complexion was like the blackness of a dark fortnight's night, and who wore human skulls as her dangling earrings appeared before them like a dark bank of clouds with black cranes flying under them. [11-15]

At the sound/The Demon-maid appeared, black as dark night /When wanes the moon her ear-drops polished skulls,/That on her swarthy neck gleamed white as cranes/Lined 'gainst a dense cloud-bank.


प्रेतचीवरवसा स्वनोग्रया।
अभ्यभावि भरताग्रजस्तया
वात्ययेव पितृकाननोत्थया॥ ११-१६

pretacīvaravasā svanograyā |
abhyabhāvi bharatāgrajastayā
vātyayeva pitṛkānanotthayā || 11-16

pretacIvaravasA svanograyA |
abhyabhAvi bharatAgrajastayA
vAtyayeva pitR^ikAnanotthayA || 11-16


tIvra vega dhuta mArga vR^ikShayA pretacIvara vasA svana ugrayA abhyabhAvi bharata agrajaH tayA vAtyayA iva pitR^i-kAnana utthayA

11-16. tIvra vega dhuta mArga vR^ikShayA= by her furious, speed, upheaved, on path, trees;pretacIvara vasA= in shrouds, who is clad; svana ugrayA= by noise, terrific;tayA= by her;pitR^i-kAnana utthayA vAtyayA iva = from cremation ground, risen, whirlwind, as with;bharata agrajaH abhyabhAvi = Bharata's, elder brother, Rama, was assailed.

She who upheaved roadside trees with her furious speed, clad in shrouds, yelling terrific cries, and who sallying forth like a whirlwind from the cremation ground then assailed Rama, the elder brother of Bharata. [11-16]

On Rama then/She swooped, and rushing shook the wayside trees,/In ghostly grave-clothes clad, with gruesome screech,/As whirlwind issuing from a charnel-house.


ताम् विलोक्य वनितावधे घृणाम्
पत्रिणा सह मुमोच राघवः॥ ११-१७

śroṇilambipuruṣāntramekhalām |
tām vilokya vanitāvadhe ghṛṇām
patriṇā saha mumoca rāghavaḥ || 11-17

shroNilambipuruShAntramekhalAm |
tAm vilokya vanitAvadhe ghR^iNAm
patriNA saha mumoca rAghavaH || 11-17


udyat eka bhuja yaShTim AyatIm shroNi lambi puruSha Antra mekhalAm tAm vilokya vanitA vadhe ghR^iNAm patriNA saha mumoca rAghavaH

11-17. udyat eka bhuja yaShTim= upraised, one, arm, which is like a thick staff;AyatI.n= she who is coming; shroNi lambi= up to hips, reaching; puruSha Antra mekhalAm= human, entrails, made as a girdle; tAm vilokya= her, on seeing; rAghavaH= Rama; vanitA vadhe ghR^iNA.n= woman's, killing, feeling of compunction; patriNA saha= arrow, along with; mumoca = released.

On beholding her engirdled with human entrails sagging up to her hips and advancing with a winched bludgeon-like arm, Raghava released an arrow along with compunction from his heart in killing a woman. [11-17]

But Rama, when he marked her onslaught fell,/One lean arm raised, men's entrails hanging low/Down to her waist at once let fly his shaft,/Nor shamed to slay a woman.


यच्चकार विवरम् शिलाघने
ताडकोरसि स रामसायकः।
अप्रविष्टविषयस्य रक्षसाम्
द्वारतामगमदन्तकस्य तत्॥ ११-१८

yaccakāra vivaram śilāghane
tāḍakorasi sa rāmasāyakaḥ |
apraviṣṭaviṣayasya rakṣasām
dvāratāmagamadantakasya tat || 11-18

yaccakAra vivaram shilAghane
tADakorasi sa rAmasAyakaH |
apraviShTaviShayasya rakShasAm
dvAratAmagamadantakasya tat || 11-18


yat cakAra vivaram shilA ghane tADaka urasi saH rAma sAyakaH a+praviShTa viShayasya rakShasAm dvAratAm agamat antakasya tat

11-18. saH rAma sAyakaH= that, Rama's, arrow; shilA ghane tADaka urasi= stone, thick, tATaka, on her chest;yat vivaram cakAra= which, aperture, [that arrow] made; tat rakShasAm a+praviShTa viShayasya= that, of demons, not, enterable, domains;antakasya dvAratAm agamat = Death-god's, a door, [that aperture] has become.

The hole which the arrow of Rama made in the stone-hard chest of demoness tATaka became a door for the ingress of Death-god who had not till then entered the domain of the rAkshasa-s. [11-18]

Such a wound /His arrow in her flinty bosom made,/That Death therethrough among the Demon-hosts/First won an entrance.

Along with other gods the god of Death too was imprisoned by Ravana and therefore he could not enter the region occupied by the rAkshasa-s.


बाणभिन्नहृदया निपेतुषी
सा स्वकाननभुवम् न केवलाम्।
रावणश्रियमपि व्यकम्पयत्॥ ११-१९

bāṇabhinnahṛdayā nipetuṣī
sā svakānanabhuvam na kevalām |
rāvaṇaśriyamapi vyakampayat || 11-19

bANabhinnahR^idayA nipetuShI
sA svakAnanabhuvam na kevalAm |
rAvaNashriyamapi vyakampayat || 11-19


bANa bhinna hR^idayA nipetuShI sA sva kAnana bhuvam na kevalAm viShTapa traya parAjaya sthirAm rAvaNa shriyam api vyakampayat

11-19. bANa bhinna hR^idayA nipetuShI = by arrow, rent, with chest, fell down;sA= she that tATaka;kevalAm sva kAnana bhuvam na vyakampayat= just, her own, woods, ground, not, shook; but; viShTapa-traya parAjaya sthirAm= triad of worlds, by defeating, one who is stable - Ravana;rAvaNa shriyam api vyakampayat= Ravana's, prosperity, even, shook.

While she, whose heart had been shattered by the arrow of Rama dropped down, she not only shuddered her own forest, but even made the prosperity of Ravana, which was well-established by his conquest of the three worlds, shiver. [11-19]

For the arrow cleft/Her heart; she clanging fell, and shook the Earth;/Not only so, but Ravan's kingdom too/Her falling shook the Master of the worlds.


राममन्मथशरेण ताडिता
दुःसहेन हृदये निशाचरी।
जीवितेशवसतिम् जगाम सा॥ ११-२०

rāmamanmathaśareṇa tāḍitā
duḥsahena hṛdaye niśācarī |
jīviteśavasatim jagāma sā || 11-20

rAmamanmathashareNa tADitA
duHsahena hR^idaye nishAcarI |
jIviteshavasatim jagAma sA || 11-20


rAma manmatha shareNa tADitA duHsahena hR^idaye nishAcarI gandhavat rudhira candana ukShitA jIvita-Isha vasatim jagAma sA

11-20. sA nishAcarI= she that night-walker; duHsahena rAma manmatha shareNa= by irresistible, Rama, called Manmatha, with arrow; hR^idaye tADitA= on chest, hit;gandhavat rudhira candana ukShitA= foul smelling, blood called, sandal paste, wetted with it;jIvita-Isha vasatim jagAma = Life's, Lord's, residence, she went to.

Wounded in the heart by the irresistible arrow of that Rama, who is a look-alike of Lovegod, that demoness tATaka departed to the dwelling of the Lord of Life viz. the God of Death, being sprinkled with her foul smelling blood on body as a mistress going to the dwelling of her life's lord-lover is sprinkled over with sweet smelling sandal-wood unguent. [11-20]

Struck to the heart by lovely Rama's shaft/Resistless, spite of all her horrid charms,/Her sandal-wood and gore, the Demon-queen/Passed to the home where Death reigns Lord of life.


नैरृतघ्नमथ मन्त्रवन्मुनेः
ज्योतिरिन्धननिपाति भास्करात्
सूर्यकान्त इव ताडकान्तकः॥ ११-२१

nairṛtaghnamatha mantravanmuneḥ
prāpadastramavadānatoṣitāt |
jyotirindhananipāti bhāskarāt
sūryakānta iva tāḍakāntakaḥ || 11-21

nairR^itaghnamatha mantravanmuneH
prApadastramavadAnatoShitAt |
jyotirindhananipAti bhAskarAt
sUryakAnta iva tADakAntakaH || 11-21


nairR^ita-ghnam atha mantravat muneH prApat astram avadAna toShitAt jyotiH indhana nipAti bhAskarAt sUryakAntaH iva tADaka antakaH

11-21. atha tADaka antakaH= then, tATaka, slayer - Rama;avadAna toShitAt muneH = of prowess - of Ram, gladdened, from sage Vishvamitra; nairR^ita-ghnam= demons, slaying;mantravat astram= with incantation, missile; sUryakAntaH bhAskarAt= sUrya-kAnta jewel, from Sun-god;indhana nipAti jyotiH iva= faggot, burning, light, as with; prApat = [Rama] obtained.

Then Rama, the destroyer of demoness tATaka, received from sage Vishvamitra, who was gratified with his exploits, missiles capable of destroying the rAkshasa-s together with their incantations, like the sun-stone receiving flame from Sun to consume faggots. [11-21]

When Taraka was slain, the Saint, well-pleased/With Rama's prowess, gave the missile dread,/Spell-wielded, Demon-slaying, as the Sun/Gives to the Sun-gem flaming fire to hold.

The sUrya-kAnta maNi, sun-stone is often referred to in Sanskrit literature with regard to its deriving the power of emitting heat under the rays of the sun just as the chandra-kAnta-maNi, moon-stone sheds coolness. The sun-stone may perhaps be the double convex lens which must have been known to our people in the times of Kalidasa.


वामनाश्रमपदम् ततः परम्
पावनम् श्रुतमृषेरुपेयिवान्।
उन्मनाः प्रथमजन्मचेष्टिता
न्यस्मरन्नपि बभूव राघवः॥ ११-२२

vāmanāśramapadam tataḥ param
pāvanam śrutamṛṣerupeyivān |
unmanāḥ prathamajanmaceṣṭitā
nyasmarannapi babhūva rāghavaḥ || 11-22

vAmanAshramapadam tataH param
pAvanam shrutamR^iSherupeyivAn |
unmanAH prathamajanmaceShTitA
nyasmarannapi babhUva rAghavaH || 11-22


vAmana Ashrama padam tataH param pAvanam shrutam R^iSheH upeyivAn unmanAH prathama janma ceShTitAni a+smaran api babhUva rAghavaH

11-22. tataH param= thereafter; rAghavaH= Rama; R^iSheH shrutam= from sage, having heard; pAvanam vAmana Ashrama padam upeyivAn= sanctifying, vAmana-incarnation's, hermitage, thr3eshold, he reached; prathama janma ceShTitAni a+smaran api= of earlier, birth, deeds, not able to recollect, even though; unmanAH= with a kind of enthusiasm; babhUva= he became.

Thereafter, Rama on reaching the highly sanctifying hermitage of Vamana about which he had heard from the sage Vishvamitra, though could not bring to mind the acts done in his former life, he became exhilarated for the reasons unbeknownst. [11-22]

Thereafter Rama, coming to the grove/Once hallowed by the Dwarf, as told the Saint,/Unwitting of his former life, was natheless seized/With eager longing.

According to Vedantic views there will be mood change, mano-vikArA-s, if one comes across certain items of past by aj~nAta janma samskAra balam.


आससाद मुनिरात्मनस्ततः
दर्शनोन्मुखमृगम् तपोवनम्॥ ११-२३

āsasāda munirātmanastataḥ
śiṣyavargaparikalpitārhaṇam |
darśanonmukhamṛgam tapovanam || 11-23

AsasAda munirAtmanastataH
shiShyavargaparikalpitArhaNam |
darshanonmukhamR^igam tapovanam || 11-23


AsasAda muniH AtmanaH tataH shiShya varga parikalpita arhaNam baddha pallava puTa a~njali drumam darshana unmukha mR^igam tapovanam

11-23. tataH muniH= the, the sage Vishvamitra; shiShya varga parikalpita arhaNam= by his disciples, groups, arranged, articles of worship; baddha pallava puTa a~njali drumam= made, with leaflets, bowl-like palms, [the place with such] trees;darshana unmukha mR^igam= to glimpse, upraised faces, deer; AtmanaH tapovanam AsasAda = his own, hermitage, sage reached.

Then the sage Vishvamitra arrived at his own hermitage, where the articles of worship had been gathered by his disciples, where the trees stood, as it were, forming their leaflets like the bowl-shaped palms of supplicants, and where the deer were standing with up-turned faces for a sight of the sage. [11-23]


तत्र दीक्षितमृषिम् ररक्षतुः
विघ्नतो दशरथात्मजौ शरैः।
रश्मिभिः शशिदिवाकराविव॥ ११-२४

tatra dīkṣitamṛṣim rarakṣatuḥ
vighnato daśarathātmajau śaraiḥ |
raśmibhiḥ śaśidivākarāviva || 11-24

tatra dIkShitamR^iShim rarakShatuH
vighnato dasharathAtmajau sharaiH |
rashmibhiH shashidivAkarAviva || 11-24


tatra dIkShitam R^iShim rarakShatuH vighnataH dasharatha Atmajau sharaiH lokam andha-tamasAt krama uditau rashmibhiH shashi divAkarAviva

11-24. tatra= there - in the hermitage of Vishvamitra; dasharatha Atmajau= Dasharatha's, sons; dIkShitam= who had entered upon the initiatory ceremony of a sacrifice; R^iShim= such a sage;sharaiH vighnataH= with arrows, from obstacles; [rarakShatuH= safeguarded]; on par with;krama uditau= sequentially rising [and setting]; shashi divAkarau= moon, sun; rashmibhiH= with rays - sunrays and moonbeams;andha-tamasAt lokam iva= from blinding, darkness, world, as with; rarakShatuH = safeguarded.

In the hermitage of Vishvamitra the two sons of Dasharatha with their arrows guarded that sage who had entered upon the initiatory ceremony of a sacrifice from all the obstacles, just as the moon and the sun rising and setting sequentially protect the world from blinding darkness by means of their rays. [11-24]

There the Princely boys/Stood firm to guard the duly-cleansed Saint/From all disturbing foes, as Moon and Sun/Alternate rising with their radiance save/The world from blinding darkness.


वीक्ष्य वेदिमथ रक्तबिन्दुभिः
बन्धुजीवपृथुभिः प्रदूषिताम्।
ऋत्विजाम् च्युतविकङ्कतस्रुचाम्॥ ११-२५

vīkṣya vedimatha raktabindubhiḥ
bandhujīvapṛthubhiḥ pradūṣitām |
ṛtvijām cyutavikaṅkatasrucām || 11-25

vIkShya vedimatha raktabindubhiH
bandhujIvapR^ithubhiH pradUShitAm |
R^itvijAm cyutavika~NkatasrucAm || 11-25 


vIkShya vedim atha rakta bindubhiH bandhu-jIva pR^ithubhiH pradUShitAm sa.nbhramaH abhavat apoDha karmaNAm R^itvijAm cyuta vika~Nkata srucAm

11-25. atha= then; bandhu-jIva pR^ithubhiH= as large as the bandhu-jiva flowers - Pentapetes phoenicea; rakta bindubhiH pradUShitAm vedim = with blood, drops, maligned, altar of Ritual fire;vIkShya= on seeing;apoDha karmaNAm= those who have abandoned their ritual acts;cyuta vika~Nkata srucAm= slipped [from their hands], ladles made of the Vikankata wood; R^itvijAm= to such priests conducting ritual;sa.nbhramaH abhavat = perplexity, occurred.

On beholding the sacrificial square besprinkled and thus made unholy with drops of blood as large as the bandhUka flowers, there arose consternation among the sacrificing priests from whose hands sacrificial ladles made of Vikankata wood have been dropped, whereby their work had been abandoned. [11-25]

Sudden fell/A terror on the priests, for they beheld/The altar-floor defiled with blood-gouts, broad/As BandhujIwa blossoms at which sight/They ceased their pious rites, and cast away/The sacrificial ladles.


उन्मुखः सपदि लक्षमणाग्रजो
रक्षसाम् बलमपश्यदम्बरे
गृध्रपक्षपवनेरितध्वजम्॥ ११-२६

unmukhaḥ sapadi lakṣamaṇāgrajo
bāṇamāśrayamukhātsamuddharan |
rakṣasām balamapaśyadambare
gṛdhrapakṣapavaneritadhvajam || 11-26

unmukhaH sapadi lakShamaNAgrajo
bANamAshrayamukhAtsamuddharan |
rakShasAm balamapashyadambare
gR^idhrapakShapavaneritadhvajam || 11-26


unmukhaH sapadi lakShamaNa agrajaH bANam Ashraya mukhAt samuddharan rakShasAm balam apashyat ambare gR^idhra pakSha pavana Irita dhvajam

11-26. sapadi= at the very moment; lakShamaNa agrajaH= Lakshmana's elder brother Rama;bANam Ashraya mukhAt samuddharan= an arrow, from quiver's, mouth, drew;unmukhaH= up faced - looking up;ambare gR^idhra pakSha pavana Irita dhvajam= on sky, of vultures, wings, by wind, fluttering, having flags; rakShasAm balam apashyat= demons, host, beheld.

Rama, the elder brother of Lakshmana, instantly drew an arrow from quiver turning his face upwards and beheld all of a sudden a whole host of demons in midair whose banners were wagged by the wind of the wings of vultures flying aloft. [11-26]

Instantly/Upgazing, Rama from his quiver drew/His arrow, saw in air a Demon-host/With banners waving, fanned by vulture's wings.

Vultures and such like birds have always been looked upon as ill-omened and kAlidAsa, it must be said, has very aptly introduced them as hovering on the banners of the sky-chariots of demons.


तत्र यावधिपती मखद्विषाम्
तौ शरव्यमकरोत्स नेतरान्।
किम् महोरगविसर्पिविक्रमो
राजिलेषु गरुडः प्रवर्तते॥ ११-२७

tatra yāvadhipatī makhadviṣām
tau śaravyamakarotsa netarān |
kim mahoragavisarpivikramo
rājileṣu garuḍaḥ pravartate || 11-27

tatra yAvadhipatI makhadviShAm
tau sharavyamakarotsa netarAn |
kim mahoragavisarpivikramo
rAjileShu garuDaH pravartate || 11-27


tatra yau adhipatI makha dviShAm tau sharavyam akarot saH na itarAn kim mahA uraga visarpi vikramaH rAjileShu garuDaH pravartate

11-27. saH= he that Rama; tatra= in that matter of fighting demons; yau makha-dviShAm adhipatI= those two, to Indra-haters - demons, who are the leaders; tau= them two - demons mArIcha and subAhu;sharavyam akarot= as target to arrows, he made; itarAn na= others, not; [tathA hi= it is correct, isn't it]; mahA uraga visarpi vikramaH garuDaH = on great serpent, swooping, one who has such a valour - garuDa;rAjileShu pravartate kim = reg. water-snakes,behaves like that, or what.

In the matter of targeting demons to his arrow, Rama took aim at only two demons, namely mArIcha and subAhu, for they were the chiefs of rAkshasa-s, but not at others. Does the garuDa whose valour takes in the great serpents ever swoops down on water-snakes?

Then at the two Chiefs only, not the rest,/He launched his shaft: so Vishnu's bird, whose might/Mates sheSha, Serpent-King, deigns not to war/On water-snakes.


संदधे धनुषि वायुदैवतम्।
तेन शैलगुरुमप्यपातयत्
पाण्डुपत्रमिव ताडकासुतम्॥ ११-२८

saṁdadhe dhanuṣi vāyudaivatam |
tena śailagurumapyapātayat
pāṇḍupatramiva tāḍakāsutam || 11-28

sa.ndadhe dhanuShi vAyudaivatam |
tena shailagurumapyapAtayat
pANDupatramiva tADakAsutam || 11-28


saH astram ugra javam astra-kovidaH sa.ndadhe dhanuShi vAyu daivatam tena shaila gurum api apAtayat pANDu patram iva tADakA sutam

11-28. astra-kovidaH saH= expert in missilery, he that Rama; ugra javam vAyu daivatam astram= high-speeded, one belonged to Wind-god, such a missile; dhanuShi sa.ndadhe= on bow, emplaced;tena= by that missile;shaila gurum api= mountain-like weighty and tall one; tADakA sutam= taTaka's, son - subAhu;pANDu patram iva= whitened, leaf, as with;apAtayat = shot down.

Rama, the expert in missilery, emplaced an arrow on his bow having great velocity and wind-god for its presiding deity; thereby he felled down subAhu, the son of demoness tATaka as if he were no more than a withered tree leaf, although actually tall and weighty like a mountain. [11-28]


यः सुबाहुरिति राक्षसोऽपरः
तत्र तत्र विससर्प मायया।
तम् क्षुरप्रशकलीकृतम् कृती
पत्रिणाम् व्यभजदाश्रमाद्बहिः॥ ११-२९

yaḥ subāhuriti rākṣaso'paraḥ
tatra tatra visasarpa māyayā |
tam kṣurapraśakalīkṛtam kṛtī
patriṇām vyabhajadāśramādbahiḥ || 11-29

yaH subAhuriti rAkShaso.aparaH
tatra tatra visasarpa mAyayA |
tam kShuraprashakalIkR^itam kR^itI
patriNAm vyabhajadAshramAdbahiH || 11-29


yaH subAhuH iti rAkShasaH aparaH tatra tatra visasarpa mAyayA tam kShura prashakalI kR^itam kR^itI patriNAm vyabhajat AshramAt bahiH

11-29. subAhuH iti yaH aparaH rAkShasaH= subAhu, thus known, he, who is the other, demon;tatra tatra mAyayA visasarpa= there, there, by wizardry, he is moving;kShura prashakalI kR^itam tam= by arrow, as splinters, on making, him; kR^itI= for being an expert - Rama;AshramAt bahiH patriNAm vyabhajat = hermitage, outside, for vultures, he divided - the body of demon.

The other demon-warrior known as subAhu moved from place to place on account of his magical powers; but having hewed him by his crescent-shaped arrow, the expert archer Rama, distributed the pieces of his body among vultures outside the hermitage. [11-29]


सांयुगीनमभिनन्द्य विक्रमम्।
ऋत्विजः कुलपतेर्यथाक्रमम्
वाग्यतस्य निरवर्तयन्क्रियाः॥ ११-३०

sāṁyugīnamabhinandya vikramam |
ṛtvijaḥ kulapateryathākramam
vāgyatasya niravartayankriyāḥ || 11-30

sA.nyugInamabhinandya vikramam |
R^itvijaH kulapateryathAkramam
vAgyatasya niravartayankriyAH || 11-30


iti apAsta makha vighnayoH tayoH sA.nyugInam abhinandya vikramam R^itvijaH kulapateH yathA kramam vAgyatasya niravartayan kriyAH

11-30. iti apAsta makha vighnayoH= in this way, removed, Vedic-rituals, obstacles;tayoH sA.nyugInam a vikramam = of those two brothers, in warring, valour;abhinandya= praising;R^itvijaH= priests;vAgyatasya kulapateH kriyAH= one avowed to remain silent [till he ritual is complete], of Vishvamitra, his Vedic-ritual;yathA kramam niravartayan= in due order, they the priests completed.

The priests conducting the Vedic ritual having praised the heroic action of those two brothers who had thus removed the interruptions to their sacrifice, carried through the ritual of the silent chief of hermitage, namely Vishvamitra, to its completion and in due order. [11-30]


तौ प्रणामचलकाकपक्षकौ
भ्रातराववभृथाप्लुतो मुनिः।
आशिषामनुपदं समस्पृशत्
दर्भपाटलतलेन पाणिना॥ ११-३१॥

tau praṇāmacalakākapakṣakau
bhrātarāvavabhṛthāpluto muniḥ |
āśiṣāmanupadaṁ samaspṛśat
darbhapāṭalatalena pāṇinā || 11-31

tau praNAmacalakAkapakShakau
bhrAtarAvavabhR^ithApluto muniH |
 AshiShAmanupada.n samaspR^ishat
darbhapATalatalena pANinA || 11-31


tau praNAma cala kAka-pakShakau bhrAtarau avabhR^itha AplutaH muniH AshiShAm anupadam sam-aspR^ishat darbha pATala talena pANinA

11-31.avabhR^itha AplutaH muniH= with end-time ablutions, who took bath, that sage; praNAma cala kAkapakShakau= whose side-locks of hair were waving in the act of making obeisance to sage;tau bhrAtarau= those two brothers;AshiShAm anupadam= benedictions, following; darbha pATita talena pANinA = by darbha grass, inlaid, with palm, of hand - with a hand having darbha grass ring on one finger - called pavitram used in all ceremonies - or with palms scratched by darbha grass blades;sam-aspR^ishat = well touched.

Then sage Vishvamitra finishing the end-time bath of the ritual called avabhR^itha ablutions, pronounced his blessings on the boys whose side-locks were a little wavy when they bent down to offer obeisance to that sage, and he also patted on the backs of the two brothers with his palm that has a darbha grass ring on one of its fingers. [11-31]


तम् न्यमन्त्रयत संभृतक्रतुः
मैथिलः स मिथिलाम् व्रजन्वशी।
राघवावपि निनाय बिभ्रतौ
तद्धनुःश्रवणजम् कुतूहलम्॥ ११-३२

tam nyamantrayata saṁbhṛtakratuḥ
maithilaḥ sa mithilām vrajanvaśī |
rāghavāvapi nināya bibhratau
taddhanuḥśravaṇajam kutūhalam || 11-32

tam nyamantrayata sa.nbhR^itakratuH
maithilaH sa mithilAm vrajanvashI |
rAghavAvapi ninAya bibhratau
taddhanuHshravaNajam kutUhalam || 11-32


tam nyamantrayata sa.nbhR^ita kratuH maithilaH sa mithilAm vrajan vashI rAghavau api ninAya bibhratau tat dhanuH shravaNa jam kutUhalam

11=-32. sa.nbhR^ita kratuH maithilaH = who had made all preparations to perform a Vedic-ritual, Janaka;tam nyamantrayata= him - Vishvamitra, invited; vashI sa mithilAm vrajan= self-controlled, he - Vishvamitra, to Mithila, while going;tat dhanuH = about that, bow of Shiva; shravaNa jam kutUhalam bibhratau = on hearing, birthed, curiosity, those two who are bearing [that curiosity]; rAghavau api ninAya = both Raghava-s, also, took with him.

Janaka, the king of Mithila, having made all the preparations to conduct a Vedic-Ritual invited the sage Vishvamitra to it. That self-restrained sage while going to Mithila took with him the two scions of Raghu also, who were filled with curiosity aroused by an account of Shiva's bow available with king Janaka. [11-32]


तैः शिवेषु वसतिर्गताध्वभिः
येषु दीर्घतपसः परिग्रहो
वासवक्षणकलत्रताम् ययौ॥ ११-३३

taiḥ śiveṣu vasatirgatādhvabhiḥ
sāyamāśramatanuṣvagṛhyata |
yeṣu dīrghatapasaḥ parigraho
vāsavakṣaṇakalatratām yayau || 11-33

taiH shiveShu vasatirgatAdhvabhiH
sAyamAshramatanuShvagR^ihyata |
yeShu dIrghatapasaH parigraho
vAsavakShaNakalatratAm yayau || 11-33


taiH shiveShu vasatiH gata adhvabhiH sAyam Ashrama taruShu agR^ihyata yeShu dIrgha tapasaH parigrahaH vAsava kShaNa kalatratAm yayau

11-33. gata adhvabhiH= those who left a long road behind them - wayfarers; taiH= by them; sAyam= by evening;shiveShu Ashrama taruShu vasatiH agR^ihyata= under pleasing, hermitage's, trees, sojourn, taken;yeShu= under which trees;dIrgha tapasaH= long-time, ascetic - extraordinarily rigid anchorite - sage Gautama;parigrahaH= his wife ahalya;vAsava kShaNa kalatratAm yayau= Indra's, momentary, wifehood, went into.

A resting place was fixed upon in the evening by those wayfarers under the very charming trees of a hermitage, under which ahalya, the wife of the extraordinarily rigid anchorite Gautama went into the condition of a momentary wife of Indra. [11-33]

And at night they took their rest/Where wave the pleasant trees of Gautama,/Sainted Ascetic, whose fair spouse - deceived -/Short space to Indra yielded.


प्रत्यपद्यत चिराय यत्पुन
श्चारु गौतमवधूः शिलामयी।
स्वम् वपुः स किल किल्बिषच्छिदाम्
रामपादरजसामनुग्रहः॥ ११-३४

pratyapadyata cirāya yatpuna
ścāru gautamavadhūḥ śilāmayī |
svam vapuḥ sa kila kilbiṣacchidām
rāmapādarajasāmanugrahaḥ || 11-34

pratyapadyata cirAya yatpuna
shcAru gautamavadhUH shilAmayI |
svam vapuH sa kila kilbiShacChidAm
rAmapAdarajasAmanugrahaH || 11-34 


pratyapadyata cirAya yat punaH cAru gautama vadhUH shilAmayI svam vapuH sa kila kilbiSha cChidAm rAma pAda rajasAm anugrahaH

11-34. shilAmayI gautama vadhUH= metamorphosed to a stone, Gautama's, wife;cAru svam vapuH= beautiful, her, body;cirAya punaH pratyapadyata= after a long time, again, she regained;yat= that which happening is there - that; saH= that happening; kilbiSha cChidAm= sin, destroying; rAma pAda rajasAm anugrahaH kila = Rama's, foot's, dust's, favour, they say so;

The fact that the wife of Gautama who had been metamorphosed to a stone regained her own handsome form after a long time, they say, is the result of the favour of the sin-destroying dust of the feet of Rama. [11-34]


राघवान्वितमुपस्थितम् मुनिम्
तम् निशम्य जनको जनेश्वरः।
अर्थकामसहितम् सपर्यया
देहबद्धमिव धर्ममभ्यगात्॥ ११-३५

rāghavānvitamupasthitam munim
tam niśamya janako janeśvaraḥ |
arthakāmasahitam saparyayā
dehabaddhamiva dharmamabhyagāt || 11-35

rAghavAnvitamupasthitam munim
tam nishamya janako janeshvaraH |
arthakAmasahitam saparyayA
dehabaddhamiva dharmamabhyagAt || 11-35


rAghava anvitam upasthitam munim tam nishamya janakaH janeshvaraH artha kAma sahitam saparyayA deha baddham iva dharmam abhyagAt

11-35. rAghava anvitam upasthitam tam munim= Rama, along with, who has come, that, sage Vishvamitra; janakaH janeshvaraH nishamya= Janaka, the king, on hearing about;artha kAma deha baddham sahitam dharmam iva= prosperity, desire, accompanied, virtue, as with;saparyayA abhyagAt= with adorations, went forward - receive.

 On hearing that the sage Vishvamitra accompanied with the Raghu princes had arrived King Janaka went forward to receive him with worshipping materials, as if, Dharma incarnate has arrived accompanied by wealth and desire. [11-35]


तौ विदेहनगरीनिवासिनाम्
गाम् गताविव दिवः पुनर्वसू।
मन्यते स्म पिबताम् विलोचनैः
पक्ष्मपातमपि वञ्चनाम् मनः॥ ११-३६

tau videhanagarīnivāsinām
gām gatāviva divaḥ punarvasū |
manyate sma pibatām vilocanaiḥ
pakṣmapātamapi vañcanām manaḥ || 11-36

tau videhanagarInivAsinAm
gAm gatAviva divaH punarvasU |
manyate sma pibatAm vilocanaiH
pakShmapAtamapi va~ncanAm manaH || 11-36 


tau videha nagarI nivAsinAm gAm gatau iva divaH punarvasU manyate sma pibatAm vilocanaiH pakShma pAtam api va~ncanAm manaH

11-36. divaH gAm gatau = from heaven, to earth, reached; punarvasU iva= the two stars Castor and Pollux of Gemini constellation, as with; tau= them two; vilocanaiH pibatAm= with eyes, who are drinking; videha nagarI nivAsinAm manaH= Videha, city, dwellers, hearts; pakShma pAtam api va~ncanAm manyate sma = eyelids, falling, even, as hoodwink, [their hearts] deemed it so.

The hearts of the inhabitants of the city of Videha who were eye-feasting on those two princes semblable with two stars of Punarvasu descended to this earth from heaven, viewed even a wink as a hoodwink. [11-36]

The dwellers in Videha, glad at heart,/With longing looks devoured the Princes twain,/Like Punarvasu come once more to earth,/Nor dared to wink, lest haply they might miss/One moment's joy.


यूपवत्यवसिते क्रियाविधौ
मैथिलाय कथयांबभूव सः॥ ११-३७

yūpavatyavasite kriyāvidhau
kālavitkuśikavaṁśavardhanaḥ |
maithilāya kathayāṁbabhūva saḥ || 11-37

yUpavatyavasite kriyAvidhau
kAlavitkushikava.nshavardhanaH |
maithilAya kathayA.nbabhUva saH || 11-37


yUpavati avasite kriyA vidhau kAlavit kushika va.nsha vardhanaH rAmam iShu-vasana darshana utsukam maithilAya kathayA.n babhUva saH

11-37. yUpavati = the sacrificial post either made of Bamboo, udumbara, or khadira (Mimosa Catechu) to which the victim for the sacrifice is tethered - Vedic Ritual;kriyA vidhau avasite sati= [rituals] proceedings, when concluded; kAlavit= one who has the discerning power as to the right moment for any work; kushika va.nsha vardhanaH= who bad raised the status of the family of Kaushika; saH= such Vishvamitra;rAmam= about Rama;iShu-vasana= an appliance to let fly arrows - bow - Shiva's bow; darshana utsukam= to see it, [Rama is] curious;maithilAya kathayA.n babhUva = to Janaka, started telling about it, he had.

He who had raised the status of the family of Kaushika and who could understand which was the right time to start any action, that sage Vishvamitra narrated to Janaka, the king of the Mithila, who this Rama was that was so eager to have a view of the bow of Shiva. [11-37]


तस्य वीक्ष्य ललितम् वपुः शिशोः
पार्थिवः प्रथितवंशजन्मनः।
स्वम् विचिन्त्य च धनुर्दुरानमम्
पीडितो दुहितृशुल्कसंस्थया॥ ११-३८

tasya vīkṣya lalitam vapuḥ śiśoḥ
pārthivaḥ prathitavaṁśajanmanaḥ |
svam vicintya ca dhanurdurānamam
pīḍito duhitṛśulkasaṁsthayā || 11-38

tasya vIkShya lalitam vapuH shishoH
pArthivaH prathitava.nshajanmanaH |
svam vicintya ca dhanurdurAnamam
pIDito duhitR^ishulkasa.nsthayA || 11-38


asya vIkShya lalitam vapuH shishoH pArthivaH prathita va.nsha janmanaH svam vicintya ca dhanuH dur+A+namam pIDitaH duhitR^i shulka sa.nsthayA

11-38. pArthivaH= king Janaka; prathita va.nsha janmanaH= one who was born in a renowned family - Rama;tasya shishoH lalitam vapuH vIkShya= that, boy's, elegant, body, on seeing;svam= his opwn - Janaka's;dur+A+namam= not, fully, bendable;dhanuH ca= about Shiva's, bow, also; vicintya= on thinking; duhitR^i shulka= the money or its equivalent given by the bride-groom to the bride - here it is vIra-shulka; sa.nsthayA= established condition - the condition was that instead of any bride-money the bow of Shiva which was with Janaka must be stringed by the suitor to his daughter's hand;pIDitaH= saddened.

Beholding the charming childish form of Rama, King Janaka was triply grieved; whether to loose this winsome boy born in the renowned family of Raghu as in the case of many princes who have earlier failed even to lift the bow of Shiva; whether the unmanageable bow of Shiva will yield to him; whether this boy can withstand to the precondition of stringing and taking aim with that bow whereby he becomes the eligible suitor of his daughter Seetha. [11-38]

He, when he saw the lovely, high-born Boy,/And knew the Bow, how stiff it was to bend,/Grieved he had set his daughter's hand a prize/For thews and sinews.



अब्रवीच्च भगवन्मतङ्गजै
र्यद्बृहद्भिरपि कर्म दुष्करम्।
तत्र नाहमनुमन्तुमुत्सहे
मोघवृत्ति कलभस्य चेष्टितम्॥ ११-३९

abravīcca bhagavanmataṅgajai
ryadbṛhadbhirapi karma duṣkaram |
tatra nāhamanumantumutsahe
moghavṛtti kalabhasya ceṣṭitam || 11-39

abravIcca bhagavanmata~Ngajai
ryadbR^ihadbhirapi karma duShkaram |
tatra nAhamanumantumutsahe
moghavR^itti kalabhasya ceShTitam || 11-39


abravIt ca bhagavan mata~NgajaiH yat bR^ihadbhiH api karma duShkaram tatra na aham anumantum utsahe moghavR^itti kalabhasya ceShTitam

11-39. hè bhagavan= oh, godly sage Vishvamitra; bR^ihadbhiH mata~NgajaiH api= by great, elephants, even;duShkaram yat karma= impossible, which, deed is there; tatra = in that affair;kalabhasya moghavR^itti ceShTitam= by baby elephant, futile effort, to involve in;anumantum na aham utsahe= to permit, I am, not, inclined; abravIt ca = in this way Janaka said to Vishvamitra.

And Janaka said to Vishvamitra, "Oh, godly sage, in a task where the accomplishment is hardly possible even to large elephants, the effort of a baby elephant is sure to be futile... hence, I am not inclined to permit the latter. [11-39]

"Nay," he soon replied,/" Great Saint, it were not meet a noble calf/Should vainly try a task which all the strength/Demands of full-grown forest elephants.


ह्रेपिता हि बहवो नरेश्वरास्तेन
तात धनुषा धनुर्भृतः।
ज्यानिघातकठिनत्वचो भुजान्
स्वान्विधूय धिगिति प्रतस्थिरे॥ ११-४०

hrepitā hi bahavo nareśvarāstena
tāta dhanuṣā dhanurbhṛtaḥ |
jyānighātakaṭhinatvaco bhujān
svānvidhūya dhigiti pratasthire || 11-40

hrepitA hi bahavo nareshvarAstena
tAta dhanuShA dhanurbhR^itaH |
jyAnighAtakaThinatvaco bhujAn
svAnvidhUya dhigiti pratasthire || 11-40 


hrepitA hi bahavo nareshvarAH tena tAta dhanuShA dhanurbhR^itaH jyA nighAta kaThina tvacaH bhujAn svAn vidhUya dhik iti pratasthire

11-40. hè tAta= oh, sire; tena dhanuShA= by that, bow of Shiva; bahavaH dhanurbhR^itaH nareshvarAH= many, expert archers, kings; hrepitA hi= put to shame, indeed; they; jyA nighAta kaThina tvacaH= by bowstring, dents, hardened, skin - though they are expert archers; svAn bhujAn dhik iti vidhUya= their own, arms, fie on them, saying so; pratasthire = went away.

"That bow, oh sire, put many a king to shame when they tried to lift it; and those who failed precipitately went away cursing their hands, even if those hands are hardened by the constant friction with the bow-string establishing them as expert archers, saying 'fie on these hands that could not lift the bow...'. [11-40]


प्रत्युवाच तमृषिर्निशम्यताम्
सारतोऽयमथवा गिरा कृतम्।
चाप एव भवतो भविष्यति
व्यक्तशक्तिरशनिर्गिराविव॥ ११-४१

pratyuvāca tamṛṣirniśamyatām
sārato'yamathavā girā kṛtam |
cāpa eva bhavato bhaviṣyati
vyaktaśaktiraśanirgirāviva || 11-41

pratyuvAca tamR^iShirnishamyatAm
sArato.ayamathavA girA kR^itam |
cApa eva bhavato bhaviShyati
vyaktashaktirashanirgirAviva || 11-41


pratyuvAca tam R^iShiH nishamyatAm sArataH ayam athavA girA kR^itam cApa eva bhavataH bhaviShyati vyakta shaktiH ashaniH girau iva

11-41. ayam sArataH nishamyatAm= this [boy], by his dynamism, be heard - be known;athavA= or else;girA kR^itam= words [extolling Shiva's bow], enough with them; ashaniH girau iva= thunderbolt [its power], on [flying] mountains, as with; cApa eva bhavataH vyakta shaktiH bhaviShyati= [in the matter of] bow, alone, to you, established, his prowess, he will become;R^iShiH tam pratyuvAca= in this way, the sage, to him, replied.

"Spot the dynamism of this boy in his actions, ergo, of what use is this extolment of that bow in these many words; as with efficacy of Thunderbolt demonstrable on flying-mountains, this boy's efficiency is verifiable en face that bow; take it or leave it..." so said Vishvamitra to Janaka. [11-41] 


एवमाप्तवचनात्स पौरुषम्
काकपक्षकधरेऽपि राघवे।
श्रद्दधे त्रिदशगोपमात्रके
दाहशक्तिमिव कृष्णवर्त्मनि॥ ११-४२

evamāptavacanātsa pauruṣam
kākapakṣakadhare'pi rāghave |
śraddadhe tridaśagopamātrake
dāhaśaktimiva kṛṣṇavartmani || 11-42

evamAptavacanAtsa pauruSham
kAkapakShakadhare.api rAghave |
shraddadhe tridashagopamAtrake
dAhashaktimiva kR^iShNavartmani || 11-42


evam Apta vacanAt saH pauruSham kAka-pakShaka dhare api rAghave shraddadhe tridashagopa-mAtrake dAha shaktim iva kR^iShNa vartmani

11-42. evam = in this way; Apta vacanAt= by friendly, words of Vishvamitra;saH= he that Janaka;kAka-pakShaka dhare api rAghave= with boyish curls, though, reg. Rama;pauruSham tridashagopa-mAtrake kR^iShNa-vartmani = valour, a small insect, as small as, fire;dAha shaktim iva= [still] it has burning capacity, as with; shraddadhe = [Janaka] gave credence to his words.

Thus, through the words of a reliable person Janaka came to have faith as to the existence of prowess even in Raghava who was so young with jet-black side-locks of hair; as one accepting the existence of the power of consuming to fire, even though that fire is no more than an insect in size. [11-42]


व्यादिदेश गणशोऽथ पार्श्वगान्
कार्मुकाभिहरणाय मैथिलः।
तैजसस्य धनुषः प्रवृत्तये
तोयदानिव सहस्रलोचनः॥ ११-४३

vyādideśa gaṇaśo'tha pārśvagān
kārmukābhiharaṇāya maithilaḥ |
taijasasya dhanuṣaḥ pravṛttaye
toyadāniva sahasralocanaḥ || 11-43

vyAdidesha gaNasho.atha pArshvagAn
kArmukAbhiharaNAya maithilaH |
taijasasya dhanuShaH pravR^ittaye
toyadAniva sahasralocanaH || 11-43 


vyAdidesha gaNashaH atha pArshvagAn kArmuka abhiharaNAya maithilaH taijasasya dhanuShaH pravR^ittaye toyadAn iva sahasra-locanaH

11-43. atha maithilaH= then, king of Mithila; pArshvagAn kArmuka abhiharaNAya= attendants at his side, Shiva's bow, to fetch; sahasra-locanaH= thousand eyed Indra;taijasasya dhanuShaH pravR^ittaye= containing self-luminosity, [rain] bow, in order to display;toyadAn iva= clouds, as with;gaNashaH= in batches;vyAdidesha= ordered.

Thereupon the king of Mithila specially ordered batch after batch of his servants to fetch the bow of Shiva, just as the thousand-eyed Indra orders batches and batches of clouds to form a cloudscape, in order to flaunt his self-luminous rainbow. [11-43]


वीक्ष्य दाशरथिराददे धनुः।
येन बाणमसृजत्वृषध्वजः॥ ११-४४

vīkṣya dāśarathirādade dhanuḥ |
yena bāṇamasṛjatvṛṣadhvajaḥ || 11-44

vIkShya dAsharathirAdade dhanuH |
yena bANamasR^ijatvR^iShadhvajaH || 11-44 


tat prasupta bhujaga-indra bhIShaNam vIkShya dAsharathiH Adade dhanuH vidruta kratu mR^iga anusAriNam yena bANam asR^ijat vR^iSha-dhvajaH

11-44. dAsharathiH= son of Dasharatha; prasupta bhujaga-indra bhIShaNam= well-slept, [as with] serpents, king, a terrible one - bow of Shiva; tat dhanuH vIkShya Adade= that, bow, on beholding it well, took it up; vR^iSha-dhvajaH= bull-bannered god Shiva;yena= with which bow;vidruta kratu mR^iga anusAriNam bANam= fleeing, ritual, animal, chasing, arrow;asR^ijat = Shiva created.

On beholding the bow the son of Dasharatha lifted it up, with which bow once the god Shiva sent an arrow at the Vedic-ritual that was fleeing away in the guise of a deer, and which is now looking terrible like the sleeping king of serpents. [11-44]


आततज्यमकरोत्स संसदा
शैलसारमपि नातियत्नतः
पुष्पचापमिव पेशलम् स्मरः॥ ११-४५

ātatajyamakarotsa saṁsadā
vismayastimitanetramīkṣitaḥ |
śailasāramapi nātiyatnataḥ
puṣpacāpamiva peśalam smaraḥ || 11-45

Atatajyamakarotsa sa.nsadA
vismayastimitanetramIkShitaH |
shailasAramapi nAtiyatnataH
puShpacApamiva peshalam smaraH  || 11-45


Atatajyam akarot saH sa.nsadA vismaya stimita netram IkShitaH shaila sAram api na ati yatnataH puShpa cApam iva peshalam smaraH

11-45. saH= he that Rama; sa.nsadA= by courtiers in the court of Janaka; vismaya stimita netram IkShitaH= by amazement, steadied,eyes, one who is being looked upon; shaila sAram api= mountain-like, in sturdy and weighty, though - that bow is;smaraH peshalam puShpa cApam iva= Lovegod's, delicate, flower, bow, as with; na ati yatnataH= not, with great, effort;Atata jyam akarot = fastened with bowstring, he made.

While the courtiers were gazing at him in wide-eyed amazement, Rama, without any great effort fastened bowstring to the bow of Shiva even though it was sturdy and weighty like a mountain, just as Lovegod strings his frangible bow of flowers. [11-45]


तेन वज्रपरुषस्वनम् धनुः।
भार्गवाय दृढमन्यवे पुनः
क्षत्रमुद्यतमिव न्यवेदयत्॥ ११-४६

tena vajraparuṣasvanam dhanuḥ |
bhārgavāya dṛḍhamanyave punaḥ
kṣatramudyatamiva nyavedayat || 11-46

tena vajraparuShasvanam dhanuH |
bhArgavAya dR^iDhamanyave punaH
kShatramudyatamiva nyavedayat || 11-46


bhajyamAnam atimAtra karShaNAt tena vajra paruSha svanam dhanuH bhArgavAya dR^iDha manyave punaH kShatram udyatam iva nyavedayat

11-46. tena atimAtra karShaNAt= by him, a little more, on stretching the bow;bhajyamAnam = that started to break;vajra paruSha svanam= with thunderclap-like, harsh, noise;dhanuH= that bow of Shiva;dR^iDha manyave bhArgavAya= who has excessive enmity [to Kshatriya-s], to such Parashu-Rama;kShatram punaH udyatam nyavedayat iva= Kshatriyahood, again, up-surged, announced, as if.

When that bow is stretched a little more than required it started to break producing a sound as loud as a thunderclap, which announced as it were the resurgence of Kshatriya-s to Parashu-Rama who bore excessive enmity towards that Kshatriya race.  [11-46]

Nay more, that Bow,/Drawn by the Hero's careless hand too far,/Snapped with harsh thunderous sound, proclaiming loud/To wrathful Bhrigu's son the Warrior-race/Again had raised its head.


दृष्टसारमथ रुद्रकार्मुके
वीर्यशुल्कमभिनन्द्य मैथिलः।
राघवाय तनयामयोनिजाम्
रूपिणीम् श्रियमिव न्यवेदयत्॥ ११-४७

dṛṣṭasāramatha rudrakārmuke
vīryaśulkamabhinandya maithilaḥ |
rāghavāya tanayāmayonijām
rūpiṇīm śriyamiva nyavedayat || 11-47

dR^iShTasAramatha rudrakArmuke
vIryashulkamabhinandya maithilaH |
rAghavAya tanayAmayonijAm
rUpiNIm shriyamiva nyavedayat || 11-47 


11-47. athamaithilaH= then, king Janaka; rudra kArmuke dR^iShTa sAram= in reg. to bow, of Shiva, having seen, the capability - of Rama; vIrya-shulkam= strength of bridegroom which was the price fixed for the bride-price; abhinandya= on approving;rAghavAya= to Rama;a+yonijAm tanayAm = whose birth is not from any womb, such a daughter; rUpiNIm shriyam iva= embodied, goddess Lakshmi, one who is like; nyavedayat= offered.

Then, approving the display of that strength which was fixed as the price for winning his daughter as bride and whose testing had been witnessed by him on Rudra's bow, the King of Mithila offered his daughter Seetha who was not born from a womb and who was Goddess Lakshmi herself, as it were, in corporeal form to Raghava. [11-47]

 The Monarch, glad/To hail such might transcendent, snapping thus/Great Diva's Bow, to Rama gave Sita,/His lovely daughter, not of woman born,/Like Lakshmi born on earth.


मैथिलः सपदि सत्यसंगरो
राघवाय तनयामयोनिजाम्।
संनिधौ द्युतिमतस्तपोनिधे
रग्निसाक्षिक इवातिसृष्टवान्॥ ११-४८

maithilaḥ sapadi satyasaṁgaro
rāghavāya tanayāmayonijām |
saṁnidhau dyutimatastaponidhe
ragnisākṣika ivātisṛṣṭavān || 11-48

maithilaH sapadi satyasa.ngaro
rAghavAya tanayAmayonijAm |
sa.nnidhau dyutimatastaponidhe
ragnisAkShika ivAtisR^iShTavAn || 11-48 


maithilaH sapadi satya sa.ngaraH rAghavAya tanayAm ayonijAm sa.nnidhau dyutimataH taponidheH agni sAkShika iva atisR^iShTavAn

11-48. satya sa.ngaraH maithilaH = one true to his promise, Janaka;rAghavAya= to Rama;ayonijAm tanayAm= of non-uterine birth, such daughter; dyutimataH taponidheH sa.nnidhau= resplendent, sage, in presence of;agni sAkShika iva= fire, witness, as if; sapadi= immediately;atisR^iShTavAn= released, gave away.

King of Mithila who was true to his promise at once gave his daughter of non-uterine birth to Raghava in the presence of the lustrous treasure of asceticism, namely sage Vishvamitra, and wellnigh a Ritual-fire witnessing the marriage. [11-48]

His child the King,/Fulfilling so his promise, straight bestowed/In presence of the Saint: fit witness he,/Not less than sacred Fire, to bind their vows.


प्राहिणोच्च महितम् महाद्युतिः
कोसलाधिपतये पुरोधसम्।
भृत्यभावि दुहितुः परिग्रहात्
दिश्यताम् कुलमिदम् निमेरिति॥ ११-४९

prāhiṇocca mahitam mahādyutiḥ
kosalādhipataye purodhasam |
bhṛtyabhāvi duhituḥ parigrahāt
diśyatām kulamidam nimeriti || 11-49

prAhiNocca mahitam mahAdyutiH
kosalAdhipataye purodhasam |
bhR^ityabhAvi duhituH parigrahAt
dishyatAm kulamidam nimeriti || 11-49


prAhiNot ca mahitam mahAdyutiH kosala adhipataye purodhasam bhR^ityabhAvi duhituH parigrahAt dishyatAm kulam idam nimeH iti

11-49. mahAdyutiH= great resplendent one Janaka; mahitam purodhasam= revered, priest;kosala adhipataye= to Kosala king; [saying]idam nimeH kulam duhituH parigrahAt = this one, of Nimi, dynasty, a daughter of, by taking her - as daughter-in-law; bhR^ityabhAvi= [she will be in your] service; dishyatAm= [this arrangement] may please be ordered - accepted;iti = in this way [sent message];prAhiNot ca = sent [the priest] also.

And that illustrious monarch Janaka sent a venerable family-priest to the lord of K0sala, namely Dasharatha, to say 'Be pleased to grant to this family of Nimi the condition of a servant to your dynasty by the acceptance of my daughter as your daughter-in-law...' [11-49]

Then noble Janaka his household Priest/Revered as envoy sent to Kosala,/This message bearing:"Grant me, noble King,/That through my daughter's marriage Nimi's race/Be made thy servants !"


अन्वियेष सदृशीम् स च स्नुषाम्
प्राप चैनमनुकूलवाग्द्विजः।
सद्य एव सुकृताम् हि पच्यते
कल्पवृक्षफलधर्मि काङ्क्षितम्॥ ११-५०

anviyeṣa sadṛśīm sa ca snuṣām
prāpa cainamanukūlavāgdvijaḥ |
sadya eva sukṛtām hi pacyate
kalpavṛkṣaphaladharmi kāṅkṣitam || 11-50

anviyeSha sadR^ishIm sa ca snuShAm
prApa cainamanukUlavAgdvijaH |
sadya eva sukR^itAm hi pacyate
kalpavR^ikShaphaladharmi kA~NkShitam || 11-50 


anviyeSha sadR^ishIm sa ca snuShAm prApa ca enam anukUlavAk dvijaH sadya eva sukR^itAm hi pacyate kalpa-vR^ikSha phala dharmi kA~NkShitam

11-50. saH ca= he that Dasharatha, also; sadR^ishIm snuShAm anviyeSha= for suitable, daughter-in-law, was searching [at that time]; anukUlavAk dvijaH ca enam prApa= with a favourable word, that brAhmaAa [priest], also, him [Dasharatha], reached;hi]= that is like that only;kalpa-vR^ikSha phala dharmi= nature of the fruit of the Kalpa tree; sukR^itAm kA~NkShitam= for meritorious people, whatever they desire; sadya eva pacyate = immediately, come to fruition.

Just as Dasharatha was contemplating about a suitable daughter-in-law than the brAhmaNa priest having a favourable message reached him; for, the desire of meritorious which partakes of the nature of the fruit of the Kalpa tree that takes ripens as soon as it takes birth, comes to fulfilment at once. [11-50]

Now the Father's heart/Was set for Rama e'en on such a bride,/When lo ! the Brahman came, and crowned his wish:/So speedily a good man's thoughts bear fruit,/As doth the Wishing-Tree !


तस्य कल्पितपुरस्क्रियाविधेः
उच्चचाल बलभित्सखो वशी
सैन्यरेणुमुषितार्कदीधितिः॥ ११-५१

tasya kalpitapuraskriyāvidheḥ
śuśruvānvacanamagrajanmanaḥ |
uccacāla balabhitsakho vaśī
sainyareṇumuṣitārkadīdhitiḥ || 11-51

tasya kalpitapuraskriyAvidheH
shushruvAnvacanamagrajanmanaH |
uccacAla balabhitsakho vashI
sainyareNumuShitArkadIdhitiH || 11-51 


tasya kalpita puraskriyA vidheH shushruvAn vacanam agra-janmanaH uccacAla balabhit-sakhaH vashI sainya reNu muShita arka dIdhitiH

11-51. balabhit-sakhaH= Indra's friend;vashI= self-controlled one - Dasharatha; kalpita puraskriyA vidheH= on performing the rites of a hospitable reception to messenger-priest; tasya agra-janmanaH vacanam shushruvAn= high, high born one's, message, having heard; sainya reNu muShita arka dIdhitiH= by army, upheaved dust, when removed, as Sun, in glow; uccacAla= got up - proceeded to Mithila.

Dasharatha, a self-controlled king and a friend of Indra, on hearing the message of that family-priest of Janaka to whom a hospitable reception had been accorded, at once started on a journey to Mithila overcastting the brightness of the sun by the dust raised by his army in that post-haste.[11-51]

The Brahman's speech,/With lowly words due prefaced, when he heard,/Great Indra's friend, the Ascetic-King, set forth,/The Sun eclipsing with his army's dust.

That is to say Dasharatha travelled to Mithila with all of his kalatra, bandhu, mitra, bhR^itya, prabhR^itya, paricChada, parivAra sameta  and what not, where each will have his/her own convoy which itself is a fleet. With these multitudes of a marriage party, dust raised by hooves shrouding the sun is not an impossibilty. 


आससाद मिथिलाम् स वेष्टयन्
पीडितोपवनपादपाम् बलैः।
प्रीतिरोधमसहिष्ट सा पुरी
स्त्रीव कान्तपरिभोगमायतम्॥ ११-५२

āsasāda mithilām sa veṣṭayan
pīḍitopavanapādapām balaiḥ |
prītirodhamasahiṣṭa sā purī
strīva kāntaparibhogamāyatam || 11-52

AsasAda mithilAm sa veShTayan
pIDitopavanapAdapAm balaiH |
prItirodhamasahiShTa sA purI
strIva kAntaparibhogamAyatam || 11-52


AsasAda mithilAm sa veShTayan pIDita upavana pAdapAm balaiH prIti rodham asahiShTa sA purI strI iva kAnta paribhogam Ayatam

11-52. saH= he who has started that way; balaiH pIDita upavana pAdapAm mithilAm veShTayan = by his forces, bruised, outskirt [gardens of Mithila], trees, Mithila, on surrounding- whose gardens on the outskirts were bruised by Dasharatha's encampment which engirt it; sA purI AsasAda= that, city, he reached; sA purI= that city also; strI Ayatam kAnta paribhogam iva= a damsel, insistent [impedance], of her lover, who enjoys peripheral enjoyment, as with;prIti rodham= romantic, impedances [ as with]; asahiShTa= tolerated.

He arrived at the outskirts of Mithila where the trees of gardens were bruised by his encampment which engirt it: that city too tolerated that ardent friendly siege as a damsel does the insistent romantic impedances imposed on her by her lover before the actual enjoyment. [11-52]

Surrounding Mithila, he pressed the woods/That girt it round, with close-investing host,/A friendly pressure, which the capital/Endured, as brides their bridegrooms' close embrace/Rejoice in.


तौ समेत्य समये स्थितावुभौ
भूपती वरुणवासवोपमौ।
स्वप्रभावसदृशीम् वितेनतुः॥ ११-५३

tau sametya samaye sthitāvubhau
bhūpatī varuṇavāsavopamau |
svaprabhāvasadṛśīm vitenatuḥ || 11-53

tau sametya samaye sthitAvubhau
bhUpatI varuNavAsavopamau |
svaprabhAvasadR^ishIm vitenatuH || 11-53 


tau sametya samaye sthitau ubhau bhUpatI varuNa vAsava upamau kanyakA tanaya kautuka kriyAm sva prabhAva sadR^ishIm vitenatuH

11-53. samaye sthitau= those abiding in religious practise;varuNa vAsava upamau= to Rain-god, and Indra, coequals of; tau ubhau bhUpatI= those two kings, Janaka and Dasharatha; sametya= together; sva prabhAva sadR^ishIm= to their, regal splendour, befitting;kanyakA tanaya = girls, boys; kautuka kriyAm= ceremony with the marriage thread put on the wrists of the pair preceding the marriage - marriages;vitenatuH= performed grandly.

Both the monarchs who resembled Rain-god and Indra came up and being present at the ceremony carried through the marriage rituals of their daughters and sons in a style appropriate to their regal grandeur. [11-53]


यौ तयोरवरजौ वरौजसौ
तौ कुशध्वजसुते सुमध्यमे॥ ११-५४

lakṣmaṇastadanujāmathormilām |
yau tayoravarajau varaujasau
tau kuśadhvajasute sumadhyame || 11-54

lakShmaNastadanujAmathormilAm |
yau tayoravarajau varaujasau
tau kushadhvajasute sumadhyame || 11-54 


pArthivIm udavahat raghu-udvahaH lakShmaNaH tat anujAm atha UrmilAm yau tayoH avarajau varaujasau tau kushadhvaja sute sumadhyame

11-54. raghu-udvahaH= continuer of the lineage of Raghu - Rama; pArthivIm= one born from earth - Seetha;udavahat= married;atha lakShmaNaH= then Lakshmana;tat anujAm UrmilAm udavahat= her, sister, Urmila, married;yau varaujasau= those, who are valiant ones; tayoH avarajau= his Rama's, younger brothers;tau= they;sumadhyame kushadhvaja sute [udavahat] = slim-waited, Kushadhvaja's daughters, they married.

The continuer of the lineage of Raghu, Rama, married Seetha the daughter of the earth and then Lakshmana married Urmila who was born after her: the other two powerful ones, Bharata and Shatrughna, who were juniors of Rama took for their wives the two marriageable daughters of Kushadhwaja. [11-54]


ते चतुर्थसहितास्त्रयो बभुः
सूनवो नववधूपरिग्रहाः।
सिद्धिमन्त इव तस्य भूपतेः॥ ११-५५

te caturthasahitāstrayo babhuḥ
sūnavo navavadhūparigrahāḥ |
siddhimanta iva tasya bhūpateḥ || 11-55

te caturthasahitAstrayo babhuH
sUnavo navavadhUparigrahAH |
siddhimanta iva tasya bhUpateH || 11-55 


te caturtha sahitAH trayaH babhuH sUnavaH nava vadhU parigrahAH sAma dAnavidhi bheda nigrahAH siddhimanta iva tasya bhUpateH

11-55. te caturtha sahitAH trayaH= those three sons accompanied by the fourth - Rama, Bharata, Lakshmana accompanied by Shatrughna, the fourth - with those four sons, so to say; sUnavaH= sons; nava vadhU parigrahAH= new, brides, who have taken;siddhimanta tasya bhUpateH= achieved, accomplishment, by that king - Dasharatha; sAma dAnavidhi bheda nigrahAH iva= peace-making, act of bribing, creating disunion, and war; babhuH = shone forth.

With the three sons Rama, Bharata, Lakshmana accompanied by the fourth Shatrughna, who all have accepted wives quite recently, Dasharatha shone forth like an emperor who accomplished the four expedients expected of a monarch viz., peace-making, act of bribing, creating disunion, and war endowed with success. [11-55]

So wedded to fair brides the Princes four,/With Rama chief, shone glorious, as in States/Successful Kingcraft shines by peace or war,/Or bribing foes, or sowing discord dire.


ता नराधिपसुता नृपात्मजैः
ते च ताभिरगमन्कृतार्थताम्।
प्रत्ययप्रकृतियोगसंनिभः॥ ११-५६

tā narādhipasutā nṛpātmajaiḥ
te ca tābhiragamankṛtārthatām |
pratyayaprakṛtiyogasaṁnibhaḥ || 11-56

tA narAdhipasutA nR^ipAtmajaiH
te ca tAbhiragamankR^itArthatAm |
pratyayaprakR^itiyogasa.nnibhaH || 11-56


tAH narAdhipa sutA nR^ipa AtmajaiH te ca tAbhiH agaman kR^itArthatAm saH abhavat vara vadhU samAgamaH pratyaya prakR^iti yoga sa.nnibhaH

11-56. tAH narAdhipa sutA= those, king's, daughters; nR^ipa AtmajaiH= with sons of king;te tAbhiH ca= those girls, with those boys, also; kR^itArthatAm agaman= fruition of their object, on getting;saH vara vadhU samAgamaH= that, bridegrooms, brides', union; pratyaya prakR^iti yoga sa.nnibhaH abhavat= to roots of words, affixes, joining, it has become.

The union of the daughters of the King Janaka with the princes of king Dasharatha gained the fruition of their object: as with the joining of the affixes and root forms of words to achieve meaning of a word, that coming together of the bridegrooms and brides achieved the meaning of word marriage. [11-56]


तान्निवेश्य चतुरोऽपि तत्र सः।
अध्वसु त्रिषु विसृष्टमैथिलः
स्वाम् पुरीम् दशरथो न्यवर्तत॥ ११-५७

tānniveśya caturo'pi tatra saḥ |
adhvasu triṣu visṛṣṭamaithilaḥ
svām purīm daśaratho nyavartata || 11-57

tAnniveshya caturo.api tatra saH |
adhvasu triShu visR^iShTamaithilaH
svAm purIm dasharatho nyavartata || 11-57 


evam Atta ratiH Atmasa.nbhavA.n tAn niveshya caturaH api tatra saH adhvasu triShu visR^iShTa maithilaH svAm purIm dasharathaH nyavartata

11-57. evam Atta ratiH= in this way, one who got gladness;saH dasharathaH= that, Dasharatha; caturaH api Atmasa.nbhavA.n= four, of his sons; tAn tatra niveshya= them, there in Mithila, on marrying; triShu adhvasu visR^iShTa maithilaH san = on three, marches, of [send off] road, left off, king of Mithila; svAm purIm nyavartata= to his own, city, returned.

Then, Dasharatha, deriving satisfaction of marrying all his four sons in a single spell, and giving leave to the king of Mithila after three marches on the send-off road, commenced journey to his capital Ayodhya. [11-57]


तस्य जातु मरुतः प्रतीपगा
वर्त्मसु ध्वजतरुप्रमाथिनः।
चिक्लिशुर्भृशतया वरूथिनीम्
उत्तटा इव नदीरयाः स्थलीम्॥ ११-५८

tasya jātu marutaḥ pratīpagā
vartmasu dhvajatarupramāthinaḥ |
cikliśurbhṛśatayā varūthinīm
uttaṭā iva nadīrayāḥ sthalīm || 11-58

tasya jAtu marutaH pratIpagA
vartmasu dhvajatarupramAthinaH |
ciklishurbhR^ishatayA varUthinIm
uttaTA iva nadIrayAH sthalIm || 11-58 


tasya jAtu marutaH pratIpa-gA vartmasu dhvaja taru pramAthinaH ciklishuH bhR^ishatayA varUthinIm uttaTA iva nadI-rayAH sthalIm

11-58. jAtu= on occasions; dhvaja taru pramAthinaH= long flag, trees [staffs], [wind was] swaying them;pratIpa-gA marutaH = opposite current, of wind uttaTA nadI-rayAH sthalIm iva= over flowing, rivers, streams, [inundating] lands, as with; tasya varUthinIm vartmasu bhR^ishatayA ciklishuH = his, to army, on road, much, tormented.

At times during the journey adverse winds wobbling long tree-like flagstaffs harassed his fleet on the road by their intensity just as the currents of the water of a river overflowing banks cause trouble to lands on its banks. [11-58]

The host swept on: but fierce opposing winds/Blew down the flagstaff's, made the march a toil,/As river-torrents overflow their banks,/And tear the fallow.

Opposite winds are ill-omened; hence confrontation with Parashu-Rama is indicated.


तस्य जातु मरुतः प्रतीपगा
वर्त्मसु ध्वजतरुप्रमाथिनः।
चिक्लिशुर्भृशतया वरूथिनीम्
उत्तटा इव नदीरयाः स्थलीम्॥ ११-५८

tasya jātu marutaḥ pratīpagā
vartmasu dhvajatarupramāthinaḥ |
cikliśurbhṛśatayā varūthinīm
uttaṭā iva nadīrayāḥ sthalīm || 11-58

tasya jAtu marutaH pratIpagA
vartmasu dhvajatarupramAthinaH |
ciklishurbhR^ishatayA varUthinIm
uttaTA iva nadIrayAH sthalIm || 11-58 


tasya jAtu marutaH pratIpa-gA vartmasu dhvaja taru pramAthinaH ciklishuH bhR^ishatayA varUthinIm uttaTA iva nadI-rayAH sthalIm

11-58. jAtu= on occasions; dhvaja taru pramAthinaH= long flag, trees [staffs], [wind was] swaying them;pratIpa-gA marutaH = opposite current, of wind uttaTA nadI-rayAH sthalIm iva= over flowing, rivers, streams, [inundating] lands, as with; tasya varUthinIm vartmasu bhR^ishatayA ciklishuH = his, to army, on road, much, tormented.

At times during the journey adverse winds wobbling long tree-like flagstaffs harassed his fleet on the road by their intensity just as the currents of the water of a river overflowing banks cause trouble to lands on its banks. [11-58]

The host swept on: but fierce opposing winds/Blew down the flagstaff's, made the march a toil,/As river-torrents overflow their banks,/And tear the fallow.

Opposite winds are ill-omened; hence confrontation with Parashu-Rama is indicated.


लक्ष्यते स्म तदनन्तरम् रविः
वैनतेयशमितस्य भोगिनो
भोगवेष्टित इव च्युतो मणिः॥ ११-५९

lakṣyate sma tadanantaram raviḥ
baddhabhīmapariveṣamaṇḍalaḥ |
vainateyaśamitasya bhogino
bhogaveṣṭita iva cyuto maṇiḥ || 11-59

lakShyate sma tadanantaram raviH
baddhabhImapariveShamaNDalaH |
vainateyashamitasya bhogino
bhogaveShTita iva cyuto maNiH || 11-59 


lakShyate sma tat anantaram raviH baddha bhIma pariveSha maNDalaH vainateya shamitasya bhoginaH bhoga veShTita iva cyutaH maNiH

11-59. tat anantaram= later; baddha bhIma pariveSha maNDalaH raviH= with a frightful halo formed around it, the Sun; vainateya shamitasya bhoginaH bhoga veShTita= by an eagle, silenced, a serpent's, body, surrounding [the halo around the Sun is like that]; cyutaH maNiH iva = [sun himself is looking like] a jewel, fell - from the hood of dead serpent;lakShyate sma = appeared to Dasharatha.

Thereafter, the Sun appeared like a jewel dropped from the hood of a serpent fell prey of an eagle, while his solar halo appeared frightful like the coil of that dead serpent encircled around it. [11-59]

Then a stormy ring,/Portentous, clasped the Sun, as 'twere a gem/Borne by a snake the King of Birds had slain/Amid the lissom coils.


अङ्गना इव रजस्वला दिशो
नो बभूवुरवलोकनक्षमाः॥ ११-६०

sāṁdhyamegharudhirārdravāsasaḥ |
aṅganā iva rajasvalā diśo
no babhūvuravalokanakṣamāḥ || 11-60

sA.ndhyamegharudhirArdravAsasaH |
a~NganA iva rajasvalA disho
no babhUvuravalokanakShamAH || 11-60 


shyena pakSha paridhUsara alakAH sA.ndhya megha rudhira Ardra vAsasaH a~NganA iva rajasvalA dishaH no babhUvuH avalokana kShamAH

11-60. shyena pakSha paridhUsara alakAH [iva] = [in the colour of] eagle's, wings, those that aresmeared with dust [as with] - those quarters of earth that have the greyish wings of vultures as besmirched curls of frontal hairlocks; sA.ndhya megha= evening, clouds;rudhira Ardra vAsasaH [iva]= blood, wet, dirty-linen [as with]; rajasvalA dishaH= begrimed, quarters of earth;rajasvalA a~NganA iva= in menstruation, a woman, like; avalokana kShamAH no babhUvuH = to look at, not fit enough, those quarters became.

Greyish wings of eagles as their besmirched curly forelocks, ochreish evening clouds as their bloodwet dirty linen, thus the begrimed quarters of earth appeared like menstruous women, whose sight itself is a taboo. [11-60]


भास्करश्च दिशमध्युवास याम्
ताम् श्रिताः प्रतिभयम् ववासिरे।
चोदयन्त्य इव भार्गवम् शिवाः॥ ११-६१

bhāskaraśca diśamadhyuvāsa yām
tām śritāḥ pratibhayam vavāsire |
codayantya iva bhārgavam śivāḥ || 11-61

bhAskarashca dishamadhyuvAsa yAm
tAm shritAH pratibhayam vavAsire |
codayantya iva bhArgavam shivAH || 11-61


bhAskaraH ca disham adhyuvAsa yAm tAm shritAH pratibhayam vavAsire kShatra shoNita pitR^ikriyA ucitam codayantya iva bhArgavam shivAH

11-61. bhAskaraH yAm disham adhyuvAsa ca= sun, in which, quarter, occupied; tAm disham shritAH shivAH= that, quarter, resorting to, female-jackals;kShatra shoNita pitR^ikriyA ucitam= of Kshatriya-s, with blood, offerings to ancestors, who is accustomed;bhArgavam codayantya iva= Parashu-Rama, inciting, as it were;pratibhayam vavAsire = terribly, howled.

The female-jackals resorting to that quarter which was occupied by the Sun set up a terrible howl inciting, as it were, Bhargava-Rama who was accustomed to make offerings to his ancestors by means of the blood of the Kshatriya-s. [11-61]


प्रेक्ष्य शान्तिमधिकृत्य कृत्यविद्।
अन्वयुङ्क्त गुरुमीश्वरः क्षितेः
स्वन्तमित्यलघयत्स तद्व्यथाम्॥ ११-६२

prekṣya śāntimadhikṛtya kṛtyavid |
anvayuṅkta gurumīśvaraḥ kṣiteḥ
svantamityalaghayatsa tadvyathām || 11-62

prekShya shAntimadhikR^itya kR^ityavid |
anvayu~Nkta gurumIshvaraH kShiteH
svantamityalaghayatsa tadvyathAm || 11-62


tat pratIpa pavana Adi vaikR^itam prekShya shAntim adhikR^itya kR^ityavit anvayu~Nkta gurum IshvaraH kShiteH svantam iti alaghayat saH tat vyathAm 

11-62. tat pratIpa pavana Adi vaikR^itam prekShya= those, opposite winds, etc, portents, on seeing; kR^ityavit= who knew what to do [at such junctures]; kShiteH IshvaraH= earth's, lord;shAntim adhikR^itya= peace, with ref. to - to obtain peace; gurum anvayu~Nkta= he asked, his teacher - vashiShTa; saH= that vashiShTa;'svantam iti' [su+a.ntam= svantam] tat vyathAm alaghayat= 'all ends well', thus, saying, his mental pain, alleviated.

After observing the ill-omens in which adverse winds were the chief, the ruler of the earth who knew what to do at such junctures, namely Dasharatha, asked his spiritual adviser vashiShTa in reference to its pacification: saying 'all ends well...' did the latter alleviate the anguish of the king.  [11-62]


तेजसः सपदि राशिरुत्थितः
प्रादुरास किल वाहिनीमुखे।
यः प्रमृज्य नयनानि सैनिकैः
लक्षणीयपुरुषाकृतिश्चिरात्॥ ११-६३

tejasaḥ sapadi rāśirutthitaḥ
prādurāsa kila vāhinīmukhe |
yaḥ pramṛjya nayanāni sainikaiḥ
lakṣaṇīyapuruṣākṛtiścirāt || 11-63

tejasaH sapadi rAshirutthitaH
prAdurAsa kila vAhinImukhe |
yaH pramR^ijya nayanAni sainikaiH
lakShaNIyapuruShAkR^itishcirAt || 11-63


tejasaH sapadi rAshiH utthitaH prAdurAsa kila vAhinI mukhe yaH pramR^ijya nayanAni sainikaiH lakShaNIya puruSha AkR^itiH cirAt

11-63. sapadi= while those two ware talking; utthitaH tejasaH rAshiH= there rose up, of resplendence, a column; vAhinI mukhe prAdurAsa kila= in front of army, manifested, they say; yaH= which column of resplendence; sainikaiH nayanAni pramR^ijya= by soldiers, their eyes, after rubbing; cirAt lakShaNIya puruSha AkR^itiH= after some time, a discernable, male, form [babhuuva= it became].

There sprang up a column of brightness and manifested itself in front of the army, they say, which the soldiery could discern after some time that too on rubbing their eyes for a clear vision, to be a human in form.  [11-63]


मातृकम् च धनुरूर्जितम् दधत्।
यः ससोम इव घर्मदीधितिः
सद्विजिह्व इव चन्दनद्रुमः॥ ११-६४

mātṛkam ca dhanurūrjitam dadhat |
yaḥ sasoma iva gharmadīdhitiḥ
sadvijihva iva candanadrumaḥ || 11-64

mAtR^ikam ca dhanurUrjitam dadhat |
yaH sasoma iva gharmadIdhitiH
sadvijihva iva candanadrumaH || 11-64


pitryam a.nsham upavIta lakShaNam mAtR^ikam ca dhanuH Urjitam dadhat yaH sa soma iva gharma dIdhitiH sa dvi-jihva iva candana drumaH

11-64. upavIta lakShaNam pitryam a.nsham= sacred-thread, as mark, from father, derived factor;dhanuH Urjitam mAtR^ikam ca= bow, mighty, mother-side factor, also;dadhat= bearing;yaH= which Bhargava-Rama is there;he;sa soma gharma dIdhitiH iva= with, moon, hot-rayed one - sun, as with; sa dvi-jihva candana drumaH iva = with two-tongued serpent, sandalwood, tree, as wit; [stithaH= he who is like that, appeared before them].

Wearing sacred thread as his paternal mark, for his father was a brAhmaNa; also wielding a mighty bow as maternal mark, for his mother is a lady from Kshatriya dynasty, he who looked like the hot-rayed sun in company of cool-rayed moon, or like the sandalwood tree with a two-tongued serpent, that Bhargava-Rama appeared before them. [11-64]  


येन रोषपरुषात्मनः पितुः
शासने स्थितिभिदोऽपि तस्थुषा।
प्रागजीयत घृणा ततो मही॥ ११-६५

yena roṣaparuṣātmanaḥ pituḥ
śāsane sthitibhido'pi tasthuṣā |
prāgajīyata ghṛṇā tato mahī || 11-65

yena roShaparuShAtmanaH pituH
shAsane sthitibhido.api tasthuShA |
prAgajIyata ghR^iNA tato mahI || 11-65


yena roSha paruSha AtmanaH pituH shAsane sthiti bhidaH api tasthuShA vepamAna jananI shiraH ChidA prAk ajIyata ghR^iNA tataH mahI

11-65. roSha paruSha AtmanaH= one who has become stern by rage;sthiti bhidaH api= flouted norms of life, even though = though he decapitated his mother against norms of any son;pituH shAsane tasthuShA= in father's, command, who abided;vepamAna jananI shiraH ChidA= trembling, mother's, head, who cut off; yena= by whom; prAk ghR^iNA= firstly, pity; tataH mahI= later, the earth;ajIyata= were conquered.

He who obeyed the command of his father impetuously; whose mind had become stern by rage and became intemperate; who first conquered the reproach of the world in decapitating his own trembling mother, and then who unilaterally conquered the earth, that Parashu-Rama stood before them. [11-65]


अक्षबीजवलयेन निर्बभौ
दक्षिणश्रवणसंस्थितेन यः।
व्याजपूर्वगणनामिवोद्वहन्॥ ११-६६

akṣabījavalayena nirbabhau
dakṣiṇaśravaṇasaṁsthitena yaḥ |
vyājapūrvagaṇanāmivodvahan || 11-66

akShabIjavalayena nirbabhau
dakShiNashravaNasa.nsthitena yaH |
vyAjapUrvagaNanAmivodvahan || 11-66


akSha bIja valayena nirbabhau dakShiNa shravaNa sa.nsthitena yaH kShatriya antaka raNa eka vi.nshateH vyAja pUrva gaNanAm iva udvahan

11-66. yaH= he who;dakShiNa shravaNa sa.nsthitena= on right, ear, placed; akSha bIja valayena= with rosary of Rudraksha seeds;kShatriya antaka= Kshatriya-s, ending; raNa= of wars; eka vi.nshateH= twenty one [times];vyAja pUrva gaNanAm= in the pretext of, from beginning, counting; udvahan iva nirbabhau= [that counting] he is doing, as if, he shone forth.

He shone forth with a rosary of Rudraksha-s hung on his right ear as if to tell his beads the n umber twenty-one, semblable to the number of times he had destroyed the Kshatriya-s. [11-66]

tell one's beads= use the beads of a rosary etc. in counting prayers.


तम् पितुर्वधभवेन मन्युना
राजवंशनिधनाय दीक्षितम्।
बालसूनुरवलोक्य भार्गवम्
स्वाम् दशाम् च विषसाद पार्थिवः॥ ११-६७

tam piturvadhabhavena manyunā
rājavaṁśanidhanāya dīkṣitam |
bālasūnuravalokya bhārgavam
svām daśām ca viṣasāda pārthivaḥ || 11-67

tam piturvadhabhavena manyunA
rAjava.nshanidhanAya dIkShitam |
bAlasUnuravalokya bhArgavam
svAm dashAm ca viShasAda pArthivaH || 11-67 


tam pituH vadha bhavena manyunA rAja va.nsha nidhanAya dIkShitam bAla sUnuH avalokya bhArgavam svAm dashAm ca viShasAda pArthivaH

11-67. pituH vadha bhavena manyunA = by father's, murder, caused, rage;rAja va.nsha nidhanAya dIkShitam= kings, dynasties, to eliminate, one who is avowed;tam bhArgavam= him that Bhargava-Rama; svAm dashAm ca= his own, condition, also; avalokya= on pondering;bAla sUnuH pArthivaH viShasAda = young,children, one who has, the king- Dasharatha, saddened.

On seeing such Bhargava-Ram in his fore, who had taken firm resolve to destroy all royal families owing to the anger aroused by the murder of his father, king Dasharatha became dejected not knowing what will befall on him or on his sons who are too young to fend.  [11-67]

Then the King despaired/At sight of Bhrigu's Son, in whom fell wrath/(Stirred by his father's fate) worked to destroy/The Warrior-seed; for yet his sons were boys,/And he defenceless.


नाम राम इति तुल्यमात्मजे
वर्तमानमहिते च दारुणे।
हृद्यमस्य भयदायि चाभवद्
रत्नजातमिव हारसर्पयोः॥ ११-६८

nāma rāma iti tulyamātmaje
vartamānamahite ca dāruṇe |
hṛdyamasya bhayadāyi cābhavad
ratnajātamiva hārasarpayoḥ || 11-68

nAma rAma iti tulyamAtmaje
vartamAnamahite ca dAruNe |
hR^idyamasya bhayadAyi cAbhavad
ratnajAtamiva hArasarpayoH || 11-68


nAma rAma iti tulyam Atmaje vartamAnam ahite ca dAruNe hR^idyam asya bhaya dAyi ca abhavat ratna jAtam iva hAra sarpayoH

11-68. Atmaje= reg. his own son - Rama; dAruNe ahite ca= reg. terrible, enemy, also - Parashu-Rama; tulyam vartamAnam= equally, applicable; rAma iti nAma= Rama, thus, the name;hAra sarpayoH= in necklace, and on the hood of serpent; ratna jAtam iva= jewel, kind, as with;asya hR^idyam bhaya dAyi ca abhavat = to his, heart, fear-inspiring, also, became.

The name Rama was equally applicable to his own son as also to the furious enemy: it became pleasing as well as fear-inspiring just as jewels in a necklace and on the hood of a serpent produce joy and fear. [11-68]

Joy and dread at once/The name of Rama brought him, borne alike/By his loved son and by the mighty foe,/So snakes and chaplets bear one common name.


अर्घ्यमर्घ्यमिति वादिनम् नृपम्
सोऽनवेक्ष्य भरताग्रजो यतः।
क्षत्रकोपदहनार्चिषम् ततः
संदधे दृशमुदग्रतारकाम्॥ ११-६९

arghyamarghyamiti vādinam nṛpam
so'navekṣya bharatāgrajo yataḥ |
kṣatrakopadahanārciṣam tataḥ
saṁdadhe dṛśamudagratārakām || 11-69

arghyamarghyamiti vAdinam nR^ipam
so.anavekShya bharatAgrajo yataH |
kShatrakopadahanArciSham tataH
sa.ndadhe dR^ishamudagratArakAm || 11-69


arghyam arghyam iti vAdinam nR^ipam saH an+avekShya bharata agrajaH yataH kShatra kopa dahana arciSham tataH sa.ndadhe dR^isham udagra tArakAm

11-69. saH= he that bhArgava; arghyam arghyam iti vAdinam= 'worship material' 'worship material' thus, who is yelling; nR^ipam an+avekShya= such king Dasharatha, not minding him;yataH bharata agrajaH= where, Bharata's elder brother is there; tataH= there - at Rama; kShatra= reg. Kshatriya-s;kopa dahana arciSham= by anger, that burn, such flames of sight; udagra tArakAm = raised, pupils - in wide-eyed rage;dR^isham= such vision;sa.ndadhe = targeted.

Unmindful of the king who is yelling 'worshipping materials, worshipping materials....' Bhargava-Rama targeted his sight at Dasharatha-Rama in wide-eyed rage wonted to shoot out visional flares against Kshatriya-s. [11-69]


तेन कार्मुकनिषक्तमुष्टिना
राघवो विगतभीः पुरोगतः।
अङ्गुलीविवरचारिणम् शरम्
कुर्वता निजगदे युयुत्सुना॥ ११-७०

tena kārmukaniṣaktamuṣṭinā
rāghavo vigatabhīḥ purogataḥ |
aṅgulīvivaracāriṇam śaram
kurvatā nijagade yuyutsunā || 11-70

tena kArmukaniShaktamuShTinA
rAghavo vigatabhIH purogataH |
a~NgulIvivaracAriNam sharam
kurvatA nijagade yuyutsunA || 11-70


tena kArmuka niShakta muShTinA rAghavaH vigata bhIH purogataH a~NgulI vivara cAriNam sharam kurvatA nijagade yuyutsunA

11-70. kArmuka niShakta muShTinA= on bow, gripping, with fist;sharam a~NgulI vivara cAriNam kurvatA= an arrow, of fingers, in interstices, moving, one who is so;yuyutsunA= one who is ready for a combat; tena= with such a Bhargava-Rama; vigata bhIH san= rid of, fear;purogataH = coming forward;rAghavaH nijagade = Dasharatha-Rama, is addressed by Parashu-Rama.

Then Bhargava-Rama readying himself for a combat by gripping bow in one hand and plying an arrow in the interstices of fingers of the other, addressed Dasharatha-Rama who by then has come intrepidly in his fore, in the following manner. [11-70]


क्षत्रजातमपकारवैरि मे
तन्निहत्य बहुशः शमम् गतः।
सुप्तसर्प इव दण्डघट्टनात्
रोषितोऽस्मि तव विक्रमश्रवात्॥ ११-७१

kṣatrajātamapakāravairi me
tannihatya bahuśaḥ śamam gataḥ |
suptasarpa iva daṇḍaghaṭṭanāt
roṣito'smi tava vikramaśravāt || 11-71

kShatrajAtamapakAravairi me
tannihatya bahushaH shamam gataH |
suptasarpa iva daNDaghaTTanAt
roShito.asmi tava vikramashravAt || 11-71 


kShatra jAtam apakAra vairi me tat nihatya bahushaH shamam gataH supta sarpa iva daNDa ghaTTanAt roShitaH asmi tava vikrama shravAt

11-71. kShatra jAtam me apakAra vairi= Kshatriya, race, to me, on account of the injury it caused to me, that is my enemy; tat bahushaH nihatya= that [race], many times, on eliminating; shamam gataH= peace, went into [asmi= I am;] [tathApi= even then];supta sarpa daNDa ghaTTanAt iva= sleeping, serpent, by stick, beaten, as with;tava vikrama shravAt= your, valour, on hearing; roShitaH asmi = enraged, I am.

The whole Kshatriya race is my enemy on account of the injury that it has done me: having repeatedly destroyed it I have been pacified; but I have been provoked by the report of your exploit in Mithila just as a slumbering snake is aroused when stirred by a cudgel. [11-71]

I hate the Warrior-brood: they wronged me first,/And I destroyed them, winning rest; but now/Thy valour and renown have stirred my wrath,/As when a sleeping snake at blow of staff/Starts up enraged.


मैथिलस्य धनुरन्यपार्थिवैः
त्वम् किलानमितपूर्वमक्षणोः।
तन्निशम्य भवता समर्थये
वीर्यशृङ्गमिव भग्नमात्मनः॥ ११-७२

maithilasya dhanuranyapārthivaiḥ
tvam kilānamitapūrvamakṣaṇoḥ |
tanniśamya bhavatā samarthaye
vīryaśṛṅgamiva bhagnamātmanaḥ || 11-72

maithilasya dhanuranyapArthivaiH
tvam kilAnamitapUrvamakShaNoH |
tannishamya bhavatA samarthaye
vIryashR^i~Ngamiva bhagnamAtmanaH || 11-72


maithilasya dhanuH anya pArthivaiH tvam kila Anamita pUrvam akShaNoH tat nishamya bhavatA samarthaye vIrya shR^i~Ngam iva bhagnam AtmanaH

11-72. anya pArthivaiH Anamita pUrvam= by other, kings, unbendable [bow], earlier;   maithilasya dhanuH= King Mithila's bow;tvam akShaNoH kila= you, broke it, they say; tat nishamya= that, on hearing;bhavatA= by you;AtmanaH vIrya shR^i~Ngam= mine, bravery's, horn - here excellence; bhagnam iva= broken, as with;samarthaye = I deem.

It is said you have broken the bow of Mithila's king which, hitherto was never even bent by any other prince. On hearing this I deem that you have broken down the predominance of my bravery. [11-72]

'Tis rumoured thou hast broke/The Bow of Mithila, not bent before,/Though oft attempted:/ exploit this, I deem,/Which blunts my horn of glory.


अन्यदा जगति राम इत्ययम्
शब्द उच्चरित एव मामगात्।
व्रीडमावहति मे स संप्रति
व्यस्तवृत्तिरुदयोन्मुखे त्वयि॥ ११-७३

anyadā jagati rāma ityayam
śabda uccarita eva māmagāt |
vrīḍamāvahati me sa saṁprati
vyastavṛttirudayonmukhe tvayi || 11-73

anyadA jagati rAma ityayam
shabda uccarita eva mAmagAt |
vrIDamAvahati me sa sa.nprati
vyastavR^ittirudayonmukhe tvayi || 11-73


anyadA jagati rAma iti ayam shabda uccarita eva mAm agAt vrIDam Avahati me sa sa.nprati vyasta vR^ittiH udaya unmukhe tvayi

1=-73. anyadA= at any other juncture - previously; jagati= in world; rAma iti ayam shabda= Rama, thus, this, word;uccarita san= while being uttered;mAm eva agAt= me, alone, it reached; sa.nprati tvayi udaya unmukhe sati= presently, your, rising into prominence; vyasta vR^ittiH saH= with its meaning has been reversed, that word Rama;me vrIDam Avahati = to me, shame, it is getting.

Previously when the word Rama was uttered in this world it was applicable to me alone; that epithet, however, now produces a feeling of shame in me since its meaning has been reversed on account of your rising into prominence. [11-73]


द्वौ रुपू मम मतौ समागसौ।
धेनुवत्सहरणाच्च हैहय
स्त्वम् च कीर्तिमपहर्तुमुद्यतः॥ ११-७४

dvau rupū mama matau samāgasau |
dhenuvatsaharaṇācca haihaya
stvam ca kīrtimapahartumudyataḥ || 11-74

dvau rupU mama matau samAgasau |
dhenuvatsaharaNAcca haihaya
stvam ca kIrtimapahartumudyataH || 11-74 


bibhrataH astram acale api akuNThitam dvau rupU mama matau sama agasau dhenu vatsa haraNAt ca haihayaH tvam ca kIrtim apahartum udyataH

11-74. acale api akuNThitam astram bibhrataH= on mountain, even, not obstructed, such an arrow, wielding - such as I am, to me; mama dvau sama agasau rupU matau = to me, two are, with equally, offending, enemies, they are deemed - are there; those two are; dhenu vatsa haraNAt haihayaH ca = cow's, calf, by [his] stealing, Haihaya - i.e., kArtavIryArjuna; kIrtim apahartum udyataH tvam ca= fame, in usurping, engaged in, you, also;

I who bear a missile unobstructed eyen by the Krauncha mountain deem that there are two equally offending enemies; one is kArtavIryArjuna on account of his carrying away the calf of our cow; the second is yourself engaged in depriving me of my fame. [11-74]


क्षत्रियान्तकरणोऽपि विक्रमः
तेन मामवति नाजिते त्वयि।
पावकस्य महिमा स गण्यते
कक्षवज्जलति सागरेऽपि यः॥ ११-७५

kṣatriyāntakaraṇo'pi vikramaḥ
tena māmavati nājite tvayi |
pāvakasya mahimā sa gaṇyate
kakṣavajjalati sāgare'pi yaḥ || 11-75

kShatriyAntakaraNo.api vikramaH
tena mAmavati nAjite tvayi |
pAvakasya mahimA sa gaNyate
kakShavajjalati sAgare.api yaH || 11-75


kShatriya antakaraNaH api vikramaH tena mAm avati na ajite tvayi pAvakasya mahimA saH gaNyate kakShavat jalati sAgare api yaH

11-785. tena= by that reason;kShatriya antakaraNaH api= Kshatriya-s, eliminating, even though;vikramaH= [my] valour;tvayi a+jite= you, not, conquering;mAm na avati= me, it is not, satisfying; pAvakasya mahimA saH gaNyate= fire's, efficaciousness, that alone, counts; yaH kakShavat = which, as in dry grass;sAgare api jvalati = in ocean, even, burns.

Therefore, so long as you are not subdued with my prowess, though it has achieved the glory of destruction of Kshatriya-s, it does not satisfy me: that is looked upon as the true energy of fire which inflames even in the ocean as in dry grass. [11-75]


विद्धि चात्तबलमोजसा हरेः
ऐश्वरम् धनुरभाजि यत्त्वया।
खातमूलमनिलो नदीरयैः
पातयत्यपि मृदुस्तटद्रुमम्॥ ११-७६

viddhi cāttabalamojasā hareḥ
aiśvaram dhanurabhāji yattvayā |
khātamūlamanilo nadīrayaiḥ
pātayatyapi mṛdustaṭadrumam || 11-76

viddhi cAttabalamojasA hareH
aishvaram dhanurabhAji yattvayA |
khAtamUlamanilo nadIrayaiH
pAtayatyapi mR^idustaTadrumam || 11-76


viddhi ca Atta balam ojasA hareH aishvaram dhanuH abhAji yat tvayA khAta mUlam anilaH nadI rayaiH pAtayati api mR^iduH taTa drumam

11-76. kimca= further;aishvaram dhanuH = pertaining to god Shiva, bow; hareH ojasA = by Vishnu's, prowess;Atta balam ca viddhi= divested of its strength, also, know thus; yat tvayA abhAji = which, by you, broken;[tathAhi= likewise]; nadI rayaiH khAta mUlam taTa drumam= by river's, gush, uprooted, on bank, tree; mR^iduH api anilaH pAtayati = very delicate, even if, wind, fells.

Understand that the bow of Shiva which you have broken had been divested of its strength by the power of Vishnu; understand further that even a light wind lays low a tree situated on the bank of a river which is already uprooted by the gush of the river. [11-76]


तन्मदीयमिदमायुधम् ज्यया
संगमय्य सशरम् विकृष्यताम्।
तिष्ठतु प्रधनमेवमप्यहम्
तुल्यबाहुतरसा जितस्त्वया॥ ११-७७

tanmadīyamidamāyudham jyayā
saṁgamayya saśaram vikṛṣyatām |
tiṣṭhatu pradhanamevamapyaham
tulyabāhutarasā jitastvayā || 11-77

tanmadIyamidamAyudham jyayA
sa.ngamayya sasharam vikR^iShyatAm |
tiShThatu pradhanamevamapyaham
tulyabAhutarasA jitastvayA || 11-77


tat madIyam idam Ayudham jyayA sa.ngamayya sa sharam vikR^iShyatAm tiShThatu pradhanam evam api aham tulya bAhu tarasA jitaH tvayA

11-77. tat= therefore;madIyam idam Ayudham= mine, this, weapon [bow]; jyayA sa.ngamayya = with bowstring, fastened;sa sharam vikR^iShyatAm= with, arrow, [bowstring] may be stretched;pradhanam tiShThatu= let the matter of combat laid aside, for the time being; evam api= in that way - after your stringing my bow;aham tulya bAhu tarasA jitaH tvayA= I deem, by one having equal power of arm, vanquished, by you.

Then do string this bow of mine and putting on an arrow to it, pray, draw it; nevermind actual combat: if even this much were done by you then I shall deem myself as vanquished by you having an equal power of the arm. [11-77]


कातरोऽसि यदि वोद्गतार्चिषा
तर्जितः परशुधारया मम।
बध्यतामभययाचनाञ्जलिः॥ ११-७८

kātaro'si yadi vodgatārciṣā
tarjitaḥ paraśudhārayā mama |
badhyatāmabhayayācanāñjaliḥ || 11-78

kAtaro.asi yadi vodgatArciShA
tarjitaH parashudhArayA mama |
badhyatAmabhayayAcanA~njaliH || 11-78 


kAtaraH asi yadi vA udgata arciShA tarjitaH parashu-dhArayA mama jyA nighAta kaThina a~NguliH vR^ithA badhyatAm abhaya yAcana a~njaliH

11-78. vA= or else;udgata arciShA= which flashes forth furious blazes; mama parashu-dhArayA= my, battle-axe-blade;tarjitaH kAtaraH asi yadi= frightened, and became timorous, you are, if;jyA nighAta kaThina a~NguliH vR^ithA= bowstring, by stretching, hardening, of fingers, is futile;then;abhaya yAcana a~njaliH badhyatAm= immunity of danger, requesting, palmfold, may be made.

Else if thou art frightened or feel scared by the battle-axe-blade of mine which flashes forth furious blazes then hardening your fingers with the friction of bowstring is of no avail; you had better make palmfold to solicit immunity from danger of my axe. [11-78]


एवमुक्तवति भीमदर्शने
भार्गवे स्मितविकम्पिताधरः।
तद्धनुर्ग्रहणमेव राघवः
प्रत्यपद्यत समर्थमुत्तरम्॥ ११-७९

evamuktavati bhīmadarśane
bhārgave smitavikampitādharaḥ |
taddhanurgrahaṇameva rāghavaḥ
pratyapadyata samarthamuttaram || 11-79

evamuktavati bhImadarshane
bhArgave smitavikampitAdharaH |
taddhanurgrahaNameva rAghavaH
pratyapadyata samarthamuttaram || 11-79


evam uktavati bhIma darshane bhArgave smita vikampita adharaH tat dhanuH grahaNam eva rAghavaH pratyapadyata samartham uttaram

11-70. bhIma darshane bhArgave evam uktavati sati= of frightening sight, by Bhargava-Rama, in this way, when said; rAghavaH= Raghava-Rama;smita vikampita adharaH san= by smile, a little bent, having such lips; tat dhanuH grahaNam eva= that, bow, taking, alone;samartham uttaram pratyapadyata = as befitting, reply, agreed.

When Bhargava-Rama of frightful sight has said in this way, Raghava-Rama sneeringly took up the bow as a befitting reply. [11-79]


पूर्वजन्मधनुषा समागतः
केवलोऽपि सुभगो नवाम्बुदः
किम् पुनस्त्रिदशचापलाञ्छितः॥ ११-८०

pūrvajanmadhanuṣā samāgataḥ
so'timātralaghudarśano'bhavat |
kevalo'pi subhago navāmbudaḥ
kim punastridaśacāpalāñchitaḥ || 11-80

pUrvajanmadhanuShA samAgataH
so.atimAtralaghudarshano.abhavat |
kevalo.api subhago navAmbudaH
kim punastridashacApalA~nChitaH || 11-80 


pUrva janma dhanuShA samAgataH saH atimAtra laghu darshanaH abhavat kevalaH api subhagaH navAmbudaH kim punaH tridasha cApa lA~nChitaH

11-80. pUrva janma dhanuShA samAgataH = earlier, birth, a bow, when he is with;saH = he Dasharatha-Rama;atimAtra= exceedingly; laghu= agreeable, pleasant; darshanaH= to see;abhavat= he became;navAmbudaH= a new cloud; kevalaH api= by itself [without any add-ons], even; subhagaH= will be beautiful; tridasha cApa lA~nChitaH= [if it is decorated with] celestials', bow - rainbow; kim punaH= what more to say.

Having come by the bow of Vishnu which he had in his former life, Raghava-Rama appeared extraordinarily charming: if a fresh raincloud is beautiful even by itself, how much more then if it be marked with celestials' rainbow. [11-80]


तेन भूमिनिहितैककोटि
तत्कार्मुकम् च बलिनाधिरोपितम्।
निष्प्रभश्च रिपुरास भूभृताम्
धूमशेष इव धूमकेतनः॥ ११-८१

tena bhūminihitaikakoṭi
tatkārmukam ca balinādhiropitam |
niṣprabhaśca ripurāsa bhūbhṛtām
dhūmaśeṣa iva dhūmaketanaḥ || 11-81

tena bhUminihitaikakoTi
tatkArmukam ca balinAdhiropitam |
niShprabhashca ripurAsa bhUbhR^itAm
dhUmasheSha iva dhUmaketanaH || 11-81 


tena bhUmi nihita eka koTi tat kArmukam ca balinA adhiropitam niShprabhaH ca ripuH Asa bhU-bhR^itAm dhUma sheSha iva dhUma-ketanaH

11-81. balinA tena= a mighty one, by his - Rama; bhUmi nihita= on earth, kept;eka koTi tat kArmukam ca = with one, end, that, bow of Vishnu, is also; adhiropitam= [bowstring is] mounted;bhU-bhR^itAm ripuH ca= for kings, who is an enemy, also; dhUma sheSha dhUma-ketanaH iva= smoke, remained, of that one whose flag is actually smoke - fire - fire on which smoke wavers as its flag, as with;niShprabhaH Asa= lustreless, he became.

Keeping one end of that Vaishnava bow on earth Raghava-Rama fastened bowstring to it, by which act that fiery Bhargava-Rama, the enemy of the kings, is reduced like embers with only smoke wavering on it. [11-81]


तावुभावपि परस्परस्थितौ
पश्यति स्म जनता दिनात्यये
पार्वणौ शशिदिवाकराविव॥ ११-८२

tāvubhāvapi parasparasthitau
vardhamānaparihīnatejasau |
paśyati sma janatā dinātyaye
pārvaṇau śaśidivākarāviva || 11-82

tAvubhAvapi parasparasthitau
vardhamAnaparihInatejasau |
pashyati sma janatA dinAtyaye
pArvaNau shashidivAkarAviva || 11-82


tau ubhau api paraspara sthitau vardhamAna parihIna tejasau pashyati sma janatA dinAtyaye pArvaNau shashi divAkarau iva

11-82. paraspara sthitau = standing face to face; vardhamAna parihIna tejasau= glory of Rama was heightened and that of Parashurama was proportionately lessened;tau ubhau api= those two;dinAtyaye= at the end of the day; pArvaNau= on new-moon, and no-moon days; shashi divAkarau iva= moon, sun, as with;janatA pashyati sma = people, were beholding.

The people saw them both standing face to face against each other, the one having his glory increased and that of the other proportionately decreased as if they were the moon and the sun on a conjunction day in the evening, where moon's glow increases when sun decreases or vice versa, and where Dasharatha-Rama is analogous to the waxing moon, while Bhargava-Rama to fading Sun. [11-82]


तम् कृपामृदुरवेक्ष्य भार्गवम्
राघवः स्खलितवीर्यमात्मनि।
स्वम् च संहितममोघमाशुगम्
व्याजहार हरसूनुसंनिभः॥ ११-८३

tam kṛpāmṛduravekṣya bhārgavam
rāghavaḥ skhalitavīryamātmani |
svam ca saṁhitamamoghamāśugam
vyājahāra harasūnusaṁnibhaḥ || 11-83

tam kR^ipAmR^iduravekShya bhArgavam
rAghavaH skhalitavIryamAtmani |
svam ca sa.nhitamamoghamAshugam
vyAjahAra harasUnusa.nnibhaH || 11-83


tam kR^ipA mR^iduH avekShya bhArgavam rAghavaH skhalita vIryam Atmani svam ca sa.nhitam amogham Ashugam vyAjahAra hara-sUnu sa.nnibhaH

11-83. hara-sUnu sa.nnibhaH= Shiva's, son, who is like - like kArthikeya; kR^ipA mR^iduH= by mercy, a gentle one;rAghavaH= such a Raghava-Rama;Atmani skhalita-vIryam tam bhArgavam= in his respect [Rama's], powerless, him, that Bhargava-Rama; as well as; svam sa.nhitam amogham Ashugam ca= his own, emplaced, unfailing, and fast-going, arrow, also; avekShya= on weighing;vyAjahAra= said this [to Parashurama].

Raghava-Rama who was like kArthikeya, the son of Shiva, being softened with feelings of kindness beheld Bhargava-Rama who became powerless in regard to himself, as well as his own arrow which never went in vain when once put to the bow, spoke to him in this way. [11-83]


न प्रहर्तुमलमस्मि निर्दयम्
विप्र इत्यभिभत्यपि त्वयि।
शंस किम् गतिमनेन पत्रिणा
हन्मि लोकमुत ते मखार्जितम्॥ ११-८४

na prahartumalamasmi nirdayam
vipra ityabhibhatyapi tvayi |
śaṁsa kim gatimanena patriṇā
hanmi lokamuta te makhārjitam || 11-84

na prahartumalamasmi nirdayam
vipra ityabhibhatyapi tvayi |
sha.nsa kim gatimanena patriNA
hanmi lokamuta te makhArjitam || 11-84


na prahartum alam asmi nirdayam vipra iti abhi-bhati api tvayi sha.nsa kim gatim anena patriNA hanmi lokam uta te makha Arjitam

11-84. abhi-bhavati api= face up to - you confront, though; tvayi= in your respect;vipra iti = for you are a brAhmaNa; nirdayam prahartum alam na asmi= ruthlessly, to eliminate you, capable, not, I am; anena patriNA te gatim; hanmi kim= by this, arrow [now emplaced on bow], your, motion [operation], shall I kill [stop]; uta= else;makha Arjitam lokam hanmi kim= by Vedic-rituals, earned, [your] higher worlds, shall I kill;sha.nsa = you tell.

Although you braved me I am disinclined to mercilessly strike you as you are a brAhmaNa: so, tell me what I am to do with this arrow already emplaced on the bow in my hand - whether to stop your further operation or to close down the higher worlds you acquired with Vedic-rituals. [11-84]


प्रत्युवाच तमृषिर्न तत्त्वतः
त्वाम् न वेद्मि पुरुषम् पुरातनम्।
गाम् गतस्य तव धाम वैष्णवम्
कोपितो ह्यसि मया दिदृक्षुणा॥ ११-८५

pratyuvāca tamṛṣirna tattvataḥ
tvām na vedmi puruṣam purātanam |
gām gatasya tava dhāma vaiṣṇavam
kopito hyasi mayā didṛkṣuṇā || 11-85

pratyuvAca tamR^iShirna tattvataH
tvAm na vedmi puruSham purAtanam |
gAm gatasya tava dhAma vaiShNavam
kopito hyasi mayA didR^ikShuNA || 11-85


pratyuvAca tam R^iShiH na tattvataH tvAm na vedmi puruSham purAtanam gAm gatasya tava dhAma vaiShNavam kopitaH hi asi mayA didR^ikShuNA

11-85. R^iShiH tam pratyuvAca= the sage Bhargava-Rama, him [to Rama], replied in this way;tattvataH= actually;tvAm purAtanam puruSham= you, as Primeval Being;na vedmi na= not, I know, is not there - not that I don't know you as Primeval Being; kimtu= but; gAm gatasya tava vaiShNavam dhAma didR^ikShuNA= to earth, reached, your, Vaishnava, resplendence, wishing to see it myself; mayA kopitaH hi asi = by me, [you] as an angered one, indeed, made as.

"It is not that I do not recognise you as the Primeval Being in reality; but I assure that I have provoked you with the sole desire of discerning your Vaishnava power when you have descended upon earth..." so said the sage Bhargava-Rama in reply to Dasharatha-Rama. [11-85]


भस्मसात्कृतवतः पितृद्विषः
पात्रसाच्च वसुधाम् ससागराम्।
आहितो जयविपर्ययोऽपि मे
श्लाघ्य एव परमेष्ठिना त्वया॥ ११-८६

bhasmasātkṛtavataḥ pitṛdviṣaḥ
pātrasācca vasudhām sasāgarām |
āhito jayaviparyayo'pi me
ślāghya eva parameṣṭhinā tvayā || 11-86

bhasmasAtkR^itavataH pitR^idviShaH
pAtrasAcca vasudhAm sasAgarAm |
Ahito jayaviparyayo.api me
shlAghya eva parameShThinA tvayA || 11-86


bhasmasAt kR^itavataH pitR^i-dviShaH pAtrasAt ca vasudhAm sa sAgarAm AhitaH jaya viparyayaH.api me shlAghya eva parameShThinA tvayA

11=-86. pitR^i-dviShaH bhasmasAt kR^itavataH= father's, enemies, to ashes, one who jhas reduced; sa sAgarAm vasudhAm pAtrasAt ca kR^itavataH= with oceans, earth, as donation into befitting hands, one who made so; me= such as I am, to me; parameShThinA tvayA= by Supreme god, at your hand;AhitaH jaya viparyayaH api= inflicted, victory's, opposite - defeat, even;shlAghya eva= praiseworthy, even.

Even the opposite of victory, namely defeat, inflicted by thee - the Primeval Being - is certainly agreeable to me who have reduced the enemies of my father to ashes and who have made over the whole world bounded by the oceans into the hands of a deserving personality, namely sage Kashyapa. [11-86]


तत् गतिम् मतिमताम् वरेप्सिताम्
पुण्यतीर्थगमनाय रक्ष मे।
पीडयिष्यति न माम् खिलीकृता
स्वर्गपद्धतिः अभोघलोलुपम्॥ ११-८७

tat gatim matimatām varepsitām
puṇyatīrthagamanāya rakṣa me |
pīḍayiṣyati na mām khilīkṛtā
svargapaddhatiḥ abhoghalolupam || 11-87

tat gatim matimatAm varepsitAm
puNyatIrthagamanAya rakSha me |
pIDayiShyati na mAm khilIkR^itA
svargapaddhatiH abhoghalolupam || 11-87


tat gatim matimatAm vara IpsitAm puNya tIrtha gamanAya rakSha me pIDayiShyati na mAm khilI kR^itA svarga paddhatiH abhogha lolupam

11-87.tat= by that reason; matimatAm vara= among wise, the best one - oh, Rama;puNya tIrtha gamanAya IpsitAm me gatim rakSha= to holy, places, t go, desired, mine, motion, pray spare it; khilI kR^itA= even if made as impassable route; svarga paddhatiH= road to heaven;a+bhogha lolupam= not interested in enjoying [heaven]; mAm na pIDayiShyati = me, cannot, displease.

Therefore, oh, Rama best one among intelligent, spare my coveted power of motion for the purpose of going to holy places. Blocking up the road to Heaven for me, who have no yearning for physical enjoyments, shall cause no displeasure.  [11-87]


प्रत्यपद्यत तथेति राघवः
प्राङ्मुखश्च विससर्ज सायकम्।
भार्गवस्य सुकृतोऽपि सोऽभवत्
स्वर्गमार्गपरिघो दुरत्ययः॥ ११-८८

pratyapadyata tatheti rāghavaḥ
prāṅmukhaśca visasarja sāyakam |
bhārgavasya sukṛto'pi so'bhavat
svargamārgaparigho duratyayaḥ || 11-88

pratyapadyata tatheti rAghavaH
prA~Nmukhashca visasarja sAyakam |
bhArgavasya sukR^ito.api so.abhavat
svargamArgaparigho duratyayaH || 11-88


pratyapadyata tathA iti rAghavaH prA~NmukhaH ca visasarja sAyakam bhArgavasya sukR^itaH api saH abhavat svarga mArga parighaH duratyayaH

11-88. rAghavaH= Dasharatha-Rama; tathA iti= like that only - so saying;pratyapadyata= agreed;prA~NmukhaH sAyakam visasarja ca= facing eastward, arrow, released, also; saH= that arrow; sukR^itaH api= whose deeds were meritorious,, even though; bhArgavasya= of Bhargava-Rama; duratyayaH= impeding his forward motion to heavens;svarga mArga = of heavenward, path, parighaH abhavat = a barrier, that arrow became.

Raghava assented and said, 'be it so'; and with his face towards the east discharged the arrow which became an impassable barrier to the path to Heaven for Bhargava, though he was a righteous personage. [11-88]


राघवोऽपि चरणौ तपोनिधेः
क्षम्यतामिति वदन्समस्पृशत्।
निर्जितेषु तरसा तरस्विनाम्
शत्रुषु प्रणतिरेव कीर्तये॥ ११-८९

rāghavo'pi caraṇau taponidheḥ
kṣamyatāmiti vadansamaspṛśat |
nirjiteṣu tarasā tarasvinām
śatruṣu praṇatireva kīrtaye || 11-89

rAghavo.api caraNau taponidheH
kShamyatAmiti vadansamaspR^ishat |
nirjiteShu tarasA tarasvinAm
shatruShu praNatireva kIrtaye || 11-89 


rAghavaH api caraNau taponidheH kShamyatAm iti vadan samaspR^ishat nirjiteShu tarasA tarasvinAm shatruShu praNatih eva kIrtaye

11-89. rAghavaH api= Rama, even; kShamyatAm iti vadan= please excuse me, so saying;taponidheH caraNau samaspR^ishat= of that great ascetic, feet, touched; tarasvinAm= for valiant people; tarasA nirjiteShu shatruShu= by their might, vanquished, in respect of their enemies; praNatih eva kIrtaye= courtesy, alone, is praiseworthy.

Raghava also touched the feet of that great ascetic Bhargava saying, 'please excuse me...' Courtesy on the part of valiant ones towards enemies vanquished by vigour is for their glory. [11-89]


राजसत्वमवधूय मातृकम्
पित्र्यमस्मि गमितः शमम् यदा।
नन्वनिन्दितफलो मम त्वया
निग्रहोऽप्ययमनुगृहीकृतः॥ ११-९०

rājasatvamavadhūya mātṛkam
pitryamasmi gamitaḥ śamam yadā |
nanvaninditaphalo mama tvayā
nigraho'pyayamanugṛhīkṛtaḥ || 11-90

rAjasatvamavadhUya mAtR^ikam
pitryamasmi gamitaH shamam yadA |
nanvaninditaphalo mama tvayA
nigraho.apyayamanugR^ihIkR^itaH || 11-90


rAjasatvam avadhUya mAtR^ikam pitryam asmi gamitaH shamam yadA nanu a+nindita phalaH mama tvayA nigrahaH api ayam anugR^ihIkR^itaH

11-90. mAtR^ikam rAjasatvam avadhUya= maternal, kingly arrogance,by removing;pitryam shamam yadA gamitaH asmi= paternal, quietude, as and when, gone into, I am;tadA= then only;tvayA mama= by you, to me; a+nindita phalaH= an impeccable result - of destroying my heavens;ayam nigrahaH= by way of this, termination [of heavens to me]; by that termination;anugR^ihI kR^itaH nanu= I am favoured, actually.

Even by discomfiture in terminating impeccable heavens to me, you have done a favour to me; since you have led me into peacefulness by expelling the kingly arrogance peculiar to my maternal side from me, and reintroduced me to the quality proper to my paternity - the serenity... [11-90]


साधयाम्यहमविघ्नमस्तु ते
ऊचिवानिति वचः सलक्ष्मणम्
लक्ष्मणाग्रजमृषितिरोदधे॥ ११-९१

sādhayāmyahamavighnamastu te
devakāryamupapādayiṣyataḥ |
ūcivāniti vacaḥ salakṣmaṇam
lakṣmaṇāgrajamṛṣitirodadhe || 11-91

sAdhayAmyahamavighnamastu te
devakAryamupapAdayiShyataH |
UcivAniti vacaH salakShmaNam
lakShmaNAgrajamR^iShitirodadhe || 11-91 


sAdhayAmi aham avighnam astu te deva kAryam upapAdayiShyataH UcivAn iti vacaH sa lakShmaNam lakShmaNa-agrajam R^iShiH tirodadhe

11.91. aham sAdhayAmi= I depart now; deva kAryam upapAdayiShyataH te= gods, errand, to accomplish, to you; avighnam astu= let there be no obstacles;sa lakShmaNam lakShmaNa-agrajam= with Lakshmana, to Rama; iti vacaH UcivAn= in this way, on saying departing words; R^iShiH tirodadhe= that sage Bhargava, went away.

"Let me depart now, may the errand of gods you have undertaken have no impediments..." Saying these words to Rama who is together with Lakshmana the sage disappeared. [11-91]


तस्मिन्गते विजयिनम् परिरभ्य रामम्
स्नेहादमन्यत पिता पुनरेव जातम्।
तस्याभवत्क्षणशुचः परितोषलाभः
कक्षाग्निलङ्घिततरोरिव वृष्टिपातः॥ ११-९२

tasmingate vijayinam parirabhya rāmam
snehādamanyata pitā punareva jātam |
tasyābhavatkṣaṇaśucaḥ paritoṣalābhaḥ
kakṣāgnilaṅghitataroriva vṛṣṭipātaḥ || 11-92

tasmingate vijayinam parirabhya rAmam
snehAdamanyata pitA punareva jAtam |
tasyAbhavatkShaNashucaH paritoShalAbhaH
kakShAgnila~Nghitataroriva vR^iShTipAtaH || 11-92


tasmin gate vijayinam parirabhya rAmam snehAt amanyata pitA punaH eva jAtam tasyaH abhavat kShaNa shucaH paritoSha lAbhaH kakSha agni la~Nghita taroH iva vR^iShTi pAtaH

11-92. tasmin gate sati= on his departure; vijayinam rAmam= victorious, Rama;pitA= father;snehAt parirabhya= with affection, on embracing; punaH jAtam eva amanyata= took rebirth, thought;kShaNa shucaH= for a while, saddened;tasyaH paritoSha lAbhaH= his, deriving happiness; kakSha agni la~Nghita taroH= in dry area, by fire, attacked, on tree; vR^iShTi pAtaH iva abhavat = a rain shower, as if, it has become.

On the departure of Bhargava, the father Dasharatha embraced the victorious Rama through affection, and he viewed himself as born again, and his gaining of satisfaction after suffering a momentary distress is like a tree gaining a shower of rain when scorched in wildfire. [11-92]


अथ पथि गमयित्वा कॢप्तरम्योपकार्ये
कतिचिदवनिपालः शर्वरीः शर्वकल्पः।
पुरमविशदयोध्याम् मैथिलीदर्शनीनाम्
कुवलयितगवाक्षाम् लोचनैरङ्गनानाम्॥ ११-९३

atha pathi gamayitvā kḷptaramyopakārye
katicidavanipālaḥ śarvarīḥ śarvakalpaḥ |
puramaviśadayodhyām maithilīdarśanīnām
kuvalayitagavākṣām locanairaṅganānām || 11-93

atha pathi gamayitvA kL^iptaramyopakArye
katicidavanipAlaH sharvarIH sharvakalpaH |
puramavishadayodhyAm maithilIdarshanInAm
kuvalayitagavAkShAm locanaira~NganAnAm || 11-93 


tasya prasahya hR^idayam kila shoka sha~NkuH plakSha praroha iva saudha talam bibheda prANa anta hetum api tam bhiShajAm asAdhyam lAbham priya anugamane tvarayA sa mene

8-93. shoka sha~NkuH= dart of grief; tasya hR^idayam= his, heart; plakSha praroha= peeple tree's, sprout; saudha talam iva= palace, terrace, as with; prasahya bibheda= forcibly, cleaved; kila = it is said so; saH prANa anta hetum api= he, life, ending, reason, though; bhiShajAm asAdhyam= for medical men, impossible one - his mental agony; tam= that dart of grief - called his agony for departed wife; priya anugamane tvarayA= ladylove, following, in eagerness; lAbham mene= as a gainful [disease] he thought.

The dart of grief, it is said, broke his heart forcibly like the sprout of the Peepul tree cleaving the terrace of a palace; however, he looked upon that wound which was to be the cause of bringing his life to a close and which was incurable to physicians, as a gain on account of his eagerness to follow his beloved. [8-93]

Sorrow's dart had struck / Deep-rooted in his soul, as strikes a Fig / Deep roots in palace-roofs: when sickness came / To end his life, he welcomed its stern dint, / As one that set him free to join his Love.



इति कालिदास कृत रघुवंश महाकाव्ये एकादशः सर्गः

iti kālidāsa kṛta raghuvaṁśa mahākāvye ekādaśaḥ sargaḥ

Thus this is 11th chapter in Kalidasa's Raghuvamsha, The Outstanding Poem of India



previous : chapter 10 contents Next: chapter 12
Desiraju Hanumanta Rao - July 2010


abbreviations, words used  etc - explained

Krishnarao Mahadeva Joglekar, 1916 - KMJ, or Joglekar

Gopala Raghunath Nandargikar, 1897 GRN

pithy, terse sayings or foots of poem appearing in comment section - from The Story of Raghu's Line by Kalidasa; translated  by P. De Lacy Johnston, Published by Adine House, London, 1902 - De Lacy or Lacy


upama is roughly said as metaphor, transferred epithet, or condensed simile, or expanded simile, or whatever, but not stabilised, as with atishayokti and utpreksha both made to fall under the category of a hyperbole.

u.mA o : upamAna - comparable object; or the object itself.

u.me  oc : upameya - object compared.

sA.dha c: sAdhAraNa dharma: commonality in sharing attributes.

sA. vA cw: sAdharaNa vAcaka: coupula, conjunctional word used.

anu.dha uq : anugAmi dharma : underlying quality of factors.

bimba om, or O: object to be mirrored.

prati-bimba mo: reflected object with mirror symmetry, mirrored object.


shleSa innuendo: lexically mixing, imbibed in; better we use this innuendo= 2 a remark with a double meaning, usu. suggestive; till pundits object.

zeugma : a figure of speech using a verb or adjective with two nouns, to one of which it is strictly applicable while the word appropriate to the other is not used (e.g. with weeping eyes and [sc. grieving] hearts).

syllepsis : a figure of speech in which a word is applied to two others in different senses (e.g. caught the train and a bad cold) or to two others of which it grammatically suits one only (e.g. neither they nor it is working) - but not innuendo, or double meaning.

atishayokti - hybo: hyperbole.

utpreksha - mglq: magniloqui, gasconade.


Out of many mind-boggling Sanskrit poetics, upama is one, and only 23 of its shades are presented here as illustration. Please construe that hero is telling these se ntences to his heroine.