Dynasty of Emperor Raghu
|16 chapter -- 88 verses|
Kusha had been asssigned kushAvati as his capital. Since Rama's departure to heavens the ancestral metropolis Ayodhya had remained deserted. Its guardian deity once suddenly presents herself in the dead of night and stands in front of Kusha while he is lying awake. She pictures to him the deplorable deserted condition of the city and begs him to return to it. Kussla consents, repairs to the place, puts everything in order and restores it to its former splendour. Under peculiarly poetic circumstances Kusha is offered the hand of Kumudvati, nAga damsel by her hrother. The offer is of course accepted and Kumudvati becomes the wife of Kusha.
Notes and commentary of Kishanrao Madhavarao Joglekar on this 16h canto 1 MB pdf is also made available here for further reading.
अथेतरे सप्तरघुप्रवीरा ज्येष्ठम् पुरोजन्मतया गुणैश्च।
चक्रुः कुशम् रत्नविशेषभाजम् सौभ्रात्रमेषाम् हि कुलानुकारि ॥ १६-१
jyeṣṭham purojanmatayā guṇaiśca |
cakruḥ kuśam ratnaviśeṣabhājam
saubhrātrameṣām hi kulānukāri || 16-1
atha itare sapta raghupravIrA jyeShTham purojanmatayA guNaiH ca cakruH kusham ratna visheSha bhAjam saubhrAtram eShAm hi kula anukAri
16-1. atha= after - Rama's departure; itare sapta raghupravIrA= other, seven, Raghu heroes; purojanmatayA guNaiH ca= because he is earlier born, by his possessing virtues, also; jyeShTham kusham = eldest one, Kusha; ratna visheSha bhAjam= the sharer of everything specially the best - king with lion's share; cakruH= they made; saubhrAtram eShAm kula anukAri hi= brotherhood, to these princes, dynastically, following, isn't it.
Then, the other seven brave princes of the Raghu family made Kusha - the eldest both by bis being born first and by his possessing virtues - the enjoyer of the best of every thing, i.e., the monarch; for, good fraternal feeling was their family-trait. [16-1]
ते सेतुवार्तागजबन्धमुखैः अभ्युच्छ्रिताः कर्मभिरप्यवन्ध्यैः।
अन्योन्यदेशप्रविभागसीमाम् वेलाम् समुद्रा इव न व्यतीयुः ॥ १६-२
abhyucchritāḥ karmabhirapyavandhyaiḥ |
velām samudrā iva na vyatīyuḥ || 16-2
abhyucChritAH karmabhirapyavandhyaiH |
velAm samudrA iva na vyatIyuH || 16-2
te setu vArtA gaja bandha mukhaiH abhyucChritAH karmabhiH api a+vandhyaiH anyonya desha pravibhAga sImAm velAm samudrA iva na vyatIyuH
16-2. setu vArtA gaja bandha mukhaiH= construction of bridges, agriculture, and capturing of elephants, etc activities; a+vandhyaiH karmabhiH abhyucChritAH api= not, wasteful, activities, distinguished, though; te= those brothers; anyonya desha pravibhAga sImAm= to each, tract assigned boundary; velAm samudrA iva= seashore, seas, as with; na vyatIyuH= not, transgressed.
Those brothers were distinguished by their successful operations of which the principal were construction of bridges, agriculture, and capture and training of elephants; they did not however overstep the boundary of the tract assigned to each, just as seas do not overstep limits of shorelines. [16-2]
चतुर्भुजांशप्रभवः स तेषाम् दानप्रवृत्तेरनुपारतानाम्।
सुरद्विपानामिव सामयोनिर्भिन्नः अष्टधा विप्रससार वंशः ॥ १६-३
teṣām dānapravṛtteranupāratānām |
aṣṭadhā viprasasāra vaṁśaḥ || 16-3
tayorashItam shishiro bibheda |
himAdrinisyanda ivAvatIrNaH || 14-3
catur-bhuja amsha prabhavaH sa teShAm dAna pravR^itteH anu-pAratAnAm sura dvipAnAm iva sAma yoniH bhinnaH aShTadhA vi-prasasAra va.nshaH
16-3. catur-bhuja amsha prabhavaH= of four-armed one, having its roots, emerged - those emerged as a shade of Vishnu; dAna pravR^itteH= 1] in tendency of charity; 2] of the flow of ichor of elephants; anu-pAratAnAm= non stop continuity; teShAm saH va.nshaH= their, that, dynasty; sAma yoniH sura dvipAnAm va.nshaH iva= from sAma Veda birthed, celestial, elephants, dynasty, as with; aShTadhA bhinnaH vi-prasasAra= in eight ways, divided, and spread.
That family-stalk of theirs which sprang from the blend of the four-armed one, or the enjoyer of the four aims of existence, namely Vishnu, was on account of their being ceaseless in their charities, being sub-divided into eight branches, spread widely like the race of celestial elephants guarding eighth quarters of universe whose flow of rut never ceased and who were sprung from the sAma-Veda. [16-3]
When Brahma recited sAma-Veda keeping the orb of Sun in one hand and a skull in another, there emerged eight elephants scheduled to guard the quarters of earth. Thus the earthly elephants are also classified as eight in species. Likewise the eight brothers of Rama's lineage are now termed as eight great elephants.
अथार्धरात्रे स्तिमितप्रदीपे शय्यागृहे सुप्तजने प्रबुद्धः।
कुशः प्रवासस्थकलत्रवेषाम् अदृष्टपूर्वाम् वनितामपश्यत् ॥ १६-४
śayyāgṛhe suptajane prabuddhaḥ |
adṛṣṭapūrvām vanitāmapaśyat || 16-4
shayyAgR^ihe suptajane prabuddhaH |
adR^iShTapUrvAm vanitAmapashyat || 16-4
atha ardha rAtre stimita pradIpe shayyA gR^ihe supta jane prabuddhaH kushaH pravAsastha kalatra veShAm adR^iShTa pUrvAm vanitAm apashyat
16-4. atha= later; ardha rAtre= in mid night; stimita pradIpe= steadily burning, night lamps; supta jane= when all are asleep; shayyA gR^ihe prabuddhaH kushaH= in bed-chamber, wide awake, Kusha; pravAsastha kalatra veShAm= one dressed like one whose husband is away on a journey; adR^iShTa pUrvAm= not seen before; vanitAm apashyat = a female, he saw.
At certain time in mid night, while his servants were fast asleep and the night lamps were steadily burning in his bed-chamber, Kusha who was wide awake beheld a female who was a stranger dressed like one whose husband is away on a journey. [15-4]
सा साधुसाधारणपार्थिवर्द्धेः स्थित्वा पुरस्तात्पुरहूतभासः।
जेतुः परेषाम् जयशब्दपूर्वम् तस्याञ्जलिम् बन्धुमतो बबन्ध ॥ १६-५
sthitvā purastātpurahūtabhāsaḥ |
jetuḥ pareṣām jayaśabdapūrvam
tasyāñjalim bandhumato babandha || 16-5
sthitvA purastAtpurahUtabhAsaH |
jetuH pareShAm jayashabdapUrvam
tasyA~njalim bandhumato babandha || 16-5
sA sAdhu sAdhAraNa pArthivarddheH sthitvA purastAt purahUta bhAsaH jetuH pareShAm jaya shabda pUrvam tasya a~njalim bandhumataH babandha
16-5. sA= she; [standing before him who] sAdhu sAdhAraNa pArthivarddheH= whoso royal splendour was common just what it ought to be to the good kings; purahUta bhAsaH= Indra-like, in resplendence; pareShAm jetuH= enemy, conqueror; bandhumataH= one with good brothers; tasya purastAt sthitvA= his, before, standing; jaya shabda pUrvam= hail, sounds, starting with; a~njalim babandha= palmfold, she made.
She stood before him - whose royal splendour was common, just what it ought to be, to all good kings, who had the radiance as that of Indra, who was the vanquisher of his enemies, and who had good brothers, - and folded her hands to him with an exclamation in which 'may you be victorious' were the first words. [16-5]
अथानपोढार्गलमप्यगारम् छायामिवादर्शतलम् प्रविष्टाम्।
सविस्मयो दाशरथेस्तनूजः प्रोवाच पूर्वार्धविसृष्टतल्पः ॥ १६-६
provāca pūrvārdhavisṛṣṭatalpaḥ || 16-6
provAca pUrvArdhavisR^iShTatalpaH || 16-6
atha an+apoDha argalam api agAram ChAyAm iva adarshatalam praviShTAm sa+vismayaH dAsharatheH tanUjaH provAca pUrvArdha visR^iShTa talpaH
16-6. atha= then; sa+vismayaH= with astonishment; pUrvArdha visR^iShTa talpaH= forepart of body, leaving, the bed - half raised from bed; dAsharatheH tanUjaH= Rama's, son - Kusha; an+apoDha argalam api= not, removed, the latch of the door, even though; agAram= room - bed-chamber; adarshatalam praviShTAm ChAyAm iva= in mirror, entering, reflection, as with - she who is like; provAca= said this.
Now the wonder-struck son of Rama, Kusha, half rising from his bed said this to her who just like a mirrored object had entered the bed-chamber without unlatching the door. [16-6]
This is a yugmam
लब्धान्तरा सावरणेऽपि गेहे योगप्रभावो न च लक्ष्यते ते।
बिभर्षि चाकारमनिर्वृतानाम् मृणालिनी हैममिवोपरागम् ॥ १६-७
का त्वम् शुभे कस्य परिग्रहो वा किम् वा मदभ्यागमकारणम् ते।
आचक्ष्व मत्वा वशिनाम् रघूणाम् मनः परस्त्रीविमुखप्रवृत्तिः ॥ १६-८
labdhāntarā sāvaraṇe'pi gehe
yogaprabhāvo na ca lakṣyate te |
mṛṇālinī haimamivoparāgam || 16-7
kā tvam śubhe kasya parigraho vā
kim vā madabhyāgamakāraṇam te |
ācakṣva matvā vaśinām raghūṇām
manaḥ parastrīvimukhapravṛttiḥ || 16-8
labdhAntarA sAvaraNe.api gehe
yogaprabhAvo na ca lakShyate te |
mR^iNAlinI haimamivoparAgam || 16-7
kA tvam shubhe kasya parigraho vA
kim vA madabhyAgamakAraNam te |
AcakShva matvA vashinAm raghUNAm
manaH parastrIvimukhapravR^ittiH || 16-8
labdha antarA sa AvaraNe api gehe yoga prabhAvaH na ca lakShyate te bibharShi ca AkAram anirvR^itAnAm mR^iNAlinI haimam iva uparAgam kA tvam shubhe kasya parigrahaH vA kim vA mat abhyAgama kAraNam te AcakShva matvA vashinAm raghUNAm manaH para strI vimukha pravR^ittiH
16-7, 8. sa AvaraNe api= with, enclosures [doors], though; gehe labdha antarA= in house, you got, entrance; yoga prabhAvaH te na ca lakShyate= yogic, power, to you, not, also, is seen; mR^iNAlinI haimam uparAgam iva= lotus stalk, by frost, blasted, as with; anirvR^itAnAm AkAram bibharShi ca= unhappy one's, appearance, you put on, also; hè shubhe= oh, lady; tvam kA= you, who are; kasya vA te parigrahaH= whose wife are you; mat abhyAgama kAraNam kim vA= to my presence, your arrival's, reason, what is; vashinAm raghUNAm manaH= self-controlled ones, of we Raghu dynasty, our mind; para strI vimukha pravR^ittiH= in other, women, averse, conduct; matvA= keeping in mind; AcakShva = you may tell.
"You got an entrance into the palace in spite of its doors being barred, and yet there is no indication of any yogic-power in you to gatecrash. You have the appearance of those who are troubled and look like a lotus-stalk blasted by frost; oh good lady, who are you, or whose wife are you, or what is the cause of your coming to me. Tell me all this remembering that the mind of the self-restraining Raghu-s is wholly averse to any love towards the wives of others. [16-7, 8]
"How, Lady, couldst thou to my chamber come / Through fast-barred doors? no Hermit-dame thou seem'st,/But rather wearest garb of those that mourn, /Like lotus-clusters withered by the frost./Who art thou, Fair one? who thy Lord? to me/Why com'st thou thus? Speak freely: yet beware, /For Raghu's noble race, self-disciplined,/Abhors all thought of sin!"
तमब्रवीत्सा गुरुणानवद्या या नीतपौरा स्वपदोन्मुखेन।
तस्याः पुरः संप्रति वीतनाथाम् जानीहि राजन्नधिदेवताम् माम् ॥ १६-९
yā nītapaurā svapadonmukhena |
tasyāḥ puraḥ saṁprati vītanāthām
jānīhi rājannadhidevatām mām || 16-9
tamabravItsA guruNAnavadyA yA
nItapaurA svapadonmukhena |
tasyAH puraH sa.nprati vItanAthAm
jAnIhi rAjannadhidevatAm mAm || 16-9
tam abravIt sA guruNA anavadyA yA nIta-paurA sva pada unmukhena tasyAH puraH sa.nprati vIta nAthAm jAnIhi rAjan adhi-devatAm mAm
16-9. sA tam= she, to him; anavadyA yA= unblemished, she who is - Ayodhya; sva pada unmukhena guruNA nIta-paurA= he who has gone on his own way, by your father, taking people with him - such a city Ayodhya; hè rAjan= oh, king; mAm sa.nprati= me, [who am] presently; vIta nAthAm= [who am] with departed, husband; tasyAH puraH adhi-devatAm jAnIhi= as that, city's, presiding deity, know me; abravIt= thus she said.
She said to him, "oh, king, know me as the lordless presiding deity of that faultless city whose denizens were led to heaven by your father when he anxiously left for his original abode, namely viakuNTham. [16-9]
वस्वौकसारामभिभूय साहम् सौराज्यबद्धोत्सवया विभूत्या।
समग्रशक्तौ त्वयि सूर्यवंश्ये सति प्रपन्ना करुणामवस्थाम् ॥ १६-१०
saurājyabaddhotsavayā vibhūtyā |
samagraśaktau tvayi sūryavaṁśye sati
prapannā karuṇāmavasthām || 16-10
saurAjyabaddhotsavayA vibhUtyA |
samagrashaktau tvayi sUryava.nshye sati
prapannA karuNAmavasthAm || 16-10
vasvaukasArAmabhibhUya sAham saurAjyabaddhotsavayA vibhUtyA samagrashaktau tvayi sUryava.nshye sati prapannA karuNAmavasthAm
16-10. sA aham= such as I am I; saurAjya baddha utsavayA= with good rule, conjoined, festivities; vibhUtyA vasvaukasArAm abhibhUya = by prosperity, which is like the city of the God of wealth known alaka-puri, transcending it; samagra shaktau tvayi = absolutely powerful, you are; sUrya va.nshye sati= because you are from Solar dynasty; karuNAm avasthAm prapannA = a pitiable, condition, I stumble upon.
Such as I am I, having eclipsed the city of the God of wealth by my prosperity manifested in the festivities that were uninterruptedly going on in consequence of the excellent rule of your forefathers, now fallen to a pitiful condition although you, a scion of the solar race, possessing all power are the ruler. [16-10]
विशीर्णतल्पाट्टशतो निवेशः पर्यस्तशालः प्रभुणा विना मे।
विडम्बयत्यस्तनिमग्नसूर्यम् दिनान्तमुग्रानिलभिन्नमेघम् ॥ १६-११
paryastaśālaḥ prabhuṇā vinā me |
dināntamugrānilabhinnamegham || 16-11
paryastashAlaH prabhuNA vinA me |
dinAntamugrAnilabhinnamegham || 16-11
vishIrNa talpa aTTa shataH niveshaH paryasta shAlaH prabhuNA vinA me viDambayati asta nimagna sUryam dinAntam ugra anila bhinna megham
16-11. vishIrNa= with ruined; talpa aTTa = talpa is penthouse - the single room on the topmost floor of a house; and aTTa is primly an addition to the upper part of a building, then a buttress or turret; shataH= hundreds of such penthouses; paryasta shAlaH= with crumbled, ramparts; me niveshaH= my, dwelling place - Ayodhya; prabhuNA vinA= lord, without; asta nimagna sUryam= behind dusking mountain, sinking, sun - as with; ugra anila bhinna megham= by ferocious, winds, splintered, cloud - as with; dinAntam viDambayati= end of day, it is resembling.
"Without a ruler, my abode with hundreds of ruined turrets and terraces and with crumbling ramparts resembles the edge of the day having the sun sunk behind the setting mountain and the clouds scattered by high winds. [16-11]
Myriad empty homes,/With halls all silent, couches bare, are seen/Like sunset-skies, when at the death of day/Winds rend the clouds.
निशासु भास्वत्कलनूपुराणाम् यः संचरोऽभूदभिसारिकाणाम्।
नदन्मुखोल्काविचितामिषाभिः स वाह्यते राजपथः शिवाभिः ॥ १६-१२
yaḥ saṁcaro'bhūdabhisārikāṇām |
sa vāhyate rājapathaḥ śivābhiḥ || 16-12
yaH sa.ncaro.abhUdabhisArikANAm |
sa vAhyate rAjapathaH shivAbhiH || 16-12
nishAsu bhAsvat kala nUpurANAm yaH sa.ncaraH.abhUt abhisArikANAm nadan mukha ulkA vicita AmiShAbhiH sa vAhyate rAjapathaH shivAbhiH
16-12. nishAsu= in nights; bhAsvat kala nUpurANAm= glittering and making alight melodious sound, such anklets; abhisArikANAm= of ladies in love; yaH sa.ncaraH abhUt = which, a regular road, which became; saH rAjapathaH= that king's way; nadan mukha ulkA= while howling, from mouths, emitting flames; vicita AmiShAbhiH= while searching, for carrion; shivAbhiH vAhyate= with female jackals, being traversed.
That king's way, which had formerly been the regular path of ladies in love having glittering jingling anklets during nights, is now traversed by she-jackals who seek carrion by the help of the flames emitted from their howling mouths. [16-12.]
आस्फालितम् यत्प्रमदाकराग्रैः मृदङ्गधीरध्वनिमन्वगच्छत्।
वन्यैरिदानीम् महिषैस्तदम्भः शृङ्गाहतम् क्रोशति दीर्घिकाणाम् ॥ १६-१३
śṛṅgāhatam krośati dīrghikāṇām || 16-13
shR^i~NgAhatam kroshati dIrghikANAm || 16-13
AsphAlitam yat pramadA kara agraiH mR^ida~Nga dhIra dhvanim anvagacChat vanyaiH idAnIm mahiShaiH tat ambhaH shR^i~Nga Ahatam kroshati dIrghikANAm
16-13. yat= which - water; pramadA kara agraiH AsphAlitam= with women's, arm, forepart, flapped - splashed; mR^ida~Nga dhIra dhvanim anvagacChat= [which flapping] percussion instrument's, sound, resembled; tat dIrghikANAm ambhaH= that, cistern's, water; idAnIm= presently; vanyaiH mahiShaiH shR^i~Nga Ahatam= wild, buffalos, with horns, being shoved; kroshati= hence [that water] is bewailing.
That water of the cisterns which when flapped with the forearms of women during water sports gave sounds resembling drumming, now sends forth a mournful sound when wild buffaloes shove it with their horns. [16-13]
Once did the water of my lakelets, struck/By dainty fingers, mock the lute's deep tone:/Now, wounded by the buffalo's sharp horn,/It shrinks sore hurt.
वृक्षेशया यष्टिनिवासभङ्गात् मृदङ्गशब्दापगमादलास्याः।
प्राप्ता दवोल्काहतशेषबर्ह्याः क्रीडामयूरा वनबर्हिणत्वम् ॥ १६-१४
krīḍāmayūrā vanabarhiṇatvam || 16-14
krIDAmayUrA vanabarhiNatvam || 16-14
vR^ikShe shayA yaShTi nivAsa bha~NgAt mR^ida~Nga shabda apagamAt alAsyAH prAptA dava ulkA hata sheSha barhyAH krIDA mayUrA vana barhiNatvam
16-14. yaShTi nivAsa bha~NgAt= wood-sticks, dwelling, by ruination - when timbre of houses broken and houses collapsed; vR^ikShe shayA= [resorting to] trees, for reclining; mR^ida~Nga shabda apagamAt a+lAsyAH= [when] drumming, sound, disappeared [in houses], not, dancing; dava ulkA hata sheSha barhyAH= [when Ayodhya turned out as a forest] wildfire's [issuing now and then], with their sparks, burnt, with remaining, plumage; krIDA mayUrA= such playful, peacocks; vana barhiNatvam prAptA = wild, peacock-hood, they attained.
When timber of houses is broken and houses are on the collapse, pet peacocks had to leave household sanctuaries and resort to trees for perching; when the sounds of drumming disappeared from such near-ruined houses, those peacocks equally gave up dancing; when the city-fires arising accidentally burnt their plumage those sportive peacocks are leading a disconsolate life with remnant feathers. [16-14]
सोपानमार्गेषु च येषु रामा निक्षिप्तवत्यश्चरणान्सरागान्।
सद्योहतन्यङ्कुभिरस्रदिग्धम् व्याघ्रैः पदम् तेषु निधीयते मे ॥ १६-१५
sopānamārgeṣu ca yeṣu rāmā
vyāghraiḥ padam teṣu nidhīyate me || 16-15
sopAnamArgeShu ca yeShu rAmA
vyAghraiH padam teShu nidhIyate me || 16-15
sopAna mArgeShu ca yeShu rAmA nikShiptavatyaH caraNAn sa-rAgAn sadyaH hatasya kubhiH asradigdham vyAghraiH padam teShu nidhIyate me
16-15. yeShu sopAna mArgeShu= where, stairs, ways; rAmA sa-rAgAn caraNAn nikShiptavatyaH= beautiful women, their lac-dyed, feet, were keeping; teShu me mArgeShu= on such, mine, pathways - of city; sadyaH hatasya kubhiH vyAghraiH = just now, killed, deer, such tigers; asradigdham padam nidhIyate= bloodwet, paws, are being placed.
On those flights of steps of mine where beautiful ladies at one time used to place their feet dyed with lac do tigers, who on killing deer just now, place their paws besmeared with blood. [16-15]
चित्रद्विपाः पद्मवनावतीर्णाः करेणुभिर्दत्तमृणालभङ्गाः।
नखाङ्कुशाघातविभिन्नकुम्भाः संरब्धसिंहप्रहृतम् वहन्ति ॥ १६-१६
saṁrabdhasiṁhaprahṛtam vahanti || 16-16
sa.nrabdhasi.nhaprahR^itam vahanti || 16-16
citra-dvipAH padma vana avatIrNAH kareNubhiH datta mR^iNAla bha~NgAH nakha a~Nkusha AghAta vibhinna kumbhAH sa.nrabdha si.nha prahR^itam vahanti
16-16. padma vana avatIrNAH= lotus, thicket, as if entered; kareNubhiH datta mR^iNAla bha~NgAH= by female elephants, given, lotus stalks; citra-dvipAH= such elephants sculpted on the walls of city; nakha a~Nkusha AghAta vibhinna kumbhAH= with nails [claws of lions], called goads, struck, broken, heads - when actual lions pawed the sculpted elephants, their clawing resembled goad punching; sa.nrabdha si.nha prahR^itam vahanti= enraged, lions, assault, they are bearing.
The elephants sculpted on the exteriors of walls shown as entering the lotus beds and being presented with pieces of lotus-talks by the female-elephants are being attacked by actual lions now on prowl in the devastated city; when actual lions are pawing the sculpted elephants, those elephants appear to bear the brunt of lion-claws instead of goad punches. [16-16]
Lions prowling on city streets - meaning that Ayodhya became deserted city owing to lack of proper rule: bhrAntimadalankAram - vyangyam.
स्तम्भेषु योषित्प्रतियातनानाम् उत्क्रान्तवर्णक्रमधूसराणाम्।
स्तनोत्तरीयाणि भवन्ति सङ्गान् निर्मोकपट्टाः फणिभिर्विमुक्ताः ॥ १६-१७
stanottarīyāṇi bhavanti saṅgān
nirmokapaṭṭāḥ phaṇibhirvimuktāḥ || 16-17
stambheShu yoShitpratiyAtanAnAmutkrAntavarNakramadhUsarANAm |
stanottarIyANi bhavanti sa~NgAnnirmokapaTTAH phaNibhirvimuktAH || 16-17
stambheShu yoShit pratiyAtanAnAm utkrAnta varNa krama dhUsarANAm stana uttarIyANi bhavanti sa~NgAt nirmoka paTTAH phaNibhiH vimuktAH
16-17. utkrAnta varNa krama dhUsarANAm= gone away, colour order, firstly painted, and became greyish; stambheShu yoShit pratiyAtanAnAm= on pillars, on female, statues; phaNibhiH vimuktAH nirmoka paTTAH sa~NgAt= by serpents, released, slough sheets, by their covering; stana uttarIyANi bhavanti= breast, cloths [of statues], they are becoming.
The palaces of my city have pillars sculpted with figurines on which brilliant colours were painted as clothing of figurines; but when the indwellers have deserted the palaces those colours peeled off and turned greyish and the palaces themselves have become haunting places of serpents; now, the sloughs cast by those serpents adhering to the figurines are serving as breast-cloths on the bared breasts of those statutes. [16-17]
कालान्तरश्यामसुधेषु नक्तम् इतस्ततो रूढतृणाङ्कुरेषु।
त एव मुक्तागुणशुद्धयोऽपि हर्म्येषु मूर्च्छन्ति न चन्द्रपादाः ॥ १६-१८
itastato rūḍhatṛṇāṅkureṣu |
ta eva muktāguṇaśuddhayo'pi harmyeṣu
mūrcchanti na candrapādāḥ || 16-18
itastato rUDhatR^iNA~NkureShu |
ta eva muktAguNashuddhayo.api harmyeShu
mUrcChanti na candrapAdAH || 16-18
kAla antara shyAma sudheShu naktam itastataH rUDha tR^iNa a~NkureShu ta eva muktA guNa shuddhayaH api harmyeShu mUrcChanti na candra pAdAH
16-18. kAla antara shyAma sudheShu= by lapse of time, blackened; itastataH rUDha tR^iNa a~NkureShu= with here and there, sprouted, grass, blades; harmyeShu= on such mansions; naktam= in nights; muktA guNa shuddhayaH api= like pearl necklace, very brilliant, even though; ta eva= those once were radiant, alone; candra pAdAH= moon's, beams; na mUrcChanti= not, bemusing.
Those very moonbeams though white like strings of pearls once sparkled on the mansions of my city do not now glisten at night, for there is none to refurbish blackened whitewash of mansions on which shoots of grass also grown here and there after lapse of time. [16-18]
The fair Moon's beams,/Though pure as virgin-pearl, get back no ray/From tiles time-blackened of the palace-roof,/Now flecked with grass-tufts.
आवर्ज्य शाखाम् सदयम् च यासाम् पुष्पाण्युपात्तानि विलासिनीभिः।
वन्यैः पुलिन्दैरिव वानरैस्ताः क्लिश्यन्ते उद्यानलता मदीयाः ॥ १६-१९
āvarjya śākhām sadayam ca yāsām
puṣpāṇyupāttāni vilāsinībhiḥ |
vanyaiḥ pulindairiva vānaraistāḥ
kliśyante udyānalatā madīyāḥ || 16-19
Avarjya shAkhAm sadayam ca yAsAm
puShpANyupAttAni vilAsinIbhiH |
vanyaiH pulindairiva vAnaraistAH
klishyante udyAnalatA madIyAH || 16-19
Avarjya shAkhAm sadayam ca yAsAm puShpANi upAttAni vilAsinIbhiH vanyaiH pulindaiH iva vAnaraiH tAH klishyante udyAna latA madIyAH
16-19. vilAsinIbhiH= by delicate women; sadayam shAkhAm Avarjya= tenderly, branches, on bending; yAsAm puShpANi upAttAni= whose, flowers, they plucked; tAH madIyAH udyAna latA= those, mine, garden, creepers; pulindaiH iva vanyaiH vAnaraiH= savages, as with, wild, by monkeys; klishyante= being crushed.
Delicate women used to pluck flowers by tenderly bending the branches of my city's garden creepers; but now, savages are mangling them as if they are the wild monkeys. [16-19]
रात्रावनाविष्कृतदीपभासः कान्तामुखश्रीवियुता दिवापि।
तिरस्क्रियन्ते कृमितन्तुजालैर् विच्छन्न धूमप्रसरा गवाक्षाः ॥ १६-२०
kāntāmukhaśrīviyutā divāpi |
tiraskriyante kṛmitantujālair vicchanna
dhūmaprasarā gavākṣāḥ || 16-20
kAntAmukhashrIviyutA divApi |
vicChannadhUmaprasarA gavAkShAH || 16-20
rAtrau anAviShkR^ita dIpa bhAsaH kAntA mukha shrI viyutA divA api tiraskriyante kR^imi tantu jAlaiH vicChanna dhUma prasarA gavAkShAH
16-20. rAtrau= in nights; an+AviShkR^ita dIpa bhAsaH= not, lit, lamps, light; divA api= in daytime, even; kAntA mukha shrI viyutA= charming, ladies, faces', brightness, without; vicChanna dhUma prasarA= lost, smoke's, flow; gavAkShAH= such ventilators; kR^imi tantu jAlaiH= with insects' [spiders], cob webs; tiraskriyante= being obstructed.
During nights the windows no more shine for there is any to lit the lamps; even in daytime they are lacklustre for there is no face of charming lady sneaking to steal a glance through them; neither in day nor in night smoke floats from them for hearths are not afire, while thickly woven cobwebs obscure them all. [16-20]
उपान्तवानीरगृहाणि दृष्ट्वा शून्यानि दूये सरयूजलानि ॥ १६-२१
śūnyāni dūye sarayūjalāni || 16-21
balikriyAvarjitasaikatAni snAnIyasa.nsargamanApnuvanti |
upAntavAnIragR^ihANi dR^iShTvA shUnyAni dUye sarayUjalAni || 16-21
bali kriyA varjita saikatAni snAnIya sa.nsargam anApnuvanti upAnta vAnIra gR^ihANi dR^iShTvA shUnyAni dUye sarayU jalAni
16-21. bali kriyA varjita saikatAni= offertory, acts, devoid of, sand banks of Sarayu; snAnIya sa.nsargam anApnuvanti= bath-time body creams, touch, not getting - waters; upAnta vAnIra gR^ihANi= thereabout, cane, bowers [are empty]; sarayU jalAni= such Sarayu waters; shUnyAni dR^iShTvA= being deserted, on seeing; dUye= I am pained.
There used to be fulltime activity of oblations, offertories, rites and functions on the banks of Sarayu, but now there is none leaving the sandbanks deserted; there used to be bathers applying various body creams and lotions, but now the waters are not getting the touch of it, for there are no bathers; cane bowers available thereabout were with hectic activity of people rushing in and out, but now they are unfrequented by any, and to see such deserted waters of River Sarayu I am pained. [16-21]
तदर्हसीमाम् वसतिम् विसृज्य मामभ्युपेतुम् कुलराजधानीम्।
हित्वा तनुम् कारणमानुषीम् ताम् यथा गुरुस्ते परमात्ममूर्तिम् ॥ १६-२२
tadarhasīmām vasatim visṛjya
māmabhyupetum kularājadhānīm |
hitvā tanum kāraṇamānuṣīm tām
yathā guruste paramātmamūrtim || 16-22
tadarhasImAm vasatim visR^ijya
mAmabhyupetum kularAjadhAnIm |
hitvA tanum kAraNamAnuShIm tAm
yathA guruste paramAtmamUrtim || 16-22
tat arhasi imAm vasatim visR^ijya mAm abhyupetum kula rAjadhAnIm hitvA tanum kAraNa mAnuShIm tAm yathA guruH te paramAtma mUrtim
16-22. tat= thereby; imAm vasatim visR^ijya= this, dwelling place, on leaving; kula rAjadhAnIm mAm abhyupetum arhasi= dynastic, capital, me [Ayodhya], to reach, will be apt of you; te guruH tAm kAraNa mAnuShIm tanum hitvA= your, father, that, for a purpose, human form, on leaving; paramAtma mUrtim yathA= Supreme Soul's, form, as to how [he did].
Hence it will be apt of you to give up this dwelling place and come back to me who have been the seat of government of your ancestors; just as your sire abandoning the human form assumed for a particular purpose went back to the form of the Supreme Soul. [16-22]
तथेति तस्याः प्रणयम् प्रतीतः प्रत्यग्रहीत्प्राग्रहरो रघूणाम्।
पूरप्यभिव्यक्तमुखप्रसादा शरीरबन्धेन तिरोबभूव ॥ १६-२३
tatheti tasyāḥ praṇayam pratītaḥ
pratyagrahītprāgraharo raghūṇām |
śarīrabandhena tirobabhūva || 16-23
tatheti tasyAH praNayam pratItaH
pratyagrahItprAgraharo raghUNAm |
sharIrabandhena tirobabhUva || 16-23
tathA iti tasyAH praNayam pratItaH san pratyagrahIt prAgraharaH raghUNAm pUH api abhivyakta mukha prasAdA sharIra bandhena tirobabhUva
16-23. raghUNAm prAgraharaH= among Raghu-s, the best one - Kusha; tasyAH praNayam pratItaH san= her, prayer, pleased with; tathA iti= so be it - thus; pratyagrahIt= agreed to; pUrapi -pUH api= presiding deity of Ayodhya, also; abhivyakta mukha prasAdA= manifested, by face, her pleasure; sharIra bandhena tirobabhUva= with her form, she went away.
The foremost of tl1e Raghu-s being pleased with the prayer of presiding deity of Ayodhya accepted her request by saying 'alright'; and she with her beaming countenance disappeared in her bodily form. [16-23]
तदद्भुतम् संसदि रात्रिवृत्तम् प्रातर्द्विजेभ्यो नृपतिः शशंस।
श्रुत्वा त एनम् कुलराजधान्या साक्षात्पतित्वे वृतमभ्यनन्दन् ॥ १६-२४
tadadbhutam saṁsadi rātrivṛttam
prātardvijebhyo nṛpatiḥ śaśaṁsa |
śrutvā ta enam kularājadhānyā
sākṣātpatitve vṛtamabhyanandan || 16-24
tadadbhutam sa.nsadi rAtrivR^ittam
prAtardvijebhyo nR^ipatiH shasha.nsa |
shrutvA ta enam kularAjadhAnyA
sAkShAtpatitve vR^itamabhyanandan || 16-24
tat adbhutam sa.nsadi rAtri vR^ittam prAtaH dvijebhyo nR^ipatiH shasha.nsa shrutvA ta enam kula rAjadhAnyA sAkShAt patitve vR^itam abhyanandan
16-24. nR^ipatiH= the king Kusha; tat adbhutam rAtri vR^ittam= that, astonishing [incident], last night, happened; prAtaH sa.nsadi dvijebhyo shasha.nsa= next morning, in assembly, to brAhmaNa-s, reported. te shrutvA= they, on listening; enam kula rAjadhAnyA= him, for dynastic, capital; sAkShAt patitve vR^itam= really, as lord, for choosing [by the presiding deity of Ayodhya]; abhyanandan= congratulated.
Next morning the King Kusha narrated that unprecedented occurrence which took place during last night to brAhmaNa-s in the audience-hall; on hearing that the presiding deity of Ayodhya personally chose him for the position of lord-master for the hereditary metropolis, Ayodhya, those brAhmaNa-s have congratulated him. [16-24]
कुशावतीम् श्रोत्रियसात्स कृत्वा यात्रानुकूलेऽहनि सावरोधः।
अनुद्रुतो वायुरिवाभ्रवृन्दैः सैन्यैरयोध्याभिमुखः प्रतस्थे ॥ १६-२५
kuśāvatīm śrotriyasātsa kṛtvā
yātrānukūle'hani sāvarodhaḥ |
sainyairayodhyābhimukhaḥ pratasthe || 16-25
kushAvatIm shrotriyasAtsa kR^itvA
yAtrAnukUle.ahani sAvarodhaH |
sainyairayodhyAbhimukhaH pratasthe || 16-25
kushAvatIm shrotriyasAt sa kR^itvA yAtrA anukUle ahani sa avarodhaH san anudrutaH san vAyuH iva abhra vR^indaiH sainyaiH ayodhya abhimukhaH pratasthe
16-25. saH= he that Kusha; kushAvatIm shrotriyasAt kR^itvA= Kushavati city, to Vedic-scholars, on handing over; yAtrA anukUle ahani= for journey, favourable, on such day; sa avarodhaH san= with ladies in palace-chambers; vAyuH abhra vR^indaiH iva= after wind, cloud masses, as with; sainyaiH anudrutaH san= army, following him; ayodhya abhimukhaH pratasthe= Ayodhya, towards, he journeyed.
Having given over the management of city of Kushavati to Vedic scholars, Kusha started on a journey towards Ayodhya on a favourable day along with ladies of palace-chambers and his armies just like masses of clouds following the wind. [16-25]
सा केतुमालोपवना बृहद्भिः विहारशैलानुगतेव नागैः।
सेना रथोदारगृहा प्रयाणे तस्याभवज्जंगमराजधानी ॥ १६-२६
sā ketumālopavanā bṛhadbhiḥ
vihāraśailānugateva nāgaiḥ |
senā rathodāragṛhā prayāṇe
tasyābhavajjaṁgamarājadhānī || 16-26
sA ketumAlopavanA bR^ihadbhiH
vihArashailAnugateva nAgaiH |
senA rathodAragR^ihA prayANe
tasyAbhavajja.ngamarAjadhAnI || 16-26
sA ketu mAla upavanA bR^ihadbhiH vihAra shaila anugata iva nAgaiH senA ratha udAra gR^ihA prayANe tasya abhavat ja.ngama rAjadhAnI
16-26. ketu mAla upavanA= flags, a chain of, [appearing as] gardens [with over hanging creepers]; bR^ihadbhiH nAgaiH vihAra shaila anugata= very big, elephants, [appearing as] pleasure hills; ratha udAra gR^ihA= chariots, [appearing as] beautiful, houses; sA senA= that, army; tasya prayANe ja.ngama rAjadhAnI iva abhavat = in his, journey, mobile, capital [of Kusha], it has become.
Chain of flags appearing as gardens with overhanging creepers, mighty elephants as pleasure hills-cum-parklands maintained within the city, commodious four-wheeled chariots with domes, turrets and carpeted decks as mansions, that whole host following Kusha appeared as a mobile city. [16-26]
तेनातपत्रामलमण्डलेन प्रस्थापितः पूर्वनिवासभूमिम्।
बभौ बलौघः शशिनोदितेन वेलामुदन्वानिव नीयमानः ॥ १६-२७
prasthāpitaḥ pūrvanivāsabhūmim |
babhau balaughaḥ śaśinoditena
velāmudanvāniva nīyamānaḥ || 16-27
prasthApitaH pUrvanivAsabhUmim |
babhau balaughaH shashinoditena
velAmudanvAniva nIyamAnaH || 16-27
tena Atapatra amala maNDalena prasthApitaH pUrva nivAsa bhUmim babhau bala oghaH shashina uditena velAm udanvAn iva nIyamAnaH
16-27. Atapatra amala maNDalena= parasol, unblemished, round one - one with round and unblemished white royal parasol; tena= by Kusha; pUrva nivAsa bhUmim prasthApitaH bala oghaH= to earlier, dwelling, place, that is making a journey, that army, stream; Atapatra amala maNDalena= one who is round and looking like unblemished white royal parasol - moon; uditena shashina= one who came up [on skies], full moon; velAm nIyamAnaH udanvAn iva = to shore, being led, an ocean, as with; babhau= shone forth.
The surge of the army led by Kusha, whose parasol is round and immaculately white, towards his ancestral land, looked more like the surge of the ocean towards seashore when immaculate moon with roundish orb like that of a royal parasol rises on the skies. [16-27]
The mighty army, sent to clear the way/To his ancestral home by that great King,/O'er whom alone Imperial ensigns waved,/Seemed like majestic Ocean urged to shore/By lunar impulses.
तस्य प्रयातस्य वरूथिनीनाम् पीडामपर्याप्तवतीव सोढुम्।
वसुंधरा विष्णुपदम् द्वितीयम् अध्यारुरोहेव रजश्छलेन ॥ १६-२८
tasya prayātasya varūthinīnām
pīḍāmaparyāptavatīva soḍhum |
vasuṁdharā viṣṇupadam dvitīyam
adhyāruroheva rajaśchalena || 16-28
tasya prayAtasya varUthinInAm
pIDAmaparyAptavatIva soDhum |
vasu.ndharA viShNupadam dvitIyam
adhyAruroheva rajashChalena || 16-28
tasya prayAtasya varUthinInAm pIDAm aparyAptavatI iva soDhum vasu.ndharA viShNupadam dvitIyam adhyAruroha iva rajaH Chalena
16-28. prayAtasya tasya = while travelling, his; varUthinInAm pIDAm= of army, pressure; soDhum aparyAptavatI iva= to tolerate, not capable enough, as if; vasu.ndharA= earth; rajaH Chalena= dust, in the pretext of; dvitIyam viShNupadam adhyAruroha iva= second one, Vishnu's tract [to skies], to ascend, as though.
Incapable to tolerate the pressure of army travelling over her, the Mother Earth seemed to have become dust and tried to become the second one to ascend the skies on the tract once treaded by Vishnu. [16-28]
उद्यच्छमाना गमनाय पश्चात् पुरो निवेशे पथि च व्रजन्ती।
सा यत्र सेना ददृशे नृपस्य तत्रैव सामग्र्यमतिम् चकार ॥ १६-२९
udyacchamānā gamanāya paścāt
puro niveśe pathi ca vrajantī |
sā yatra senā dadṛśe nṛpasya
tatraiva sāmagryamatim cakāra || 16-29
udyacChamAnA gamanAya pashcAt
puro niveshe pathi ca vrajantI |
sA yatra senA dadR^ishe nR^ipasya
tatraiva sAmagryamatim cakAra || 16-29
udyacChamAnA gamanAya pashcAt puraH niveshe pathi ca vrajantI sA yatra senA dadR^ishe nR^ipasya tatra eva sAmagrya matim cakAra
16-29. gamanAya udyacChamAnA= for journey, while going forward; pashcAt puraH niveshe pathi = either at back, or in front, or in camps, or on the roads; vrajantI ca= while moving; nR^ipasya sA senA= king's, that, army; yatra [yatra] = wherever; dadR^ishe= it is seen; tatra [tartra] eva= there; sAmagrya matim cakAra= swelling, mood, it created.
That army of the king wherever it was seen, whether preparing for a march, or at the halting-station, in front, or on the route in its course, it conveyed an idea of being over-populous, unlike the usual processions wherein people will be thinning in van, thickening in the middle and again thinning at rear en route. [16-29]
तस्य द्विपानाम् मदवारिसेकात् खुराभिघाताच्च तुरंगमाणाम्।
रेणुः प्रपेदे प्रथि पङ्कभावम् पङ्कोऽपि रेणुत्वमियाय नेतुः ॥ १६-३०
tasya dvipānām madavārisekāt
khurābhighātācca turaṁgamāṇām |
reṇuḥ prapede prathi paṅkabhāvam
paṅko'pi reṇutvamiyāya netuḥ || 16-30
tasya dvipAnAm madavArisekAt
khurAbhighAtAcca tura.ngamANAm |
reNuH prapede prathi pa~NkabhAvam
pa~Nko.api reNutvamiyAya netuH || 16-30
tasya dvipAnAm mada vAri sekAt khura abhighAtAt ca tura.ngamANAm reNuH prapede prathi pa~Nka bhAvam pa~NkaH api reNutvam iyAya netuH
16-30. netuH tasya dvipAnAm= that leader, his [whose], elephants; mada vAri sekAt= rut, water, on secreting; tura.ngamANAm khura abhighAtAt ca= horses, by hooves, hitting, also; pathi reNuH pa~Nka bhAvam prapede= on route, dust, mud's, condition, got; pa~NkaH api reNutvam iyAya= mud, even, dust's, condition, went into.
That leader's elephants secreted ichor with which the dust on the road became mud; simultaneously that mud became dust when the hooves of horses have hoofed it; thus Kusha's fleet has as many horses as elephants. [16-30]
As on the Monarch swept,/So mighty was the trampling of his steeds,/Such plenteous ichor-streams his elephants/Rained from their brows, that dust was turned to mud,/And mud to dust again.
मार्गैषिणी सा कटकान्तरेषु वैन्ध्येषु सेना बहुधा विभिन्ना।
चकार रेवेव महाविरावा बद्धप्रतिश्रुन्ति गुहामुखानि ॥ १६-३१
mārgaiṣiṇī sā kaṭakāntareṣu
vaindhyeṣu senā bahudhā vibhinnā |
cakāra reveva mahāvirāvā
baddhapratiśrunti guhāmukhāni || 16-31
mArgaiShiNI sA kaTakAntareShu
vaindhyeShu senA bahudhA vibhinnA |
cakAra reveva mahAvirAvA
baddhapratishrunti guhAmukhAni || 16-31
mArgaiShiNI sA kaTaka antareShu vaindhyeShu senA bahudhA vibhinnA cakAra reva iva mahA-virAvA baddha prati shrunti guhA mukhAni
16-31. vaindhyeShu kaTaka antareShu= Mt. Vindhya's, in glens, inside; mArgaiShiNI= path searching; bahudhA vibhinnA= manifoldly, divided - armies; mahA-virAvA= highly shouting; sA senA= that army; reva iva= River Reva, as with; baddha prati shrunti= resounding noises; guhA mukhAni cakAra= in caves, mouths, they made.
That army divided itself to numerous divisions and subdivisions while passing through the long and narrow glens of Mt.Vindhya, started loud hooting to identify their location to others; in doing so they made the mouths of the cavern full of resounding noises after the manner of the boisterous river Reva. [16-31]
स धातुभेदारुणयाननेमिः प्रभुः प्रयाणध्वनिमिश्रतूर्यः।
व्यलङ्घयद्विन्ध्यमुपायनानि पश्यन्पुलिन्दैरुपपादितानि ॥ १६-३२
prabhuḥ prayāṇadhvanimiśratūryaḥ |
paśyanpulindairupapāditāni || 16-32
prabhuH prayANadhvanimishratUryaH |
pashyanpulindairupapAditAni || 16-32
sa dhAtu bheda aruNa yAna nemiH prabhuH prayANa dhvani mishra tUryaH vyala~Nghayat vindhyam upAyanAni pashyan pulindaiH upapAditAni
16-32. dhAtu bheda aruNa yAna nemiH= ores, by cutting, reddened, chariot's, rim - one who has such a chariot whose wheel rims reddened with ore colour; prayANa dhvani mishra tUryaH= with hum of marching, mixed, trumpeting; saH prabhuH= that lord; pulindaiH upapAditAni upAyanAni pashyan= by tribals, brought, presents, on inspecting; vindhyam vyala~Nghayat= Vindhya, he crossed.
That king, whose chariot-wheel-rims were reddened by cutting through metallic ores of hills and whose trumpets sounded along with the hum of marching, crossed the Vindhya Mountain after viewing the presents brought to him by the mountain tribes. [16-32]
तीर्थे तदीये गजसेतुबन्धात् प्रतीपगामुत्तरतोस्य गङ्गाम्।
अयत्नबालव्यजनीबभूवुर्हंसा नभोलङ्घनलोलपक्षाः ॥ १६-३३
tīrthe tadīye gajasetubandhāt
pratīpagāmuttaratosya gaṅgām |
nabholaṅghanalolapakṣāḥ || 16-33
tIrthe tadIye gajasetubandhAt
pratIpagAmuttaratosya ga~NgAm |
nabhola~NghanalolapakShAH || 16-33
tIrthe tadIye gaja setu bandhAt pratIpagAm uttarataH asya ga~NgAm ayatna vAla vyajanI babhUvuH ha.nsA nabho la~Nghana lola pakShAH
16-33. tadIye tIrthe= that Vindhya's, at certain declivity; gaja setu bandhAt= elephant, bridge, by arranging; pratIpagAm ga~NgAm uttarataH= westward flowing, Ganga, he crossed; asya= to him; nabho la~Nghana lola pakShAH= to sky, taking flight, with waving, wings; ha.nsA= such swans; ayatna vAla vyajanI babhUvuH= effortlessly obtained, fur-fans, they became.
The wings of swans fluttering to soar up in the sky became the fur-fans without any special effort, for him who was crossing the refractory stream of River Ganga at its fordable point by means of a bridge of elephants made to stand side to side. [16-33]
स पूर्वजानाम् कपिलेन रोषात् भस्मावशेषीकृतविग्रहाणाम्।
सुरालयप्राप्तिनिमित्तमम्भस्त्रै स्रोतसम् नौलुलितम् ववन्दे ॥ १६-३४
sa pūrvajānām kapilena roṣāt
srotasam naululitam vavande || 16-34
sa pUrvajAnAm kapilena roShAt
srotasam naululitam vavande || 16-34
sa pUrvajAnAm kapilena roShAt bhasma avasheShI kR^ita vigrahANAm surAlaya prApti nimittam ambhaH trai-srotasam nau lulitam vavande
16-34. saH= he that Kusha; kapilena roShAt= by sage Kapila, in anger; bhasma avasheShI kR^ita vigrahANAm pUrvajAnAm= to ashes, remaining, made, their bodies, of his ancestors; surAlaya prApti nimittam= to heaven, attaining, the medium; nau lulitam= with boats, tossed; trai-srotasam ambhaH= tri-coursed Ganga's, such water; vavande= he adored.
He adored the waters of the tri-streamed River Ganga which the tossing of the boats on it are rippling, and which in the case of his ancestors has become the means of getting to the abode of the gods, when Emperor Bhagiratha conducted obsequial rites with this water for his sons whose bodies were made to remain heaped up in the form of ashes through wrath by the sage Kapila. [16-34]
इत्यध्वनः कैचिदहोभिरन्ते कूलम् समासाद्य कुशः सरय्वाः।
वेदिप्रतिष्ठान्वितताधराणाम् यूपानपश्यच्छतशो रघूणाम् ॥ १६-३५
kūlam samāsādya kuśaḥ sarayvāḥ |
yūpānapaśyacchataśo raghūṇām || 16-35
kUlam samAsAdya kushaH sarayvAH |
yUpAnapashyacChatasho raghUNAm || 16-35
iti adhvanaH kaicit ahobhiH ante kUlam samAsAdya kushaH sarayvAH vedi pratiShThAn vitata adharANAm yUpAn apashyat shatashaH raghUNAm
16-35. iti= in this way; kaicit ahobhiH adhvanaH ante= some, days, spent on road, at end; kushaH sarayvAH kUlam samAsAdya= Kusha, of Sarayu, bank, on reaching; vitata adhvarANAm raghUNAm= who have performed many, Vedic rituals, of Raghu-s; vedi pratiShThAn yUpAn shatashaH apashyat= on fire altars, staked, ritual-posts, hundreds, he has seen.
Thus after some days at the end of the journey, Kusha having reached the bank of Sarayu saw hundreds of sacrificial-posts fixed on square pedestals, belonging to the members of the Raghu dynasty who had performed umpteen Vedic rituals. [16-35]
आधूय शाखाः कुसुमद्रुमाणाम् स्पृष्ट्वा च शीतान्सरयूतरंगान्।
तम् क्लान्तसैन्यम् कुलराजधान्याः प्रत्युज्जगामोपवनान्तवायुः ॥ १६-३६
ādhūya śākhāḥ kusumadrumāṇām
spṛṣṭvā ca śītānsarayūtaraṁgān |
tam klāntasainyam kularājadhānyāḥ
pratyujjagāmopavanāntavāyuḥ || 16-36
AdhUya shAkhAH kusumadrumANAm
spR^iShTvA ca shItAnsarayUtara.ngAn |
tam klAntasainyam kularAjadhAnyAH
pratyujjagAmopavanAntavAyuH || 16-36
AdhUya shAkhAH kusuma drumANAm spR^iShTvA ca shItAn sarayU tara.ngAn tam klAnta sainyam kula rAjadhAnyAH pratyujjagAma upavana anta vAyuH
16-36. kula rAjadhAnyAH upavana anta vAyuH= of ancestral capital, outskirts, of fringes, air; kusuma drumANAm shAkhAH AdhUya= flowered, of trees, branches, a little shaking; shItAn sarayU tara.ngAn spR^iShTvA ca= cool, Sarayu, waves, on touching, also; tam klAnta sainyam= him, who has fatigued army; pratyujjagAma [prati+ut+jagAma]= went forward [as if welcoming].
The breeze from the very interior of the gardens on the outskirts of his ancestral capital, Ayodhya, having gently shaken the flowered branches of the trees and passing over the cool ripples of the river Sarayu went forward to receive him whose army was tired by the journey. [16-36]
अथोपशल्ये रिपुमग्नशल्यः तस्याः पुरः पौरसखा स राजा।
कुलध्वजस्तानि चलध्वजानि निवेशयामास बली बलानि ॥ १६-३७
tasyāḥ puraḥ paurasakhā sa rājā |
niveśayāmāsa balī balāni || 16-37
tasyAH puraH paurasakhA sa rAjA |
niveshayAmAsa balI balAni || 16-37
atha upashalye ripu magna shalyaH tasyAH puraH paura-sakhA sa rAjA kuladhvajaH tAni cala dhvajAni niveshayAmAsa balI balAni
16-37. atha= afterwards; ripu magna shalyaH= in enemies, stuck, his arrowheads - conqueror in any given war; paura-sakhA= people-friendly; kula dhvajaH= for dynasty, a banner flag; bail= mighty one; cala dhvajAni balAni = with fluttering, flags, his army; tasyAH puraH upashalye= that city's, on fringe lands; sa rAjA tAni niveshayAmAsa= that king, them the army, encamped.
Now that powerful King Kusha, who was the banner of his family, who had implanted arrowheads in the hearts of his enemies, and who was a friend to his subjects, encamped on the outskirts of the city those armies which had waving banners. [16-37]
तम् शिल्पिसंघाः प्रभुणा नियुक्ताः
पुरम् नवीचक्रुरपाम् विसर्गान्मेघा
निदाघग्लपितामिवोर्वीम् ॥ १६-३८
tam śilpisaṁghāḥ prabhuṇā niyuktāḥ
tathāgatām saṁbhṛtasādhanatvāt |
puram navīcakrurapām visargānmeghā
nidāghaglapitāmivorvīm || 16-38
tam shilpisa.nghAH prabhuNA niyuktAH
tathAgatAm sa.nbhR^itasAdhanatvAt |
puram navIcakrurapAm visargAnmeghA
nidAghaglapitAmivorvIm || 16-38
tam shilpi sa.nghAH prabhuNA niyuktAH tathAgatAm sa.nbhR^ita sAdhanatvAt puram navI cakruH apAm visargAt meghA nidAgha glapitAm iva urvIm
16-38. prabhuNA niyuktAH shilpi sa.nghAH= by king, assigned, artisans, groups; sa.nbhR^ita sAdhanatvAt= with gathered, facilities; tathAgatAm tam puram= it so happened [ruined], that, city; meghA apAm visargAt= clouds, water, by showering; nidAgha glapitAm urvIm iva= by parching, afflicted, earth, as with; navI cakruH= as new one, they made.
Because there is no scarcity of resources, the artisan groups employed by the king Kusha refurbished that dilapidated city of Ayodhya almost a new city just as clouds by pouring down rainwater restore the exsiccated earth. [16-38]
ततः सपर्याम् सपशूपहाराम्
निर्वर्तयामास रघुप्रवीरः ॥ १६-३९
tataḥ saparyām sapaśūpahārām
puraḥ parārthyapratimāgṛhāyāḥ |
nirvartayāmāsa raghupravīraḥ || 16-39
tataH saparyAm sapashUpahArAm
puraH parArthyapratimAgR^ihAyAH |
nirvartayAmAsa raghupravIraH || 16-39
tataH saparyAm sapashUpahArAm puraH parArthya pratimA gR^ihAyAH upoShitaiH vAstu vidhAna vidbhiH nirvartayAmAsa raghu pravIraH
16-39. tataH = then; raghu pravIraH= of Raghu-s, valiant one Kusha; parArthya pratimA gR^ihAyAH= extremely rich, idol, houses - temples with idols installed; puraH= to the city; upoShitaiH vAstu vidhAna vidbhiH= who keep religious fasting, architectural, system, experts in; sa pashu upahArAm saparyAm= with, animal, offering, worship; nirvartayAmAsa=he has arranged.
Thereafter, that hero of the Raghu-line Kusha caused to perform worships for the ceremonies like entering the city, pacification of negative forces, offering animal sacrifices - nagara-pravesha, shA nti, bali, homa, archana-s etc - through the experts of architectural systems that keep religious fasting, and then entered the city wherein palatial houses are renewed and very rich temples with installed idols are erected. [16-39]
तस्याः स राजोपपदम् निशान्तम्
कामीव कान्ताहृदयम् प्रविश्य।
संभावयामास यथाप्रधानम् ॥ १६-४०
tasyāḥ sa rājopapadam niśāntam
kāmīva kāntāhṛdayam praviśya |
saṁbhāvayāmāsa yathāpradhānam || 16-40
tasyAH sa rAjopapadam nishAntam
kAmIva kAntAhR^idayam pravishya |
sa.nbhAvayAmAsa yathApradhAnam || 16-40
tasyAH sa rAja upapadam nishAntam kAmI iva kAntA hR^idayam pravishya yathA arham anyaiH anu-jIvi-lokam sa.nbhAvayAmAsa yathA pradhAnam
16-40. saH= he; tasyAH= her - of Ayodhya; rAja upapadam = word rAja, as prefix; nishAntam [nisha + antam= where one end the night = house] such a royal-palace; kAmI kAntA hR^idayam iva= a lover, in to love's heart, as with; pravishya= having entered; anyaiH anu-jIvi-lokam = to others, his dependent people - ministers, army chiefs et al; yathA arham yathA pradhAnam = as per eligibility, as per their rank; sa.nbhAvayAmAsa= honoured - with palaces and housing.
As a lover enters the heart of his lady-love, Kusha entered the city and his palace, which word had the term 'royal' as a prefix it; he treated with the body of his followers with consideration by assigning to each a residence as was required and according to his rank. [16-40]
सा मन्दुरासंश्रयिभिस्तुरंगैः शालाविधिस्तम्भगतैश्च नागैः।
पूराबभासे विपणिस्थपण्या सर्वाङ्गनद्धाभरणेव नारी ॥ १६-४१
śālāvidhistambhagataiśca nāgaiḥ |
sarvāṅganaddhābharaṇeva nārī || 16-41
shAlAvidhistambhagataishca nAgaiH |
sarvA~NganaddhAbharaNeva nArI || 16-41
sA mandurA sa.nshrayibhiH tura.ngaiH shAlA vidhi stambha gataiH ca nAgaiH pUH AbabhAse vipaNistha paNyA sarvA~Nga naddha AbharaNA iva nArI
16-41. vipaNistha paNyA sA pUH= market places full with, trading material, she, that city; mandurA sa.nshrayibhiH tura.ngaiH= in stables, sheltering, with such horses; shAlA vidhi stambha gataiH nAgaiH ca= barracks, in rows of, to pillars, bound, with such elephants; sarvA~Nga naddha AbharaNA nArI iva= on all body parts, decorated, with ornaments, a woman, as with; AbabhAse= shone forth.
Marketplaces replete with trading materials, stables full with horses, rows of barracks choking with elephants secured to the posts, with them that revived city Ayodhya looked like a lady heavily ornamented top to toe. [16-41]
वसन्स तस्याम् वसतौ रघूणाम् पुराणशोभामभिरोपितायाम्।
न मैथिलेयः स्पृहयांबभूव भर्त्रे दिवो नाप्यलकेश्वराय ॥ १६-४२
vasansa tasyām vasatau raghūṇām
na maithileyaḥ spṛhayāṁbabhūva
bhartre divo nāpyalakeśvarāya || 16-42
vasansa tasyAm vasatau raghUNAm
na maithileyaH spR^ihayA.nbabhUva
bhartre divo nApyalakeshvarAya || 16-42
vasan sa tasyAm vasatau raghUNAm purANa shobhAm adhiropitAyAm na maithileyaH spR^ihayA.n babhUva bhartre divaH na api alakeshvarAya
16-42. saH maithileyaH= that son of Seetha; purANa shobhAm adhiropitAyAm= old-time, glory, re-imposed upon; tasyAm raghUNAm vasatau vasan = in her, Raghu-s, residence, while staying; divaH bhartre= to heaven, lord - Indra; alaka IshvarAya api= city Alaka's, lord, even - even Kubera; na spR^ihayA.n babhUva= not, reminisced - did not care.
King Kusha, the son of Maithili, living in the residential city of Raghu-s which had been restored to its former splendour, did not covet for the city of the lord of heavens, namely amarAvati of Indra, or even for the city of god of wealth, namely alakA-puri of Kubera. [16-42]
अथास्य रत्नग्रथितोत्तरीयम् एकान्तपाण्डुस्तनलम्बिहारम्।
निःश्वासहार्यांशुकमाजगाम घर्मः प्रियावेशमिवोपदेष्टुम् ॥ १६-४३
gharmaḥ priyāveśamivopadeṣṭum || 16-43
gharmaH priyAveshamivopadeShTum || 16-43
atha asya ratna grathita uttarIyam ekAnta pANDu stana lambi hAram niHshvAsa hArya anshukam AjagAma gharmaH priyA vesham iva upadeShTum
16-43. atha asya= then, to him; ratna grathita uttarIyam= with gems, studded, upper cloth; ekAnta [ekAek] pANDu stana lambi hAram= outrightly, whitish, on bosoms, dangling, string of pearls; niHshvAsa hArya anshukam= [just by] sigh, removable, silk clothing; priyA vesham upadeShTum iva= his love's, attire, in order to inculcate in him; gharmaH AjagAma= summer, has come.
Now came the summer as if whispering seasonal dress manners of his ladylove to him: "ask your ladylove to wear upper cloth boarders embroidered with gems; make her to wear strings of pearls on her whitish bosoms; see that she wears silks that doff off just by your sighing..." [16-43]
अगस्त्यचिह्नादयनात्समीपम् दिगुत्तरा भास्वति संनिवृत्ते।
आनन्दशीतामिव बाष्पवृष्टिम् हिमस्रुतिम् हैमवतीम् ससर्ज ॥ १६-४४
diguttarā bhāsvati saṁnivṛtte |
himasrutim haimavatīm sasarja || 16-44
agastyacihnAdayanAtsamIpam diguttarA bhAsvati sa.nnivR^itte |
AnandashItAmiva bAShpavR^iShTim himasrutim haimavatIm sasarja || 16-44
agastya cihnAt ayanAt samIpam dik uttarA bhAsvati sa.nnivR^itte sati Ananda shItAm iva bAShpa vR^iShTim hima srutim haimavatIm sasarja
16-44. agastya cihnAt= star agastya, indicated by - at the appearance of star Canopus; ayanAt= from [southern] solstice; bhAsvati = Sun; samIpam sa.nnivR^itte sati= to her, near, when returned; uttarA dik= northern side - of earth; Ananda shItAm bAShpa vR^iShTimiva= with happiness, cooled, tear, showers, as with; haimavatIm hima srutim sasarja= of Himalayas, melted snow, flows, released.
On the return of the Sun from her co-wife South after his southern solstice to the proximity of North, she that northerly quarter another wife of that Sun shed tears of joy duly dampened with her happiness to which the flow of melted snow from the Himalayas is hypothetical. [16-44]
The poet is viewing the North and the South as two rival mistresses jealous of each other with regard to their lover, the Sun, who moves to and fro between them; and now that he is on his northern course the poet depicts the North as a femme cxpectante of her lord who had earlier gone to South and is now returning towards the tropic of Cancer, creating great delight in her heart.
प्रवृद्धतापो दिवसोऽतिमात्रम् अत्यर्थमेव क्षणदा च तन्वी।
उभौ विरोधक्रियया विभिन्नौ जायापती सानुशयाविवास्ताम् ॥ १६-४५
atyarthameva kṣaṇadā ca tanvī |
ubhau virodhakriyayā vibhinnau
jāyāpatī sānuśayāvivāstām || 16-45
atyarthameva kShaNadA ca tanvI |
ubhau virodhakriyayA vibhinnau
jAyApatI sAnushayAvivAstAm || 16-45
pravR^iddha tApaH divasaH atimAtram atyartham eva kShaNadA ca tanvI ubhau virodha kriyayA vibhinnau jAyA patI sAnushayau iva AstAm
16-45. atimAtram pravR^iddha tApaH divasaH= muchly, heightened, scorch, in daytime; atyartham eva tanvI kShaNadA ca= much less, only, body of [duration of], night, also; ubhau virodha kriyayA= both, by contrary, conduct; vibhinnau= at variance; sAnushayau jAyA patI iva= having repentance, husband, wife, as with; AstAm= those [day and night are] there.
The day with its heat extremely increased and the night greatly reduced in duration, both were there like a husband and a wife who will be first at variance on account of contrary conduct but will become remorseful afterwards. [16-45]
दिने दिने शैवलवन्त्यधस्तात् सोपानपर्वाणि विमुञ्चदम्भः।
उद्दण्डपद्मम् गृहदीर्घिकाणाम् नारीनितम्बद्वयसम् बभूव ॥ १६-४६
dine dine śaivalavantyadhastāt
sopānaparvāṇi vimuñcadambhaḥ |
nārīnitambadvayasam babhūva || 16-46
dine dine shaivalavantyadhastAt
sopAnaparvANi vimu~ncadambhaH |
nArInitambadvayasam babhUva || 16-46
dine dine shaivala-vanti adhastAt sopAna parvANi vimu~ncat ambhaH ut daNDa padmam gR^iha dIrghikANAm nArI nitamba dvayasam babhUva
16-46. dine dine shaivala-vanti= day by day, on becoming mossy; adhastAt sopAna parvANi vimu~ncat= at lower side, steps, on leaving off; ut daNDa padmam= up came [bared], stalks, of lotuses; gR^iha dIrghikANAm ambhaH= cistern's water; nArI nitamba dvayasam= woman's, up to the level of buttocks; babhUva= became.
Day by day the water of the cisterns gathered moss and gone down on their steps, whereby the stalks of lotuses are bared, thus it became so deep as to reach the hips of the women, frustrating their summer-time water sports. [16-46]
वनेषु सायंतनमल्लिकानाम् विजृम्भणोद्गन्धिषु कुड्मलेषु।
प्रत्येकनिक्षिप्तपदः सशब्दम् संख्यामिवैषाम् भ्रमरश्चकार ॥ १६-४७
vijṛmbhaṇodgandhiṣu kuḍmaleṣu |
saṁkhyāmivaiṣām bhramaraścakāra || 16-47
vijR^imbhaNodgandhiShu kuDmaleShu |
sa.nkhyAmivaiShAm bhramarashcakAra || 16-47
vaneShu sAya.ntana mallikAnAm vijR^imbhaNa udgandhiShu kuDmaleShu pratyeka nikShipta padaH sa shabdam sa.nkhyAm iva eShAm bhramaH cakAra
16-47. vaneShu= in gardens; vijR^imbhaNa udgandhiShu= overspreading, fragrance; sAya.ntana mallikAnAm kuDmaleShu= in evening time, of jasmines, on buds; sa shabdam= with humming; prati eka nikShipta padaH bhramaH = on each, kept, their foot, of bees; eShAm sa.nkhyAm cakAra iva= their [buds], count, taking, as if.
In the gardens the evening jasmines buds are blooming and overspreading their fragrance everywhere; the humming honeybees hovering and alighting on them appear to be taking their count by touching each and every bud with their feet. [16-47]
स्वेदानुविद्धार्द्रनखक्षताङ्के भूयिष्ठसंदिष्टशिखम् कपोले।
च्युतम् न कर्णादपि कामिनीनाम् शिरीषपुष्पम् सहसा पपात ॥ १६-४८
bhūyiṣṭhasaṁdiṣṭaśikham kapole |
cyutam na karṇādapi kāminīnām
śirīṣapuṣpam sahasā papāta || 16-48
bhUyiShThasa.ndiShTashikham kapole |
cyutam na karNAdapi kAminInAm
shirIShapuShpam sahasA papAta || 16-48
sveda anuviddha Ardra nakha kShata a~Nke bhUyiShTha sa.ndiShTa shikham kapole cyutam na karNAt api kAminInAm shirISha puShpam sahasA papAta
16-48. sveda anuviddha Ardra nakha kShata a~Nke= with perspiration, filled in, wet, nail-dent, marks - nail-marks were wet by the perspiration which filled in the cavities of nail dents; kAminInAm kapole= of ladyloves, on cheeks; bhUyiShTha sa.ndiShTa shikham= much loosened, with filaments; shirISha puShpam= sirISha flowers; karNAt cyutam api= from ears, fallen, though; sahasA na papAta= immediately, not, fallen off.
The sirISha flower although dislodged from the ears of passionate women did not readily drop down, since its much loosened filaments clung to their cheeks whereon the nail-dents made by her lover were sticky with the wetness of the perspiration. [16-48]
यन्त्रप्रवाहैः शिशिरैः परीतान् रसेन धौतान्मलयोद्भवस्य।
शिलाविशेषान्यधिशय्य निन्युर् धारागृहेष्वातपमृद्धिवन्तः ॥ १६-४९
yantrapravāhaiḥ śiśiraiḥ parītān
rasena dhautānmalayodbhavasya |
dhārāgṛheṣvātapamṛddhivantaḥ || 16-49
yantrapravAhaiH shishiraiH parItAn
rasena dhautAnmalayodbhavasya |
dhArAgR^iheShvAtapamR^iddhivantaH || 16-49
yantra pravAhaiH shishiraiH parItAn rasena dhautAn malaya udbhavasya shilA visheShAn adhishayya ninyuH dhArA gR^iheShu Atapam R^iddhivantaH
16-49. R^iddhivantaH= welltodo people; dhArA gR^iheShu= houses furnished with artificial spray arrangements along the walls - almost like air-conditioners; shishiraiH yantra pravAhaiH parItAn = with cool, machine, sprayings, from all around; malaya udbhavasya rasena dhautAn= Mt. Malaya, born, essence, with it freshened - air-conditioner's air mixed with sandalwood oil - like putting some scents into A/C machines; shilA visheShAn adhishayya= on stone, couches, by lying on them - special stone-slabs such as the marble carved stone benches that we see in some of the mansions eyen today; Atapam ninyuH= heat, they abated.
The wealthy abated the hot part of the day in the houses furnished with machines along the walls to spray cool breezes all around, in which sandal oil etc are put, and by lying on specially prepared stone-couches, like marble-stone benches or daybeds with chandrakAnta maNi shilA-s etc. [16-49]
कामो वसन्तात्ययमन्दवीर्यः केशेषु लेभे बलमङ्गनानाम् ॥ १६-५०
keśeṣu lebhe balamaṅganānām || 16-50
kesheShu lebhe balama~NganAnAm || 16-50
snAna Aardra mukteShu anu-dhUpa vAsam vinyasta sAya.ntana mallikeShu kAmaH vasanta atyaya manda vIryaH kesheShu lebhe balam a~NganAnAm
16-50. vasanta atyaya manda vIryaH= spring season, on departure, slowed down, is his valour; kAmaH= such Lovegod; snAna Aardra mukteShu= by bath, wet, loosened; anu-dhUpa vAsam= sequentially, with fumigation, being perfumed; vinyasta sAya.ntana mallikeShu= [further beautified by] by keeping, evening, jasmines; a~NganAnAm kesheShu= of women, of such head hair; balam lebhe= his vim and vigour, [Lovegod] regaining.
The Lovegod whose energy had diminished with the departure of spring seems to be regaining his vim and vigour through the headhair of pretty women, for they are letting it loose after a bath aesthetically, per-fumigating it tastefully, and slicing evening jasmine flowers pleasingly. [16-50]
आपिञ्जरा बद्धरजःकणत्वात् मञ्जुर्युदारा शुशुभेऽर्जुनस्य।
दग्ध्वापि देहम् गिरिशेन रोषात् खण्डीकृता ज्येव मनोभवस्य ॥ १६-५१
mañjuryudārā śuśubhe'rjunasya |
dagdhvāpi deham giriśena roṣāt
khaṇḍīkṛtā jyeva manobhavasya || 16-51
ma~njuryudArA shushubhe.arjunasya |
dagdhvApi deham girishena roShAt
khaNDIkR^itA jyeva manobhavasya || 16-51
Api~njarA baddha rajaH kaNatvAt ma~njuri udArA shushubhe arjunasya dagdhvA api deham girishena roShAt khaNDI kR^itA jyA iva manobhavasya
16-51. baddha rajaH kaNatvAt= by spread of, pollen, grains; Api~njarA= pale whitish; udArA arjunasya ma~njari= long, arjuna flower, bouquet; deham dagdhvA api= body, burned, though; roShAt girishena= in anger, by Shiva; khaNDI kR^itA manobhavasya jyA iva= broken down, Lovegod's, bowstring, as if; shushubhe= shone forth.
The charming long sprout of the Arjuna tree, slightly yellowish on account of its being covered with particles of pollen, looked as if it was the bowstring of Lovegod broken to pieces through rage by the Shiva who was not satisfied even with having burnt his person. [16-51]
मनोज्ञगन्धम् सहकारभङ्गम् पुराणशीधुम् नवपाटलम् च।
संबध्नता कामिजनेषु दोषाः सर्वे निदाघावधिना प्रमृष्टाः ॥ १६-५२
purāṇaśīdhum navapāṭalam ca |
saṁbadhnatā kāmijaneṣu doṣāḥ
sarve nidāghāvadhinā pramṛṣṭāḥ || 16-52
purANashIdhum navapATalam ca |
sa.nbadhnatA kAmijaneShu doShAH
sarve nidAghAvadhinA pramR^iShTAH || 16-52
manoj~nya gandham sahakAra bha~Ngam purANa shIdhum navapATalam ca sa.nbadhnatA kAmijaneShu doShAH sarve nidAghA vadhinA pramR^iShTAH
16-52. manoj~nya gandham sahakAra bha~Ngam= pleasingly, fragrant, mango, sprout; purANa shIdhum= old, sugarcane-wine; navapATalam ca= fresh trumpet flower, also; sa.nbadhnatA nidAghA vadhinA= one that is providing, such summer season; kAmijaneShu sarve doShAH pramR^iShTAH= in lovers, all, problems, wiping off.
All the troubles of the hot season to lovers were removed by the latter part of the season which brought to them at one and the same time the fragrant mango-sprouts, the old sugarcane wines of rich bouquet, and the fresh trumpet-flowers. [16-52]
जनस्य तस्मिन्समये विगाढे बभूवतुर्द्वौ सविशेषकान्तौ।
तापापनोदक्षमपादसेवौ स चोदयस्थौ नृपतिः शशी च ॥ १६-५३
janasya tasminsamaye vigāḍhe
babhūvaturdvau saviśeṣakāntau |
codayasthau nṛpatiḥ śaśī ca || 16-53
janasya tasminsamaye vigADhe
babhUvaturdvau savisheShakAntau |
codayasthau nR^ipatiH shashI ca || 16-53
janasya tasmin samaye vigADhe babhUvatuH dvau savisheSha kAntau tApa apanoda kShama pAda sevau sa ca udayasthau nR^ipatiH shashI ca
16-53. tasmin samaye vigADhe sati= at that time - summer, which is very hard; janasya dvau savisheSha kAntau babhUvatuH = for people, only two, are much cherished, there are; tApa apanoda kShama pAda sevau= the service of whose feet was capable of dispelling the troubles of misery; udayasthau= both standing in full glory; sa ca nR^ipatiH= he, also, [one is the] king; shashI ca= moon, also [the other].
At that season which had set in, only two things became especially delightful to people - the king and the moon - both standing in full glory; the service of whose feet was capable of dispelling the troubles of misery - is the former; the enjoyment of whose rays removed the torture of heat - is the latter. [16-53]
अथोर्मिलोलोन्मदराजहंसे रोधोलतापुष्पवहे सरय्वाः।
विहर्तुमिच्छा वनितासखस्य तस्याम्भसि ग्रीष्मसुखे बभूव ॥ १६-५४
rodholatāpuṣpavahe sarayvāḥ |
tasyāmbhasi grīṣmasukhe babhūva || 16-54
rodholatApuShpavahe sarayvAH |
tasyAmbhasi grIShmasukhe babhUva || 16-54
atha Urmi lola unmada rAja ha.nse rodhaH latA puShpa vahe sarayvAH vihartum icChA vanitA sakhasya tasya ambhasi grIShma sukhe babhUva
16-54. atha= then; Urmi lola unmada rAja ha.nse= in ripples, interested, passionate, royal, swans - water having in them; rodhaH latA puShpa vahe= on banks, creepers, flowers, having - fetching fragrant breeze; grIShma sukhe= in summer, comfort giving; sarayvAH ambhasi= in Sarayu, waters; tasya vanitA sakhasya vihartum icChA babhUva= to him, who is friendly with women, to take pleasure trip, desire, cropped up.
Once it came to be his desire who was the beloved of his wife to sport in the waters of Sarayu which were agreeable in the hot season, which contained royal swans floating on its ripples, and which were redolent with the fragrance of the flowers of the creepers on its banks. [16-54]
स तीरभूमौ विहितोपकार्याम् आनायिभिस्तामपकृष्टनक्राम्।
विगाहितुम् श्रीमहिमानुरूपम् प्रचक्रमे चक्रधरप्रभावः ॥ १६-५५
sa tīrabhūmau vihitopakāryām
pracakrame cakradharaprabhāvaḥ || 16-55
sa tIrabhUmau vihitopakAryAm
pracakrame cakradharaprabhAvaH || 16-55
sa tIra bhUmau vihita upakAryAm AnAyibhiH tAm apakR^iShTa nakrAm vigAhitum shrI mahima anurUpam pracakrame cakradhara prabhAvaH
16-55. cakradhara prabhAvaH saH= like Vishnu, in prowess, he that Kusha; tIra bhUmau vihita upakAryAm= on bank, lands, arranging, tents; AnAyibhiH apakR^iShTa nakrAm= by fishermen, got removed, crocodiles; tAm= in her - river Sarayu; shrI mahima anurUpam= in a manner suited to his magnificence; vigAhitum pracakrame= to enter, he commenced.
On getting tents pitched on riverbanks, and through fishermen getting the waters clear of crocodiles, he whose prowess was like that of Vishnu, that Kusha started for taking a swim in River Sarayu in a manner befitting his royal magnificence. [16-55]
सा तीरसोपानपथावतारात् अन्योन्यकेयूरविघट्टिनीभिः।
सनूपुरक्षोभपदाभिरासीत् उद्विग्नहंसा सरिदङ्गनाभिः ॥ १६-५६
udvignahaṁsā saridaṅganābhiḥ || 16-56
udvignaha.nsA sarida~NganAbhiH || 16-56
sA tIra sopAna patha AvatArAt anyonya keyUra vighaTTinIbhiH sa nUpura kShobha padAbhiH AsIt udvigna ha.nsA sarit a~NganAbhiH
16-56. sA sarit= that river Sarayu; tIra sopAna patha AvatArAt= on bank, steps, row, by descending - of swimmers; anyonya keyUra vighaTTinIbhiH= with each other, armlets, jangling; sa nUpura kShobha padAbhiH= with, anklets, jingling, by stepping; a~NganAbhiH= of such ladies; udvigna ha.nsA AsIt= agitated, swans, it has become.
When the pretty-limbed women's armlets brushed against each and jangled; their anklets rubbed against the other and jingled in their hasty descent on the flight of stairs at the declivity of the river, the swans of that river Sarayu were wonderstruck. [16-56]
परस्पराभ्युक्षणतत्पराणाम् तासाम् नृपो मज्जनरागदर्शी।
नौसंश्रयः पार्श्वगताम् किरातीमुपात्ताबालव्यजनाम् बभाषे ॥ १६-५७
tāsām nṛpo majjanarāgadarśī |
kirātīmupāttābālavyajanām babhāṣe || 16-57
tAsAm nR^ipo majjanarAgadarshI |
kirAtImupAttAbAlavyajanAm babhAShe || 16-57
paraspara abhyukShaNa tatparANAm tAsAm nR^ipaH majjana rAga darshI nau sa.nshrayaH pArshva gatAm kirAtIm upAttA vAla vyajanAm babhAShe
16-57. nau sa.nshrayaH= in a boat, who is sitting; paraspara abhyukShaNa tatparANAm= on each other, water splashing, involved in; tAsAm= at those ladies; majjana rAga darshI nR^ipaH= to take a dive, interested one, that king Kusha; pArshva gatAm upAttA vAla vyajanAm kirAtIm= at his side, available, she who is holding, a fur-fan, with such a tribal woman; babhAShe= he spoke.
The king Kusha sitting in a boat wishing to take a dive, and in the meanwhile viewing the women absorbed in the sport of splashing water against one another, spoke to a tribal woman who at present serving as a fanner handling royal fur-fan. [16-57]
पश्यावरोधैः शतशो मदीयैः विगाह्यमानो गलिताङ्गरागैः।
संध्योदयः साभ्र इवेष वर्णम् पुष्यत्यनेकम् सरयूप्रवाहः ॥ १६-५८
paśyāvarodhaiḥ śataśo madīyaiḥ
vigāhyamāno galitāṅgarāgaiḥ |
saṁdhyodayaḥ sābhra iveṣa varṇam
puṣyatyanekam sarayūpravāhaḥ || 16-58
pashyAvarodhaiH shatasho madIyaiH
vigAhyamAno galitA~NgarAgaiH |
sa.ndhyodayaH sAbhra iveSha varNam
puShyatyanekam sarayUpravAhaH || 16-58
pashya avarodhaiH shatashaH madIyaiH vigAhyamAnaH galita a~NgarAgaiH sa.ndhya udayaH sa abhra iva eSha varNam puShyati anekam sarayU pravAhaH
16-58. galita a~NgarAgaiH= washed off, body-cosmetics; shatashaH madIyaiH avarodhaiH= of hundreds of, my palace-chambers; vigAhyamAnaH eSha sarayU pravAhaH= wishing to enter, these, Sarayu, streams; sa abhra sa.ndhya udayaH iva= with clouds, eventide, dawning, as if; anekam varNam puShyati= many, colours, it is sustaining; pashya= have a look.
"When hundreds of females of my palace-chambers spread the streams of River Sarayu apart by their water-sports, and when their body cosmetics are washed off and mixed in the water, the river-water is exhibiting appearance of variegated colour like the rise of eventide accompanied by clouds - you may see... [16-58]
विलोचनेषु प्रतिमुक्तमासाम् ॥ १६-५९
yadañjanam naululitābhiradbhiḥ |
vilocaneṣu pratimuktamāsām || 16-59
yada~njanam naululitAbhiradbhiH |
vilocaneShu pratimuktamAsAm || 16-59
viluptam antaHpura sundarINAm yat a~njanam nau lulitAbhiH adbhiH tat badhnatIbhiH mada rAga shobhAm vilocaneShu pratimuktam AsAm
16-59. nau lulitAbhiH adbhiH= by boats, shuffled, waters; antaHpura sundarINAm yat a~njanam viluptam= of palace-chambers, beauties, which, mascara, removed; tat= that mascara; vilocaneShu= in their eyes; mada rAga shobhAm= passionate, red colour's, splendour; badhnatIbhiH= it is rebinding; adbhiH AsAm pratimuktam= by waters, to them, released.
"Though the boat-shuffled waters of this river have washed off the black mascara from the eyes of the beauties of my palace-chambers, those very waters have given them the reddish colour of passion to their eyes, as a kind of barter. [16-59]
एता गुरुश्रोणिपयोधरत्वात् आत्मानमुद्वोढुमशक्नुवत्यः।
गाढाङ्गदैर्बाहुभिरप्सु बालाः क्लेशोत्तरम् रागवशात्प्लवन्ते ॥ १६-६०
kleśottaram rāgavaśātplavante || 16-60
kleshottaram rAgavashAtplavante || 16-60
etA guru shroNi payodharatvAt AtmAnam udvoDhum ashaknuvatyaH gADha a~NgadaiH bAhubhiH apsu bAlAH kleshottaram rAgavashAt plavante
16-60. guru shroNi payodharatvAt= with heaviness, of hips, bosoms; AtmAnam udvoDhum ashaknuvatyaH= themselves, to carry, unable to; etA bAlAH= these, girls; gADha a~NgadaiH bAhubhiH= with arms having close· fitting ornaments; kleshottaram= with great difficulty; rAgavashAt= but with love to swim; apsu plavante= in water, they are swimming.
"Heaviness of hips and bosoms is making these young ladies non-buoyant on water, yet out of love for swimming, they are using some uncanny breaststrokes throwing arms having close fitting ornaments, that too laboriously... [16-60]
अमी शिरीषप्रसवावतंसाः प्रभ्रंशिनो वारिविहारिणीनाम्।
पारिप्लवाः स्रोतसि निम्नगायाः शैवाललोलांश्छलयन्ति मीनान् ॥ १६-६१
prabhraṁśino vārivihāriṇīnām |
pāriplavāḥ srotasi nimnagāyāḥ
śaivālalolāṁśchalayanti mīnān || 16-61
prabhra.nshino vArivihAriNInAm |
pAriplavAH srotasi nimnagAyAH
shaivAlalolA.nshChalayanti mInAn || 16-61
amI shirISha prasava avata.nsAH prabhra.nshinaH vAri vihAriNInAm pAriplavAH srotasi nimna-gAyAH shaivAla lolA.n Chalayanti mInAn
16-61. vAri vihAriNInAm prabhra.nshinaH = of those who are in water sports, [flowers] that have slithered; nimna-gAyAH srotasi pAriplavAH= on river [water], stream, floating; amI shirISha prasava = these, shirIsha, birthed [flowers - Mimosea Siressa]; avata.nsAH= used on temples as ear-ornaments; shaivAla lolA.n mInAn= moss, interested in, fish; Chalayanti= hoodwinking.
"These shirIsha flowers used as ear-ornaments by the females sporting in the water, slipping from their temples into the flow of the river and being tossed to and fro like floating moss deceive the fish that are fond of moss. [16-61]
आसाम् जलास्फालनतत्पराणाम् मुक्ताफलस्पर्धिषु शीकरेषु।
पयोधरोत्सर्पिषु शीर्यमाणः संलक्ष्यते न च्छिदुरोऽपि हारः ॥ १६-६२
muktāphalaspardhiṣu śīkareṣu |
saṁlakṣyate na cchiduro'pi hāraḥ || 16-62
muktAphalaspardhiShu shIkareShu |
sa.nlakShyate na cChiduro.api hAraH || 16-62
AsAm jala AsphAlana tatparANAm muktA phala spardhiShu shIkareShu payodhara utsarpiShu shIryamANaH sa.nlakShyate na cChiduraH api hAraH
16-62. jala AsphAlana tatparANAm= water, splashing, those who are engrossed in; AsAm= of these ladies; muktA-phala spardhiShu= with pearls, that are contending [as big as]; payodhara utsarpiShu= on bosoms, rising and falling; shIkareShu= water drops; shIryamANaH hAraH= being broken, pearl-pendant; cChiduraH api= broken, though; na sa.nlakShyate= not, observed.
"These women engrossed in splashing water at each other are unable to give a thought to the severance and slithering of their pear-pendants from their bosoms, for the water drops as large as pearls are hopping on those bosoms which, they think, as the vaulting of pearls. [16-62]
आवर्तशोभा नतनाभिकान्तेर्भङ्गो भ्रुवाम् द्वन्द्वचराः स्तनानाम्।
जातानि रूपावयवोपमानानि अदूरवर्तीनि विलासिनीनाम् ॥ १६-६३
bhruvām dvandvacarāḥ stanānām |
adūravartīni vilāsinīnām || 16-63
bhruvAm dvandvacarAH stanAnAm |
adUravartIni vilAsinInAm || 16-63
Avarta shobhA natana abhikAnteH bha~NgaH bhruvAm dvandva carAH stanAnAm jAtAni rUpa avayava upamAnAni adUravartIni vilAsinInAm
16-63. vilAsinInAm rUpa avayava upamAnAni= of these ladies, form, limbs, similes - the similes used by poets for beauty; a+dUra vartIni jAtAni = not, distantly, are there - they are very much here; natana abhikAnteH= deep navel's, beauty; Avarta shobhA= [simile to] whirlpools', beauty; bhruvAm= eyebrows; bha~NgaH= [simile to] waves; stanAnAm dvandva carAH= bosoms [simile to] pair moving chakravAka birds.
"The metaphoric standards of poetic comparison with regard to beauty of form and the beauty of the limbs of women is not a far cry when these women in water sport are visualised; viz., the beauty of the deep naval metaphoric with the beauty of the whirl-pool; the beauty of eye-brows metaphoric with the beauty of ripples, and the beauty of a pair of bosoms metaphoric with the beauty of chakravAka birds moving in pairs, all are verily evincible here... [16-63]
श्रोत्रेषु संमूर्च्छति रक्तमासाम् गीतानुगम् वारिमृदङ्गवाद्यम् ॥ १६-६४
śrotreṣu saṁmūrcchati raktamāsām
gītānugam vārimṛdaṅgavādyam || 16-64
shrotreShu sa.nmUrcChati raktamAsAm
gItAnugam vArimR^ida~NgavAdyam || 16-64
tIra sthalI barhibhiH utkalApaiH prasnigdha kekaiH abhinandyamAnam shrotreShu sa.nmUrcChati raktam AsAm gIta anugam vAri mR^ida~Nga vAdyam
16-64. ut+kalApaiH= with raised, plumage; prasnigdha kekaiH= with pleasing, voicing; tIra sthalI barhibhiH abhinandyamAnam= on banks, level lands, available peacocks, being congratulated; raktam gIta anugam= beautiful [singing], of song, accompanying; AsAm= of the women; vAri mR^ida~Nga vAdyam= water, percussion, instrument - and its rhythm keeping; shrotreShu sa.nmUrcChati= to ears, it is pleasant.
"The rhythm keeping by splashing on the percussion instrument called the riverwater, to the songs sung by these fair ones, which the peacocks on the slopes with their up-raised plumage are hailing with joy by their sweet sounds, is ear-pleasing... isn't it... [16-64]
अमी जलापूरितसूत्रमार्गा मौनम् भजन्ते रशनाकलापाः ॥ १६-६५
amī jalāpūritasūtramārgā maunam
bhajante raśanākalāpāḥ || 16-65
amI jalApUritasUtramArgA maunam
bhajante rashanAkalApAH || 16-65
sa.ndaShTa vastreShu abalA nitambeSu indu prakAsha antarita uDu tulyAH amI jalA pUrita sUtra mArgA maunam bhajante rashanA kalApAH
16-65. sa.ndaShTa vastreShu= [by wetness] closely adhering, with garments; abalA nitambeSu= on girls, hips; indu prakAsha antarita = moon, shine, filled in interstices; uDu tulyAH= stars, equalling; amI jalA pUrita sUtra mArgA= these, with water, filled, thread, bead-perforations - girdles are filled with water in bead perforations through which thread is inserted; rashanA kalApAH = such girdles; maunam bhajante = silence, they maintain.
Silent are the girdles of these ladies when water had dampened the threaded bead-perforations and they are blinking like moonlit stars through the closely adhering wet garments on the hips, per contra to their nature of jingling and simmering. [16-65]
एताः करोत्पीडितवारिधारा दर्पात्सखीभिर्वदनेषु सिक्ताः।
वक्रेतराग्रैरलकैस्तरुण्यः चूर्णारुणान्वारिलवान्वमन्ति ॥ १६-६६
darpātsakhībhirvadaneṣu siktāḥ |
cūrṇāruṇānvārilavānvamanti || 16-66
darpAtsakhIbhirvadaneShu siktAH |
cUrNAruNAnvArilavAnvamanti || 16-66
etAH karot pIDita vAri dhArA darpAt sakhIbhiH vadaneShu siktAH vakra itara agraiH alakaiH taruNyaH cUrNa aruNAn vAri lavAn vamanti
16-66. darpAt kara utpIDita vAri dhArA= proudly, with arms, up-heaved, water, streams - on other women; sakhIbhiH vadaneShu siktAH= by their friends, on their own faces, [reciprocally] splashed water; etAH taruNyaH= these ladies; vakra itara agraiH alakaiH= curved, other than, edges, of hair locks - with hair locks straightened by water; cUrNa aruNAn vAri lavAn vamanti= vermilion powder, reddish, water, drops [striae], trickling - red stripes of water.
Faces of these young women, on which water is splashed and counter-splashed by proudly up-heaving it with their arms, are dripping striae of water reddened with kunkuma powder so far adhering on the parting of hair at crown, for the ends of hairlocks are straightened when wet with water. [16-66]
मनोज्ञ एव प्रमदामुखानाम् अम्भोविहाराकुलितोऽपि वेषः ॥ १६-६७
manojña eva pramadāmukhānām
ambhovihārākulito'pi veṣaḥ || 16-67
manodnya eva pramadAmukhAnAm
ambhovihArAkulito.api veShaH || 16-67
udbandha kesha cyuta patra lekhaH vishleShi muktAphala patra veShTaH manoj~nya eva pramadA mukhAnAm ambho vihAra AkulitaH api veShaH
16-67. ut+bandha kesha= loosened, plaits; cyuta patra lekhaH= wiped off, erasable tattoo of foliages; vishleShi muktAphala patra veShTaH= slipped off, pearls, earrings; ambho vihAra AkulitaH api= in water, sports, disarranged, even tough; pramadA mukhAnAm veShaH= women's, facial, getups; manoj~nya eva= heartpleasing, only.
"Though this water sport loosened the pleats of hair, washed off their facial cosmetics and made pearl earrings to dangle indecorously, the faces of these passionate women are indeed charming..." So said king Kusha to the tribal lady handling fur-fan on the boat. [16-67]
स नौविमानादवतीर्य रेमे विलोलहारः सह ताभिरप्सु।
स्कन्धावलग्नोद्धृतपद्मिनीकः करेणुभिर्वन्य इव द्विपेन्द्रः ॥ १६-६८
sa nauvimānādavatīrya reme
vilolahāraḥ saha tābhirapsu |
kareṇubhirvanya iva dvipendraḥ || 16-68
sa nauvimAnAdavatIrya reme
vilolahAraH saha tAbhirapsu |
kareNubhirvanya iva dvipendraH || 16-68
sa nau vimAnAt avatIrya reme vilola hAraH san saha tAbhiH apsu skandha avalagna uddhR^ita padminIkaH san kareNubhiH vanya iva dvipendraH
16-68. saH= he that Kusha - after speaking with tribal woman; nau vimAnAt avatIrya= boat, aircraft-like, on getting down; vilola hAraH san= with tossing, pear-pendants; tAbhiH saha = with those women in water, along with; kareNubhiH= with she-elephants; skandha avalagna= on shoulders, adhering; uddhR^ita padminIkaH san= by [he-elephant] uprooted, lotus stalks; dvipendraH vanya iva= such a wild, elephant, as with; apsu reme= in water, he enjoyed.
The king Kusha then taking a plunge from the aircraft-like boat into the river, while his pearl pendants were tossing on his chest, took delight in water sports along with the women already in it, as with a wild elephant that takes delight by butting into the midst of she-elephants already in the water, while the just uprooted lotuses and their stalks splice and toss upon his shoulders. [16-68]
ततो नृपेणानुगताः स्त्रियस्ता भ्राजिष्णुना सातिशयम् विरेजुः।
प्रागेव मुक्ता नयनाभिरामाः प्राप्येन्द्रनीलम् किमुतोन्मयूखम् ॥ १६-६९
tato nṛpeṇānugatāḥ striyastā
bhrājiṣṇunā sātiśayam virejuḥ |
prāgeva muktā nayanābhirāmāḥ
prāpyendranīlam kimutonmayūkham || 16-69
tato nR^ipeNAnugatAH striyastA
bhrAjiShNunA sAtishayam virejuH |
prAgeva muktA nayanAbhirAmAH
prApyendranIlam kimutonmayUkham || 16-69
tataH nR^ipeNa anugatAH striyaH tA bhrAjiShNunA sa atishayam virejuH prAk eva muktA nayana abhirAmAH prApya indra nIlam kimuta unmayUkham
16-69. tataH bhrAjiShNunA nR^ipeNa= then, by majestic, king; anugatAH tAH striyaH= following him, those, ladies; sa atishayam virejuH= more than before, shone forth; prAk eva muktA nayana abhirAmAH= earlier, only [originally], pearls, are an eye feast; unmayUkham indra nIlam = glittering, blue diamond; prApya= on getting - when embedded into pearl pendant; kimuta= what more can be said.
Then those women accompanied by the majestic king shone forth greatly; pearls are originally charming to eye; what more can be said when they are coupled with brilliant sapphire. [16-69]
वर्णोदकैः काञ्चनशृङ्गमुक्तैः तमायताक्ष्यः प्रणयादसिञ्चन्।
तथागतः सोऽतितराम् बभासे सधातुनिष्यन्द इवाद्रिराजः ॥ १६-७०
tamāyatākṣyaḥ praṇayādasiñcan |
tathāgataḥ so'titarām babhāse
sadhātuniṣyanda ivādrirājaḥ || 16-70
tamAyatAkShyaH praNayAdasi~ncan |
tathAgataH so.atitarAm babhAse
sadhAtuniShyanda ivAdrirAjaH || 16-70
varNa udakaiH kA~ncana shR^i~Nga muktaiH tam AyatAkShyaH praNayAt asi~ncan tathA AgataH saH atitarAm babhAse sa dhAtu niShyanda iva adri-rAjaH
16-70. tam AyatAkShyaH= him, the wide-eyed women; kA~ncana shR^i~Nga muktaiH varNa udakaiH praNayAt asi~ncan = from golden, horn-like sprayers, released from them, coloured, with water, in friendship, they drenched him; tathAgataH saH= in such condition, he that Kusha; sa dhAtu niShyanda adri-rAjaH iva= with, ores, exuding, great mountain, as with; atitarAm babhAse= highly, shone forth.
The wide-eyed damsels out of love drenched him with coloured-waters sprinkled through golden-syringes: in that condition he looked extremely bright like a kingly mountain exuding streams of spangling ores. [16-70]
तेनावरोधप्रमदासखेन विगाहमानेन सरिद्वराम् ताम्।
आकाशगङ्गारतिरप्सरोभिर्वृतो मरुत्वाननुयातलीलः ॥ १६-७१
vigāhamānena saridvarām tām |
marutvānanuyātalīlaḥ || 16-71
vigAhamAnena saridvarAm tAm |
marutvAnanuyAtalIlaH || 16-71
tena avarodha pramadA sakhena vigAhamAnena sarit varAm tAm AkAsha ga~NgA ratiH apsarobhiH vR^itaH marutvAn anuyAta lIlaH
16-71. avarodha pramadA sakhena= with palace-chamber, lady, friends; tAm sarit varAm vigAhamAnena= in that, River, the best, one who is swimming; tena= by him; AkAsha ga~NgA ratiH= in heavenly, Ganga, delighted in; apsarobhiH vR^itaH marutvAn= with celestials, surrounded, Indra's; anuyAta lIlaH= emulated, in like manner.
While that king Kusha was swimming in that best river Sarayu, accompanied by sportive women of his palace-chambers, he looked more like Indra sporting in the heavenly Ganga along with celestial maidens. [16-71]
यत्कुम्भयोनेरधिगम्य रामः कुशाय राज्येन समम् दिदेश।
तदस्य जैत्राभरणम् विहर्तुः अज्ञ्यातपातम् सलिले ममज्ज ॥ १६-७२
kuśāya rājyena samam dideśa |
tadasya jaitrābharaṇam vihartuḥ
ajñyātapātam salile mamajja || 16-72
kushAya rAjyena samam didesha |
tadasya jaitrAbharaNam vihartuH
aj~nyAtapAtam salile mamajja || 16-72
yat kumbha-yoneH adhigamya rAmaH kushAya rAjyena samam didesha tat asya jaitra AbharaNam vihartuH aj~nyAta pAtam salile mamajja
16-72. yat rAmaH kumbha-yoneH adhigamya= which bracelet, Rama, from sage Agastya, on getting; kushAya rAjyena samam didesha= to Kusha, kingdom, along with, gave; salile vihartuH asya= in waters, sporting, his; tat jaitra AbharaNam= that all-victorious bracelet; aj~nyAta pAtam mamajja= unknowingly, fell, and drowned.
That victory-bestowing-bracelet which Rama had got from the pitcher born sage Agastya, and which he had passed on to Kusha along with the kingdom, that bracelet dropped from his arm during his swimming in the river and sank into the water without the knowledge of king Kusha. [16-72]
स्नात्वा यथाकाममसौ सदारस्तीरोपकार्याम् गतमात्र एव।
दिव्येन शून्यम् वलयेन बाहुमपोढ नेपथ्यविधिर्ददर्श ॥ १६-७३
sadārastīropakāryām gatamātra eva |
divyena śūnyam valayena bāhumapoḍha
nepathyavidhirdadarśa || 16-73
sadArastIropakAryAm gatamAtra eva |
divyena shUnyam valayena bAhumapoDha
nepathyavidhirdadarsha || 16-73
snAtvA yathA kAmam asau sa dAraH tIra upakAryAm gatamAtra eva divyena shUnyam valayena bAhum apoDha nepathya vidhiH dadarsha
16-73. asau sa dAraH yathA kAmam snAtvA= he, with wife, as he wished, having taken bath; tIra upakAryAm gatamAtra eva= on bank, into his tent, just on reaching, alone; apoDha nepathya vidhiH= before he had commenced his toilet; divyena valayena shUnyam bAhum= with divine, bracelet, devoid of, arm; dadarsha= he observed.
When king Kusha had hardly gone to his tent on the rivebank after bathing in the river to his heart's content along with his wives, and even before he had finished his toiletry, he observed that his arm is devoid of divine bracelet. [16-73]
जयश्रियः संवननम् यतस्तत् आमुक्तपूर्वम् गुरुणा च यस्मात्।
सेहेऽस्य न भ्रंशमतो न लोभात्स तुल्यपुष्पाभरणो हि धीरः ॥ १६-७४
jayaśriyaḥ saṁvananam yatastat
āmuktapūrvam guruṇā ca yasmāt |
sehe'sya na bhraṁśamato na lobhātsa
tulyapuṣpābharaṇo hi dhīraḥ || 16-74
jayashriyaH sa.nvananam yatastat
AmuktapUrvam guruNA ca yasmAt |
sehe.asya na bhra.nshamato na lobhAtsa
tulyapuShpAbharaNo hi dhIraH || 16-74
jayashriyaH sa.nvananam yataH tat AmuktapUrvam guruNA ca yasmAt sehe asya na bhra.nsham ataH na lobhAt sa tulya puShpa AbharaNaH hi dhIraH
16-74. yataH tat jayashriyaH sa.nvananam= by which reason, that bracelet, victory, fetching; yasmAt ca guruNA AmuktapUrvam= by which reason, also, by his father, it was worn previously; ataH= for that reason; asya bhra.nsham na sehe= its, loss, not, tolerated; lobhAt na= by avarice, not; hi= why because; dhIraH saH tulya puShpa AbharaNaH= firm-minded one, to him, equal are, flowers, as well as ornaments.
The king did not bear loss of bracelet because it was the charm securing victory; further it was worn by his father Rama before him, but not because he was avaricious for gold pieces; for a firm-minded person, as the king was, equally valued perishable flowers and variable ornaments. [16-74]
ततः समाज्ञापयदाशु सर्वानानायिनस्तद्विचये नदीष्णान्।
वन्ध्यश्रमास्ते सरयूम् विगाह्य तमूचुरम्लानमुखप्रसादाः ॥ १६-७५
sarvānānāyinastadvicaye nadīṣṇān |
vandhyaśramāste sarayūm vigāhya
tamūcuramlānamukhaprasādāḥ || 16-75
sarvAnAnAyinastadvicaye nadIShNAn |
vandhyashramAste sarayUm vigAhya
tamUcuramlAnamukhaprasAdAH || 16-75
tataH samAj~nyApayat Ashu sarvAn AnAyinaH tat vicaye nadIShNAn vandhya shramAH te sarayUm vigAhya tam UcuH amlAna mukha prasAdAH
16-75. tataH= then; nadIShNAn sarvAn AnAyinaH= expert divers, all, fishermen; tat vicaye= that, to search; Ashu samAj~nyApayat= immediately, her ordered; te sarayUm vigAhya= they, Sarayu, on diving into; vandhya shramAH= even if - wasted, toil; a+mlAna mukha prasAdAH= not, faded, facial, pleasance; tam UcuH= to him they spoke - because they could sense the whereabouts of bracelet].
Then the king at once ordered all the fishermen skilful in diving for its search; they whose labour was unsuccessful even after deep diving into to river, but all the same who had unfaded pleasantness on their faces, for they could sense the whereabouts of bracelet, spoke to the king. [16-75]
कृतः प्रयत्नो न च देव लब्धम् मग्नम् पयस्याभरणोत्तमम् ते।
नागेन लौल्यात्कुमुदेन नूनम् उपात्तमन्तर्ह्रदवासिना तत् ॥ १६-७६
kṛtaḥ prayatno na ca deva labdham
magnam payasyābharaṇottamam te |
nāgena laulyātkumudena nūnam
upāttamantarhradavāsinā tat || 16-76
kR^itaH prayatno na ca deva labdham
magnam payasyAbharaNottamam te |
nAgena laulyAtkumudena nUnam
upAttamantarhradavAsinA tat || 16-76
kR^itaH prayatnaH na ca hè deva labdham magnam payasi AbharaNa uttamam te nAgena laulyAt kumudena nUnam upAttam antar hrada vAsinA tat
16-76. hè deva= oh, lord; prayatnaH kR^itaH= effort, is made; payasi magnam te AbharaNa uttamam na ca labdham= in water, drowned, your, ornament, the great, not, also, retrieved; tat= that bracelet; antar hrada vAsinA= inside, pool, one who lives; kumudena nAgena= called Kumuda, a nAga [king]; laulyAt upAttam= rapaciously, taken away; nUnam= it is definite.
"Oh, Lord, All effort has been made, but your special ornament which sank in the water could not be found: it must have been rapaciously seized by a nAga king who dwells deep in the stream, no doubt about it..." [16-76]
ततः स कृत्वा धनुराततज्यम् धनुर्धरः कोपविलोहिताक्षः।
गारुत्मतम् तीरगतस्तरस्वी भुजंगनाशाय समाददेऽस्त्रम् ॥ १६-७७
tataḥ sa kṛtvā dhanurātatajyam
dhanurdharaḥ kopavilohitākṣaḥ |
bhujaṁganāśāya samādade'stram || 16-77
tataH sa kR^itvA dhanurAtatajyam
dhanurdharaH kopavilohitAkShaH |
bhuja.nganAshAya samAdade.astram || 16-77
tataH saH kR^itvA dhanuH Atata jyam dhanurdharaH kopa vilohita akShaH gArutmatam tIra gataH san tarasvI bhuja.nga nAshAya samAdade astram
16-77. tataH dhanurdharaH= then, that archer, kopa vilohita akShaH= with rage, reddened, eyes; tarasvI saH= mighty one, as he is; tIra gataH san= to the riverbank, on going; dhanuH Atata jyam kR^itvA= bow, with bowstring, on coupling; bhuja.nga nAshAya gArutmatam astram samAdade= for serpents, ending, garuDa, arrow-missile, he took up.
Thereupon that energetic archer Kusha with his eyes reddened in rage, went to the riverbank and coupled bowstring to his bow, and then took up a missile-arrow for which divine eagle garuDa is the presiding deity, for the destruction of that nAga dwelling underwater. [16-77]
तस्मिन्ह्रदः संहितमात्र एव क्षोभात्समाविद्धतरंगहस्तः।
रोधांसि निघ्नन्नवपातमग्नः करीव वन्यः परुषम् ररास ॥ १६-७८
tasminhradaḥ saṁhitamātra eva
karīva vanyaḥ paruṣam rarāsa || 16-78
tasminhradaH sa.nhitamAtra eva
karIva vanyaH paruSham rarAsa || 16-78
tasmin hradaH sa.nhita mAtra eva kShobhAt samAviddha tara.nga hastaH rodhA.nsi nighnan avapAta magnaH karI iva vanyaH paruSham rarAsa
16-78. tasmin= that arrow; sa.nhita mAtra eva= emplacing on bow, just by; hradaH= that riverwater pool; kShobhAt samAviddha tara.nga hastaH= by turmoil, brought close, with waves, called river's hands; rodhA.nsi nighnan= riverbanks, on collapsing; avapAte magnaH vanyaH karI iva= in trench, fallen, she-elephant, as with; paruSham rarAsa= terribly, gave out sounds.
No sooner the arrow-missile was put up on bowstring than the deep pool of water brought her waves called arms too close in turmoil, and collapsing her own banks with the sudden rush of waters started to issue tumultuous noise, like a she-elephant clamorously trumpeting when fallen into catching-trench. [16-78]
तस्मात्समुद्रादिव मथ्यमानात् उद्वृत्तनक्रात्सहसोन्ममज्ज।
लक्ष्म्येव सार्धम् सुरराजवृक्षः कन्याम् पुरस्कृत्य भुजंगराजः ॥ १६-७९
lakṣmyeva sārdham surarājavṛkṣaḥ
kanyām puraskṛtya bhujaṁgarājaḥ || 16-79
lakShmyeva sArdham surarAjavR^ikShaH
kanyAm puraskR^itya bhuja.ngarAjaH || 16-79
tasmAt samudrAt iva mathyamAnAt udvR^itta nakrAt sahasA unmamajja lakShmyA iva sArdham sura-rAja-vR^ikShaH kanyAm puraskR^itya bhuja.nga rAjaH
16-79. mathyamAnAt samudrAt iva= being churned, ocean, as with; udvR^itta nakrAt= up-heaving, crocodiles - crocodiles themselves escaped the turmoil; tasmAt= from that deep water; lakShmyA sArdham sura-rAja-vR^ikShaH iva= with Lakshmi, along with, gods king's tree - pArijAta tree, as with; kanyAm puraskR^itya= a damsel, keeping in front; bhuja.nga rAjaH sahasA unmamajja= serpent's, king, suddenly, came up.
From that troubled pool of waters from which the crocodiles had thrown themselves out owing to the turmoil, came forth the serpent king Kumuda keeping a damsel before him and thus resembling the pArijAta tree of Indra which sprang up when the Milk Ocean was churned, bringing goddess Lakshmi along with it. [16-79]
विभूषणप्रत्युपहारहस्तम् उपस्थितम् वीक्ष्य विशांपतिस्तम्।
सौपर्णमस्त्रम् प्रतिसंजहार प्रह्वेष्वनिर्बन्धरुषो हि सन्तः ॥ १६-८०
upasthitam vīkṣya viśāṁpatistam |
prahveṣvanirbandharuṣo hi santaḥ || 16-80
upasthitam vIkShya vishA.npatistam |
prahveShvanirbandharuSho hi santaH || 16-80
vibhUShaNa pratyupahAra hastam upasthitam vIkShya vishAmpatiH tam sauparNam astram pratisa.njahAra prahveShu a+nirbandha ruShaH hi santaH
16-80. vishAmpatiH= lord of quarters Kusha; vibhUShaNa pratyupahAra hastam= ornament, as gift, hand [one with such hand extended to give back the bracelet]; upasthitam= who is fore; tam vIkShya= him that Kumuda, on seeing; sauparNam astram pratisa.njahAra= garuDa arrow-missile, he with drew; hi = indeed; santaH prahveShu a+nirbandha ruShaH = kindhearted ones, reg. the surrendered ones, not, with cooped up, anger.
On beholding Kumuda, the nAga-rAja, standing in his front with the bracelet in his hands that are extending to restore it to the king, the ruler of men Kusha retracted the arrow-missile of garuDa: for, the kindhearted will n0t be with pent-up anger towards those who have surrendered. [16-80]
त्रैलोक्यनाथप्रभवम् प्रभावात् कुशम् द्विषामङ्कुशमस्त्रविद्वान्।
मानोन्नतेनाप्यभिवन्द्य मूर्ध्ना मूर्धाभिषिक्तम् कुमुदो बभाषे ॥ १६-८१
kuśam dviṣāmaṅkuśamastravidvān |
mūrdhābhiṣiktam kumudo babhāṣe || 16-81
kusham dviShAma~NkushamastravidvAn |
mUrdhAbhiShiktam kumudo babhAShe || 16-81
trai-lokya nAtha prabhavam prabhAvAt kusham dviShAm a~Nkusham astra-vidvAn mAna unnatena api abhivandya mUrdhnA mUrdhA abhiShiktam kumudaH babhAShe
16-81. astra-vidvAn kumudaH= who knew the power of the missile, that Kumuda; trai-lokya nAtha prabhavam= tri-worlds lord's [Rama's], son of; prabhAvAt dviShAm a~Nkusham= by his valour, to enemies, who is like a goad; mUrdhA abhiShiktam kusham= anointed king, with such Kusha; mAna unnatena api= by self-esteem, that which is held high [Kumuda's head], even though; mUrdhnA abhivandya= with such a head bent, having adored [Kusha]; babhAShe = [Kumuda] spoke to him.
The nAga king Kumuda who usually holds his head upright out of self-respect is well aware of the power of garuDa missile, which the anointed king Kusha, the son of the ruler of tri-world and like the controlling goad of his enemies owing to his prowess, just now taken back saving the utter destruction of underwater world; as such, Kumuda bent his head low before the king as thanksgiving and spoke this. [16-81]
अवैमि कार्यान्तरमानुषस्य विष्णोः सुताख्यामपराम् तनुम् त्वाम्।
सोऽहम् कथम् नाम तवाचरेयम् आराधनीयस्य धृतेर्विघातम् ॥ १६-८२
avaimi kāryāntaramānuṣasya viṣṇoḥ
sutākhyāmaparām tanum tvām |
so'ham katham nāma tavācareyam
ārādhanīyasya dhṛtervighātam || 16-82
avaimi kAryAntaramAnuShasya viShNoH
sutAkhyAmaparAm tanum tvAm |
so.aham katham nAma tavAcareyam
ArAdhanIyasya dhR^itervighAtam || 16-82
avaimi kArya antara mAnuShasya viShNoH suta AkhyAm aparAm tanum tvAm saH aham katham nAma tava Acareyam ArAdhanIyasya dhR^iteH vighAtam
16-82. tvAm= you; kArya antara mAnuShasya viShNoH= mission, different, human form, of Vishnu - of Vishnu who had assumed a human form for a definite mission; suta AkhyAm aparAm tanum avaimi= as son, named, another, form [of Vishnu], I am aware; saH aham ArAdhanIyasya tava = such as I am I, one who deserves respect, for your; dhR^iteH vighAtam katham nAma Acareyam= your gladness, harm, how on earth, can I do.
I am aware that you are only a corporeal image bearing the name of the son of Vishnu who had assumed a human form for definite mission. Such as I am, how can I possibly act harmful to the happiness of one who is in every way deserving of respect. [16-82]
कराभिघातोत्थितकन्दुकेयम् आलोक्य बालातिकुतूहलेन।
ह्रदात्पतज्ज्योतिरिवान्तरिक्षात् आदत्त जैत्राभरणम् त्वदीयम् ॥ १६-८३
ālokya bālātikutūhalena |
ādatta jaitrābharaṇam tvadīyam || 16-83
Alokya bAlAtikutUhalena |
Adatta jaitrAbharaNam tvadIyam || 16-83
kara abhighAta utthita kandukA iyam Alokya bAlA ati kutUhalena hradAt patat jyotiH iva antarikShAt Adatta jaitra AbharaNam tvadIyam
16-83. kara abhighAta utthita kandukA= with hand, hit, gone up, a ball = when a ball is volleyed up by hitting it with her hand; iyam bAlA= this, girl; ati kutUhalena= with much, curiosity; antarikShAt jyotiH iva hradAt patat= from sky, star, as with a, into water pool, when it is falling; tvadIyam jaitra AbharaNam Alokya= your, victory, ornament on seeing; Adatta= she took it.
"This young maiden volleyed a play-ball with the stroke of her hand and was looking for its descent; then she beheld the victory giving ornament of yours descending like a meteor from the sky into the pool of water; so, she took possession of it out of great curiosity. [16-83]
तदेतदाजानुविलम्बिना ते ज्याघातरेखाकिणलाञ्छनेन।
भुजेन रक्षापरिघेण भूमेरुपैतु योगम् पुनरंसलेन ॥ १६-८४
bhujena rakṣāparigheṇa bhūmer
upaitu yogam punaraṁsalena || 16-84
bhujena rakShAparigheNa bhUmeH
upaitu yogam punara.nsalena || 16-84
tat etat AjAnu vilambinA te jyA ghAta rekhA kiNa lA~nChanena bhujena rakShA parigheNa bhUmeH upaitu yogam punaH a.nsalena
16-84. tat etat= that, this - ornament; AjAnu vilambinA= your arm which reaches up to the knee; jyA ghAta rekhA kiNa lA~nChanena = bowstring, dented, lines, corns, shoulders; bhUmeH rakShA parigheNa = to earth, protecting, bars; a.nsalena te bhujena= on such strong, with your, shoulders; punaH yogam upaitu= again, joining, let [ornament] get.
"Let this ornament once more obtain the joining of it with your strong arm which reaches up to the knee, which has the ineffaceable corns of lines that bowstring has dented and which is the protecting latch-bar of the earth. [16-84]
इमाम् स्वसारम् च यवीयसीम् मे कुमुद्वतीम् नार्हसि नानुमन्तुम्।
आत्मापराधम् नुदतीम् चिराय शुश्रूषया पार्थिव पादयोस्ते ॥ १६-८५
imām svasāram ca yavīyasīm me
kumudvatīm nārhasi nānumantum |
ātmāparādham nudatīm cirāya
śuśrūṣayā pārthiva pādayoste || 16-85
imAm svasAram ca yavIyasIm me
kumudvatIm nArhasi nAnumantum |
AtmAparAdham nudatIm cirAya
shushrUShayA pArthiva pAdayoste || 16-85
imAm svasAram ca yavIyasIm me kumudvatIm na arhasi na anumantum Atma aparAdham nudatIm cirAya shushrUShayA pArthiva pAdayoH te
16-85. hè pArthiva= oh, king; te pAdayoH cirAya shushrUShayA = at your, feet, for a long time, by her service; Atma aparAdham nudatIm= her, folly, to atone; imAm me yavIyasIm svasAram kumudvatIm = this, my, younger, sister, named Kumudvati; anumantum= to permit her; na arhasi iti na= not, apt of you, thus that topic, is not there.
"And, it is not right, oh king, that you should not consent to accept this younger sister of mine, named Kumudvati, who is anxious to atone for her fault by a service of your feet for a long time. [16-85]
श्लाघ्यो भवान्स्वजन इत्यनुभाषितारम्।
संयोजयाम् विधिवदास समेतबन्धुः
कन्यामयेन कुमुदः कुलभूषणेन ॥ १६-८६
ślāghyoo bhavānsvajana ityanubhāṣitāram |
saṁyojayām vidhivadāsa sametabandhuḥ
kanyāmayena kumudaḥ kulabhūṣaṇena || 16-86
shlAghyoo bhavAnsvajana ityanubhAShitAram |
sa.nyojayAm vidhivadAsa sametabandhuH
kanyAmayena kumudaH kulabhUShaNena || 16-86
iti UcivAn upahR^ita AbharaNaH kShitIsham shlAghyaH bhavAn sva janaH iti anubhAShitAram sa.nyojayAm vidhivat Asa sameta bandhuH kanyAmayena kumudaH kula bhUShaNena
16-86. iti UcivAn kumudaH upahR^ita AbharaNaH= thus, one who said, that Kumuda, returned, the ornament; then the king said to him; bhavAn shlAghyaH= you are, praiseworthy; sva janaH= my own, relative [from now on]; iti anubhAShitAram kShitIsham= thus, one who is speaking, to that king; sameta bandhuH= along with, relatives; kanyAmayena= with that damsel Kumudvati; kula bhUShaNena= she who is jewel of his dynasty; vidhivat sa.nyojayAm Asa= procedurally, yoked - married.
Kumuda who spoke in this manner, and who returned the ornament to the king who in turn replied "you are praiseworthy and a relation of mine from now on..."; then accompanied by his kinsmen Kumuda formed an alliance with the king by procedurally giving over the jewel of his dynasty which was no other than his sister Kumudvati. [16-86]
तस्याः स्पृष्टे मनुजपतिना साहचर्याय हस्ते
माङ्गल्योर्णावलयिनि पुरः पावकस्योच्छिखस्य।
दिव्यस्तूर्यध्वनिरुदचरद्व्यश्नुवानो दिगन्ता -
न्गन्धोदग्रम् तदनु ववृषुः पुष्पमाश्चर्यमेघाः ॥ १६-८७
tasyāḥ spṛṣṭe manujapatinā sāhacaryāya haste
māṅgalyorṇāvalayini puraḥ pāvakasyocchikhasya |
divyastūryadhvanirudacaradvyaśnuvāno digantā -
ngandhodagram tadanu vavṛṣuḥ puṣpamāścaryameghāḥ || 16-87
tasyAH spR^iShTe manujapatinA sAhacaryAya haste
mA~NgalyorNAvalayini puraH pAvakasyocChikhasya |
divyastUryadhvanirudacaradvyashnuvAno digantA -
ngandhodagram tadanu vavR^iShuH puShpamAshcaryameghAH || 16-87
tasyAH spR^iShTe manuja-patinA sAhacaryAya haste mA~Ngalya urNA valayini puraH pAvakasya ucChikhasya divyaH tUrya dhvaniH udacarat vyashnuvAnaH digantAn gandha udagram tat anu vavR^iShuH puShpam Ashcarya meghAH
16-87. manuja-patinA sAhacaryAya= by the king, for marriage; mA~Ngalya urNA valayini= she who is having- auspicious, sheep-hair - wool, bracelet - on her wrist; tasyAH haste= her, such a hand; ucChikhasya pAvakasya puraH= having tongues of fire, of Ritual fire, in the presence of; spR^iShTe sati= when caught - by king; digantAn vyashnuvAnaH divyaH tUrya dhvaniH udacarat= up to end of quarters, spreading, trumpets, sound, commenced; tat anu= following it; Ashcarya meghAH gandha udagram puShpam vavR^iShuH= wonderful, clouds, fragrant, heightened, flowers, they showered.
No sooner Kusha, the lord of the people, held her hand that had the auspicious woollen wrist-let on it, before the sacred fire flaming upwards for matrimonial companionship than there arose the sound of celestial trumpets reaching the various quarters to their farthest limits; following that, wonderful clouds showered down richly fragrant flowers. [16-87]
इत्थम् नागस्त्रिभुवनगुरोरौरसम् मैथिलेयम्
लब्ध्वा बन्धुम् तमपि च कुशः पञ्चमम् तक्षकस्य।
एकः शङ्काम् पितृवधरिपोरत्यजद्वैनतेयात्
शान्तव्यालामवनिमपरः पौरकान्तः शशास ॥ १६-८८
ittham nāgastribhuvanaguroraurasam maithileyam
labdhvā bandhum tamapi ca kuśaḥ pañcamam takṣakasya |
ekaḥ śaṅkām pitṛvadhariporatyajadvainateyāt
śāntavyālāmavanimaparaḥ paurakāntaḥ śaśāsa || 16-88
ittham nAgastribhuvanaguroraurasam maithileyam
labdhvA bandhum tamapi ca kushaH pa~ncamam takShakasya |
ekaH sha~NkAm pitR^ivadhariporatyajadvainateyAt
shAntavyAlAmavanimaparaH paurakAntaH shashAsa || 16-88
ittham nAga stri bhuvana guroH aurasam maithileyam labdhvA bandhum tam api ca kushaH pa~ncamam takShakasya ekaH sha~NkAm pitR^i vadha ripoH atyajat vainateyAt shAnta vyAlAm avanim aparaH paura kAntaH shashAsa
16-88. ittham = in this way; nAgaH= serpent Kumuda; tri bhuvana guroH= of the lord of tri-world; aurasam maithileyam= own son, of Seetha - Kusha; bandhum labdhvA= as a relative, on gaining; kushaH api ca= Kusha, even, also; takShakasya pa~ncamam tam= Takshaka's, fifth, son, him - Kumuda; bandhum labdhvA= as a relative, on gaining; ekaH= one among the two - Kumuda; pitR^i vadha ripoH vainateyAt= owing to his father's killing, by garuDa - fear from him; sha~NkAm atyajat= a doubt to fear from him, left off; aparaH= another from the two - Kusha; shAnta vyAlAm avanim= silenced, serpents, earth; paura kAntaH shashAsa= becoming a darling of people, he ruled.
In this manner the nAga king Kumuda got the direct son of Seetha and Rama, the legitimate descendant of the ruler of the three-worlds, as his kinsman whereby Kumuda gave up the fear from the bird-vehicle of Vishnu, namely garuDa, who had been his enemy in consequence of the death of Kumuda's father; and Kusha too got Kumuda who was the fifth descendant of Takshaka, a legendary serpent king, as his kinsman whereby the vexatious problem with serpents is obliterated on earth and the king Kusha ruled the country to the utmost delight of his subjects. [16-88]
इति कालिदास कृत रघुवंश महाकाव्ये षोडशः सर्गः
iti kālidāsa kṛta raghuvaṁśa mahākāvye ṣoḍaśaḥ sargaḥ
Krishnarao Mahadeva Joglekar, 1916 - KMJ, or Joglekar
Gopala Raghunath Nandargikar, 1897 GRN
pithy, terse sayings or foots of poem appearing in comment section - from The Story of Raghu's Line by Kalidasa; translated by P. De Lacy Johnston, Published by Adine House, London, 1902 - De Lacy or Lacy
upama is roughly said as metaphor, transferred epithet, or condensed simile, or expanded simile, or whatever, but not stabilised, as with atishayokti and utpreksha both made to fall under the category of a hyperbole.
u.mA o : upamAna - comparable object; or the object itself.
u.me oc : upameya - object compared.
sA.dha c: sAdhAraNa dharma: commonality in sharing attributes.
sA. vA cw: sAdharaNa vAcaka: coupula, conjunctional word used.
anu.dha uq : anugAmi dharma : underlying quality of factors.
bimba om, or O: object to be mirrored.
prati-bimba mo: reflected object with mirror symmetry, mirrored object.
shleSa innuendo: lexically mixing, imbibed in; better we use this innuendo= 2 a remark with a double meaning, usu. suggestive; till pundits object.
zeugma : a figure of speech using a verb or adjective with two nouns, to one of which it is strictly applicable while the word appropriate to the other is not used (e.g. with weeping eyes and [sc. grieving] hearts).
syllepsis : a figure of speech in which a word is applied to two others in different senses (e.g. caught the train and a bad cold) or to two others of which it grammatically suits one only (e.g. neither they nor it is working) - but not innuendo, or double meaning.
atishayokti - hybo: hyperbole.
utpreksha - mglq: magniloqui, gasconade.
Out of many mind-boggling Sanskrit poetics, upama is one, and only 23 of its shades are presented here as illustration. Please construe that hero is telling these se ntences to his heroine.
1] candra iva mukham manoj~nam = Like moon your face is heart-pleasing - upama alankAra.
2] candra iva mukham mukham iva candraH - That moon is like your face, and your face is like that moon - upameya upamA alankAra.
3] mukham iva mukham = face is face - ananvaya alankAra.
4] mukham iva candraH - moon is like your face - pratIpa alankAra
5] candram dR^iSTvA mukham smarAmi - on seeing I reminisce your face - smaraNa alankAra
6] mukham eva candraH - your face is moon alone - rUpaka alankAra
7] mukha candreNa tApaH shAmayati - on seeing moonlike face of yours, fervidity is lessening - pariNAma alankAra
8] kim idam mukham? uta aho! candraH - is this your face or that moon? - sandeha alankAra.
9] candra iti cakorAH tvat mukham anudhAvanti - thinking your face is moon songbirds are after it - bhrAntimat alankAra
10] candra iti cakorAH, kamala iti bhramarAH tvat mukhe ra~njanti - thinking your face to be moon, songbirds and bees [wish to take] delight in it.
11] camdro ayam, na mukham - this is moon, but not a face - apahnava
12] idam nUnam candraH - this is definitely the moon - utpreksha
13] candro ayam bhUpatiH - this king is the moon - atishayokti
14] mukhena candra kamale nirjite - moon or lotus is conquered by your face - tulya yogitA alankAra
15] nishi candraH tvat mukham ca hR^iSyati - night's moon delights your face - dIpaka alankAra
16] tvat mukha eva aham rajyAmi, candra eva cakoro rajyate - I take delight in your face, while songbirds take delight in that moon - prati vastu upama
17] divi candro yathA, bhuvi tathA tvat mukham bhAti - as to how the moon shines in the sky, thus your face shines forth on the earth - dR^iSTAnta alankAra
18] mukham candra shriyam bhibharti - your face is bearing the shine of that moon - nidarshana alankAra
19] niSkalankam mukham candrAt atiricyate - immaculate face of yours is surpassing that moon - vyatireka alankAra
20] tvat mukheva saha nishAsu candro hR^iSyati - along with your face, moon is also delightful in nights - saha ukti alankAra
21] mukham netra a.nka ruciram, smita jyostno upashobhitam - your face is delightful with eyes called its embellishments, and with moonshine like smiles - samAsa ukti alankAra
22] abjena tvat mukham tulyam hariNA hitasaktinA - your face vies with moon who has a deer in him, [or, your face vies with rising sun with lotus...] abhanga sabhanga shleSa alankAra
23] mukhasya puirataH candro niSprabhaH - before your face moon is loosing his shine a prastuta prashamsha.
desiraju hanumanta rao, August 09
desirajuhrao at yahoo.com