Dynasty of Emperor Raghu
|12 chapter -- 104 verses|
This canto gives an account of the successful accomplishment of the purpose for which Vishnu had descended to this earth as the seventh incarnation in the form of Rama in the solar race. King Dasharatha makes all preparations to install Rama as crown prince in which he is interrupted by his wife Kaikeyi who compels her husband to send Rama into exile and install her son Bharata as crown-prince. This she claims on the strength of a promise made by Dasharatha of giving her any two boons she may ask. In obedience to paternal wish Rama retires to the forest followed by his faithful and devoted wife Seetha; and his brother Lakshmana. Prince Bharata evinces a. great magnanimity of heart; he declines to allow himself to be installed on the throne; and consents to only act as regent during his elder brother's exile, and that too, under pressure from Rama himself. The ten-headed giant, Ravana, succeeds in carrying away Sita by a stratagem to Lanka his capital.
With the assistance of monkey-army under the leadership of Sugriva and reinforcement from Vibhishana a bridge of boulders is prepared, the allied army enters the island of Ceylon over it, and besieges the capital: a series of skirmishes and battles Rama slays Ravana in single combat and recovers his beloved wife Seetha. - KMJ
Notes and commentary of Kishanrao Madhavarao Joglekar on this 12th canto 1.1 MB pdf is also made available here for further reading.
निर्विष्टविषयस्नेहः स दशान्तमुपेयिवान्।
आसीदासन्ननिर्वाणः प्रदीपार्चिरिवोषसि॥ १२-१
nirviṣṭaviṣayasnehaḥ sa daśāntamupeyivān|
āsīdāsannanirvāṇaḥ pradīpārcirivoṣasi || 12-1
nirviShTaviShayasnehaH sa dashAntamupeyivAn |
AsIdAsannanirvANaH pradIpArcirivoShasi || 12-1
nirviShTa viShaya snehaH sa dashAntam upeyivAn AsIt Asanna nirvANaH pradIpa arciH iva uShasi
12-1. nirviShTa viShaya snehaH= who enjoyed, senses, pleasures - who had enjoyed all pleasures of the senses; dasha antam upeyivAn saH= who had attained the declining period of existence, he that Dasharatha; uShasi pradIpa arciH iva= morning time, lamp's, wick, as with; Asanna nirvANaH AsIt= at hand, final emancipation, having, he is there.
wrf to lamp about to extinguish, in double entendre:
nirviShTa= diminished; viShaya= in recepticle; snehaH= oil; dasha antam= wick's, at end [flickering]; Asanna nirvANaH= bechanced, extinguistion.
He who had enjoyed all pleasures of the senses, attaining the declining period of existence, and having his final emancipation at hand, Dasharatha, was like the flame of a lamp about to extinguish in the early morning, with its supply of oil finished and with its wick nearly consumed. [12-1]
Now Dasharatha, having known all joys/Of sense, and entering on life's final stage,/Neared his eclipse, as fades before the dawn/The lamplight.
तम् कर्णमूलमागत्य रामे श्रीर्न्यस्यतामिति।
कैकेयीशङ्कयेवाह पलितच्छद्मना जरा॥ १२-२
tam karṇamūlamāgatya rāme śrīrnyasyatāmiti|
kaikeyīśaṅkayevāha palitacchadmanā jarā || 12-2
tam karNamUlamAgatya rAme shrIrnyasyatAmiti |
kaikeyIsha~NkayevAha palitacChadmanA jarA || 12-2
tam karNa mUlam Agatya rAme shrIH nyasyatAm iti kaikeyI sha~NkayA iva Aha palita cChadmanA jarA
12-2. jarA = old age; kaikeyI sha~NkayA iva= as if fearing for Kaikeyi; palita cChadmanA= in the guise of hoariness, silvery white hair; karNa mUlam Agatya = ear, at a corner of, having come; rAme shrIH nyasyatAm iti = in Rama, kingdom, may be kept, thus; tam Aha = to him, said.
Old Age under the guise of grey hair came to the root of his ear and, as if through fear of Kaikeyi, whispered to him 'let Rama be crowned...' [12-2]
सा पौरान्पौरकान्तस्य रामस्याभ्युदयश्रुतिः।
प्रत्येकम् ह्रादयांचक्रे कुल्येवोद्यानपादपान्॥ १२-३
sā paurānpaurakāntasya rāmasyābhyudayaśrutiḥ|
pratyekam hrādayāṁcakre kulyevodyānapādapān || 12-3
pratyekam hrAdayA.ncakre kulyevodyAnapAdapAn || 12-3
sA paurAn paura-kAntasya rAmasya abhyudaya shrutiH prati-ekam hrAdayA.ncakre kulyA iva udyAna pAdapAn
12-3. sA paura-kAntasya rAmasya abhyudaya shrutiH = that [idea], of that one who is a beloved of people, of Rama's, elevation, that report; kulyA udyAna pAdapAn iva= one water channel, [refreshing] garden's, all trees, as with; paurAn prati-ekam hlAdayA.n cakre = people, each and everyone, to rejoice, made.
The report of the elevation of Rama who was the beloved of the citizens delighted the heart of every denizen just as one watercourse refreshes all the trees in a garden. [12-3]
Then rumour spread that Rama should be King,/The people's Darling, gave to every man/His inmost heart's desire, as springs refresh/Spread through a garden every tree alike.
तस्याभिषेकसंभारम् कल्पितम् क्रूरनिश्चया।
दूषयामास कैकेयी शोकोष्णैः पार्थिवाश्रुभिः॥ १२-४
tasyābhiṣekasaṁbhāram kalpitam krūraniścayā|
dūṣayāmāsa kaikeyī śokoṣṇaiḥ pārthivāśrubhiḥ || 12-4
tasyAbhiShekasa.nbhAram kalpitam krUranishcayA |
dUShayAmAsa kaikeyI shokoShNaiH pArthivAshrubhiH || 12-4
tasya abhiSheka sa.nbhAram kalpitam krUra nishcayA dUShayAmAsa kaikeyI shoka-uShNaiH pArthiva ashrubhiH
12-4. krUra nishcayA kaikeyI= of cruel-intent, Kaikeyi; tasya kalpitam abhiSheka sa.nbhAre= in his [Rama's] respect, arranged, preparations; shoka-uShNaiH pArthiva ashrubhiH= by grief heated, king's, with tears; dUShayAmAsa= abused - maltreated.
Sizzling tears of the king marred the preparations initiated to establish Rama on throne on account of the cruel intent of queen Kaikeyi. [12-4]
सा किलाश्वासिता चण्डी भर्त्रा तत् संश्रुतौ वरौ।
उद्ववामेन्द्रसिक्ता भूर्बिलमग्नाविवोरगौ॥ १२-५
sā kilāśvāsitā caṇḍī bhartrā tat saṁśrutau varau|
udvavāmendrasiktā bhūrbilamagnāvivoragau || 12-5
caNDI bhartrA tat sa.nshrutau varau |
udvavAmendrasiktA bhUrbilamagnAvivoragau || 12-5
sA kila ashvAsitA caNDI bhartrA tat sa.nshrutau varau udvavAma indra siktA bhUH bila magnau iva uragau
12-5. caNDI sA bhartrA ashvAsitA satI= furious, she, by husband, though pacified; tat sa.nshrutau varau= by him, once promised, two boons; indra siktA bhUH bila magnau uragau iva = by Indra, wetted [by rains], earth, in cavities, lying low, two serpents, as with; udvavAma= spouted out; kila = they say.
Though her husband Dasharatha pacified her entreatingly that furious lady Kaikeyi, they say, spouted out two boons once given to her by him, as with rainwet snakepit jetting out two snakes. [12-5]
तयोश्चतुर्दशैकेन रामम् प्राव्राजयत्समाः।
द्वितीयेन सुतस्यैच्छद्वैधव्यैकफलाम् श्रियम्॥ १२-६
tayoścaturdaśaikena rāmam prāvrājayatsamāḥ|
dvitīyena sutasyaicchadvaidhavyaikaphalām śriyam || 12-6
tayoshcaturdashaikena rAmam prAvrAjayatsamAH |
dvitIyena sutasyaicChadvaidhavyaikaphalAm shriyam || 12-6
tayoH caturdasha ekena rAmam prAvrAjayat samAH dvitIyena sutasya aicChat vaidhavyaika phalAm shriyam
12-6. [sA= she that Kaikeyi]; tayoH ekena = of those two boons, with one boon; rAmam caturdasha samAH prAvrAjayat= Rama, for fourteen, years, exiled; dvitIyena= by the second boon; sutasya= for her on Bharata; vaidhavya eka phalAm shriyam aicChat = widowhood, alone, is result, such fortune [of kingdom], she sought.
By one of these two boons she sent Rama into exile for fourteen years, and with the other she wished Fortune of Kingdom to her son the main result of which was her own widowhood. [12-6]
पित्रा दत्तम् रुदन्रामः प्राङ्महीम् प्रत्यपद्यत।
पश्चाद्वनाय गच्छेति तदाज्ञाम् मुदितोऽग्रहीत्॥ १२-७
pitrā dattam rudanrāmaḥ prāṅmahīm pratyapadyata|
paścādvanāya gaccheti tadājñām mudito'grahīt || 12-7
rudanrAmaH prA~NmahIm pratyapadyata |
pashcAdvanAya gacCheti tadAdnyAm mudito.agrahIt || 12-7
pitrA dattam rudan rAmaH prA~k mahIm pratyapadyata pashcAt vanAya gacCha iti tat Aj~nyAm muditaH agrahIt
12-7. rAmaH= Rama; prA~k= firstly; pitrA dattam mahIm= by father, given, earth - kingdom; rudan pratyapadyata= dispiritedly, agreed; pashcAt= later; vanAya gacCha iti= to forest, you go, thus said; tat Aj~nyAm muditaH agrahIt = his, order, gladly, consented.
Rama dispiritedly accepted the kingdom in the first instance; for, his becoming the king when the father is alive is unseemly; but he gladly accepted his father's later command, 'go to the forest,' for, achieving the purpose of his incarnation it seemed most seemly. [12-7]
दधतो मङ्गलक्षौमे वसानस्य च वल्कले।
ददृशुर्विस्मितास्तस्य मुखरागम् समम् जनाः॥ १२-८
dadhato maṅgalakṣaume vasānasya ca valkale|
dadṛśurvismitāstasya mukharāgam samam janāḥ || 12-8
vasAnasya ca valkale |
dadR^ishurvismitAstasya mukharAgam samam janAH || 12-8
dadhataH ma~Ngala kShaume vasAnasya ca valkale dadR^ishuH vismitAH tasya mukha rAgam samam janAH
12-8. ma~Ngala kShaume dadhataH= auspicious silk dresses, one who used to wear; valkale vasAnasya ca= jute garments, wearing now; tasya samam mukha rAgam = his, equal, facial, composure; janAH vismitAH dadR^ishuH= people, with astonishment, have seen.
People are astonished to see the impassive composure of Rama's expressions when putting on a pair of jute garments apposite for forest living, while he hitherto used to clad in auspicious silken garments. [12-8]
Sore amazed,/The people marked his aspect all unchanged,/Both when he wore the robes of royal state,/And when the bark-dress.
स सीतालक्ष्मणसखः सत्याद्गुरुमलोपयन्।
विवेश दण्डकारण्यम् प्रत्येकम् च सताम् मनः॥ १२-९
sa sītālakṣmaṇasakhaḥ satyādgurumalopayan|
viveśa daṇḍakāraṇyam pratyekam ca satām manaḥ || 12-9
vivesha daNDakAraNyam pratyekam ca satAm manaH || 12-9
sa sItA lakShmaNa sakhaH satyAt gurum a+lopayan vivesha daNDaka araNyam pratyekam ca satAm manaH
12-9. saH= he that Rama; gurum satyAt a+lopayan= father, from veracity, not causing to swerve; sItA lakShmaNa sakhaH= Seetha, Lakshmana, as company; daNDaka araNyam= danDaka, forest; satAm manaH ca= righteous people's, hearts, as well; pratyekam= individually [and severally]; vivesha= entered.
Not causing his father to swerve from veracity, Rama, accompanied by Seetha and Lakshmana, entered the DanDaka forest as also the heart of every good man.
Lakshmana and Sita/He took for his companions, and possessed/Both Dandaka's wide forest and the hearts/Of all who virtue loved:
राजापि तद्वियोगार्तः स्मृत्वा शापम् स्वकर्मजम्।
शरीरत्यागमात्रेण शुद्धिलाभमन्यत॥ १२-१०
rājāpi tadviyogārtaḥ smṛtvā śāpam svakarmajam|
śarīratyāgamātreṇa śuddhilābhamanyata || 12-10
smR^itvA shApam svakarmajam |
sharIratyAgamAtreNa shuddhilAbhamanyata || 12-10
rAjA api tat viyoga ArtaH smR^itvA shApam sva karma jam sharIra tyAga mAtreNa shuddhi lAbham amanyata
12-10. tat viyoga ArtaH= by that, separation, grieved; rAjA api= king, also; sva karma jam shApam smR^itvA= by his, own, deed, caused, curse, on remembering; sharIra tyAga mAtreNa shuddhi lAbham amanyata= body, by discarding, only by that, expiation, as result, he deemed.
Succumbing to the grief of separation from Rama, remembering the curse brought on by his own deed of slaying the son of a sage, and deeming his own expiry results in the expiation for that sin, King Dasharatha breathed his last. [12-10]
रन्ध्रान्वेषणदक्षाणाम् द्विषामामिषतताम् ययौ॥ १२-११
randhrānveṣaṇadakṣāṇām dviṣāmāmiṣatatām yayau || 12-11
viproShitakumAram tadrAjyamastamiteshvaram |
randhrAnveShaNadakShANAm dviShAmAmiShatatAm yayau || 12-11
viproShita kumAram tat rAjyam astamita Ishvaram randhra-anveShaNa-dakShANAm dviShAm AmiShatatAm yayau
12-11. tat rAjyam= that, kingdom; viproShita kumAram= gone distantly from it, princes; astamita Ishvaram= deceased, lord of it; randhra-anveShaNa-dakShANAm= for hole, searchers, experts among - seekers of weak points; dviShAm=for enemies; AmiShatatAm yayau= such a state of prey, it went into.
That kingdom from which the princes were absent, the ruler of which was dead, fell a prey to enemies who were alert in trouble-making. [12-11]
अथानाथाः प्रकृतयो मातृबन्धुनिवासिनम्।
मौलैरानाययामासुर्भरतम् स्तम्भिताश्रुभिः॥ १२-१२
athānāthāḥ prakṛtayo mātṛbandhunivāsinam|
maulairānāyayāmāsurbharatam stambhitāśrubhiḥ || 12-12
maulairAnAyayAmAsurbharatam stambhitAshrubhiH || 12-12
atha anAthAH prakR^itayaH mAtR^i bandhu nivAsinam maulaiH AnAyayAmAsuH bharatam stambhita ashrubhiH
12-12. atha a+nAthAH prakR^itayaH= then, lordless, ministers; mAtR^i bandhu nivAsinam= in maternal relatives, who is there - Bharata in his maternal uncle's house; stambhita ashrubhiH maulaiH = with restrained, tears, who with by old hereditary ministers; bharatam = Bharata; AnAyayAmAsuH= arranged to bring him back to Ayodhya.
Then the ministers finding the kingless state of their kingdom caused Bharata, who was then living with his maternal relatives, to be brought by the hereditary ministers who in course of messaging to Bharata are asked not to make Bharata tearful by informing the death of his father or exile of his brother, thus they are asked to restrain their own tears first. [12-12]
श्रुत्वा तथाविधम् मृत्युम् कैकेयीतनयः पितुः।
मातुर्न केवलम् स्वस्याः श्रियोऽप्यासीत्पराङ्मुखः॥ १२-१३
śrutvā tathāvidham mṛtyum kaikeyītanayaḥ pituḥ|
māturna kevalam svasyāḥ śriyo'pyāsītparāṅmukhaḥ || 12-13
mR^ityum kaikeyItanayaH pituH |
mAturna kevalam svasyAH shriyo.apyAsItparA~NmukhaH || 12-13
shrutvA tathA vidham mR^ityum kaikeyI tanayaH pituH mAtuH na kevalam svasyAH shriyaH api AsIt parA~NmukhaH
12-13. kaikeyI tanayaH= Kaikeyi's, son - Bharata; pituH tathA vidham mR^ityum shrutvA = father's, in that way, of death, on hearing - death occurred owing to the boon sought by his mother; svasyAH mAtuH kevalam na= his own, mother, just, not; shriyaH api parA~NmukhaH AsIt= from kingdom, even, averse, he became.
On hearing that kind of death of his father occurred owing to his mother's boon, Bharata, the son of Kaikeyi, turned away his face not only from his mother but also from the kinghood. [12-13]
But when that noble Prince/Heard how his Father died, the Kingly state/Grew hateful to him, and his mother too.
तस्य पश्यन्ससौमित्रेरुदश्रुर्वसतिद्रुमान्॥ १२-१४
tasya paśyansasaumitrerudaśrurvasatidrumān || 12-14
sasainyashcAnvagAdrAmam darshitAnAshramAlayaiH |
tasya pashyansasaumitrerudashrurvasatidrumAn || 12-14
sa sainyaH ca anvagAt rAmam darshitAn Ashrama AlayaiH tasya pashyan sa saumitreH udashruH vasati drumAn
12-14. sa sainyaH= with, army - Bharata went n search of Rama; Ashrama AlayaiH darshitAn= by hermitage, dwellers, indicated - the place of Rama in forest; sa saumitreH tasya vasati drumAn pashyan= with Lakshmana, his, dwelling, under trees, on spotting; udashruH rAmam anvagAt= tearfully, to Rama, he approached.
Taking an army with him Bharata started to search for Rama in forest; he followed the route as indicated by the dwellers of hermitages; finally spotting the trees under which Rama along with Lakshmana made his dwelling place, he tearfully approached Rama. [12-14]
चित्रकूटवनस्थम् च कथितस्वर्गतिर्गुरोः।
लक्ष्म्या निमन्त्रयांचक्रे तमनुच्छिष्टसंपदा॥ १२-१५
citrakūṭavanastham ca kathitasvargatirguroḥ|
lakṣmyā nimantrayāṁcakre tamanucchiṣṭasaṁpadā || 12-15
citrakUTavanastham ca kathitasvargatirguroH |
lakShmyA nimantrayA.ncakre tamanucChiShTasa.npadA || 12-15
citrakUTa vanastham ca kathita svar gatiH guroH lakShmyA nimantrayA.n cakre tam an+ucChiShTa sa.npadA
12-15. citrakUTa vanastham= in chitrakUta, forest, who is residing there - to Rama; tam ca= to him; guroH kathita svar gatiH= about father's, one who has said, about heaven, going; an+ucChiShTa sa.npadA= which is not, what remains after enjoying - leftovers, leavings; lakShmyA = with such a kingdom; nimantrayA.n cakre = to repossess - Bharata tried.
While Rama was staying in chitrakUTa forest Bharata informed him about the departure of their father to the heavens and persuaded him to accept the kingship, not as a residuary bequest as he himself has not touched it yet, but as a right of elder brother. [12-15]
स हि प्रथमजे तस्मिन्नकृतश्रीपरिग्रहे।
परिवेत्तारमात्मानम् मेने स्वीकरणाद्भुवः॥ १२-१६
sa hi prathamaje tasminnakṛtaśrīparigrahe|
parivettāramātmānam mene svīkaraṇādbhuvaḥ || 12-16
sa hi prathamaje
parivettAramAtmAnam mene svIkaraNAdbhuvaH || 12-16
sa hi prathamaje tasmin na kR^ita shrI parigrahe parivettAram AtmAnam mene svIkaraNAt bhuvaH
12-16. saH hi= he that Bharata, certainly; prathamaje tasmin= elder brother, he that Rama; na kR^ita shrI parigrahe= not, done, kingdom's, taking; bhuvaH svIkaraNAt= [Bharata's] taking over the earth - kingdom; parivettAram= parivettR^i= as one who incurs the sin of getting married before the elder brother has taken a wife; AtmAnam mene = for himself [Bharata], deemed.
Bharata thought he would himself become a parivettA by accepting the kingdom while his eldest brother had not taken possession of it, for a king husbands his territory which is as good as his wife. [12-16]
तमशक्यमपाक्रष्टुम् निदेशात्स्वर्गिणः पितुः।
ययाचे पादुके पश्चात्कर्तुम् राज्याधिदेवते॥ १२-१७
tamaśakyamapākraṣṭum nideśātsvargiṇaḥ pituḥ|
yayāce pāduke paścātkartum rājyādhidevate || 12-17
tamashakyamapAkraShTum nideshAtsvargiNaH pituH |
yayAce pAduke pashcAtkartum rAjyAdhidevate || 12-17
tam ashakyam apAkraShTum nideshAt svargiNaH pituH yayAce pAduke pashcAt kartum rAjya adhi-devate
12-17. svargiNaH pituH nideshAt= who had gone to heaven, their father, at his injunction; apAkraShTum ashakyam= to urn back, impossible one; tam= him - Rama; pashcAt= later, after much entreating; rAjya adhi-devate kartum= in kingdom, as presiding deity, to make; pAduke yayAce = sandals of Rama, Bharata begged for.
Bharata solicited the pair of wooden sandals worn by Rama to make them as presiding deities of the kingdom during his absence, for it had become impossible even after much entreaty to draw Rama away from the injunction of their father who had gone to heaven. [12-17]
But Rama yielded not; he rather chose/His sainted Father's doom to abide, and gave,/Long-urged, as pledges of his right as King,/The Royal sandals.
स विसृष्टस्तथेत्युक्त्वा भ्रात्रा नैवाविशत्पुरीम्।
नन्दिग्रामगतस्तस्य राज्यम् न्यासमिवाभुनक्॥ १२-१८
sa visṛṣṭastathetyuktvā bhrātrā naivāviśatpurīm|
nandigrāmagatastasya rājyam nyāsamivābhunak || 12-18
bhrAtrA naivAvishatpurIm |
nandigrAmagatastasya rAjyam nyAsamivAbhunak || 12-18
saH visR^iShTaH tathA iti uktvA bhrAtrA na eva Avishat purIm nandigrAma gataH tasya rAjyam nyAsam iva abhunak
12-18. saH bhrAtrA tathA iti uktvA= he that Bharata, by brother Rama, 'so be it', said - when Rama consented to give his sandals; visR^iShTaH san= let off by Rama; purIm na Avishat eva= Ayodhya city, not, entered; [kimtu= but]; nandigrAma gataH= in Nandigramam, stay put; tasya rAjyam nyAsam iva abhunak = his [Rama's] kingdom, as a trust, looked after it.
When Rama let him off saying 'so be it' and gave his sandals Bharata did not enter Ayodhya city; but staying at a place called Nandigrama looked after the kingdom as if it were a trust from his brother. [12-18]
दृढभक्तिरिति ज्येष्ठे राज्यतृष्णापराङ्मुखः।
मातुः पापस्य भरतः प्रायश्चित्तमिवाकरोत्॥ १२-१९
dṛḍhabhaktiriti jyeṣṭhe rājyatṛṣṇāparāṅmukhaḥ|
mātuḥ pāpasya bharataḥ prāyaścittamivākarot || 12-19
dR^iDhabhaktiriti jyeShThe rAjyatR^iShNAparA~NmukhaH
mAtuH pApasya bharataH prAyashcittamivAkarot || 12-19
dR^iDha bhaktiH iti jyeShThe rAjya tR^iShNA parA~NmukhaH mAtuH pApasya bharataH prAyashcittam iva akarot
12-19. jyeShThe dR^iDha bhaktiH= in elder brother, one who has unswerving devotion; rAjya tR^iShNA parA~NmukhaH= one who is averse to the greed of power; bharataH= such a Bharata; iti= in this way; mAtuH pApasya= for mother's, sin; prAyashcittam iva akarot = atonement, as if, he did.
Owing to his unswerving devotion to his elder brother Rama and with the aversion to take up kingship as well, Bharata did so as atonement to the sin committed by his mother. [12-19]
रामोऽपि सह वैदेह्या वने वन्येन वर्तयन्।
चचार सानुजः शान्तो वृद्धेक्ष्वाकुव्रतम् युवा॥ १२-२०
rāmo'pi saha vaidehyā vane vanyena vartayan|
cacāra sānujaḥ śānto vṛddhekṣvākuvratam yuvā || 12-20
rAmaH api saha vaidehyA vane vanyena vartayan cacAra sa anujaH shAntaH vR^iddha ikShvAku vratam yuvA
12-20. sa anujaH shAntaH rAmaH api= with, his brother Lakshmana, a cool one, Rama, on his part; vaidehyA saha= Vaidehi, along with; vane vanyena vartayan= in forest, on forest-produce, getting on; vR^iddha ikShvAku vratam [vR^itam]= old, Ikshvaku kings, practise; yuvA cacAra = while being young, he followed.
Rama too with Vaidehi, subsisting on the sylvan produce in the forest, and young and peaceful as he was, he practised along with his younger brother that course which was adopted by the Ikshvaku kings in their old age. [12-20]
But Rama with bright Sita lived content/A forest-life, sustained on forest-food,/And - with his younger brother - while in youth/Took up the life austere and rigid vows/That bind in age Ikshvaku's mighty line.
प्रभावस्तम्भितच्छायमाश्रितः स वनस्पतिम्।
कदाचिदङ्के सीतायाः शिश्ये किंचिदिव श्रमात्॥ १२-२१
prabhāvastambhitacchāyamāśritaḥ sa vanaspatim|
kadācidaṅke sītāyāḥ śiśye kiṁcidiva śramāt || 12-21
prabhAvastambhitacChAyamAshritaH sa vanaspatim |
kadAcida~Nke sItAyAH shishye ki.ncidiva shramAt || 12-21
prabhAva stambhita cChAyam AshritaH sa vanaspatim kadAcit a~Nke sItAyAH shishye ki.ncit iva shramAt
12-21. saH= he that Rama; kadAcit= at certain time; prabhAva stambhita cChAyam= a tree whose shade had become motionless by his extraordinary power; vanaspatim AshritaH san = such a tree, resorting to; ki.ncit shramAt iva= a little, by strain, as if with; sItAyAH a~Nke shishye = in Seetha's, lap, he slept.
At certain time, resorting to a tree whose shade had become motionless by his extraordinary power, as it were, Rama slept on the lap of Seetha as if through slight fatigue. [12-21]
Now on a day when, wearied with the chase,/His head awhile he laid in Sita's lap,/Beneath a forest-king, whose spreading shade/Was fixed by power divine,
ऐन्द्रिः किल नखैस्तस्या विददार स्तनौ द्विजः।
प्रियोपभोगचिह्नेषु पौरोभाग्यमिवाचरन्॥ १२-२२
aindriḥ kila nakhaistasyā vidadāra stanau dvijaḥ|
priyopabhogacihneṣu paurobhāgyamivācaran || 12-22
nakhaistasyA vidadAra stanau dvijaH |
priyopabhogacihneShu paurobhAgyamivAcaran || 12-22
aindriH kila nakhaiH tasyA vidadAra stanau dvijaH priya upabhoga cihneShu paurobhAgyam iva Acaran
12-22. aindriH dvijaH= Indra's son, in the form of a bird [a crow]; tasyAH stanau= her - Seetha's, on breasts; priya upabhoga cihneShu= the marks of enjoyment made on them by her husband Rama; paurobhAgyam= fault-finding; Acaran iva= doing, as if; nakhaiH vidadAra kila= with claws, [that crow] scratched, they say.
Then Indra's son in the form of a crow swooped and, it is said, scratched the breasts of Seetha with his claws, where the bloodred nail-dents made by Rama in the course of their intimacy were looking like pieces of flesh, as if to find fault with Rama. [12-22]
तस्मिन्नस्थदिषीकास्त्रम् रामो रामावबोधितः।
आत्मानम् मुमुचे तस्मादेकनेत्रव्ययेन सः॥ १२-२३
tasminnasthadiṣīkāstram rāmo rāmāvabodhitaḥ|
ātmānam mumuce tasmādekanetravyayena saḥ || 12-23
tasminnasthadiShIkAstram rAmo rAmAvabodhitaH |
AtmAnam mumuce tasmAdekanetravyayena saH || 12-23
tasmin Asthat iShIka-astram rAmaH rAmA avabodhitaH AtmAnam mumuce tasmAt eka netra vyayena saH
12-23. rAmA avabodhitaH rAmaH = by Seetha, awakened, Rama; tasmin iShIka-astram Asthat= on that crow, a grass-blade, missile, released; saH= that crow; eka netra vyayena = one, eye, at the cost of - by loosing one eye; tasmAt AtmAnam mumuce = from that missile, itself, released.
Rama being awakened by Seetha, let fly a reed-missile at the crow: that crow went far and wide to escape from that missile, but that missile followed anywhere it went; finally the crow has to release itself from that missile at the cost of one eye, instead of its lives. [12-23]
आशङ्क्योत्सुकसारङ्गाम् चित्रकूटस्थलीम् जहौ॥ १२-२४
āśaṅkyotsukasāraṅgām citrakūṭasthalīm jahau || 12-24
Asha~NkyotsukasAra~NgAm citrakUTasthalIm jahau || 12-24
rAmaH tu Asanna deshatvAt bharata Agamanam punaH Asha~Nkya utsuka sAra~NgAm citrakUTa sthalIm jahau
12-24. rAmaH tu= Rama, on his part; Asanna deshatvAt= owing to proximity of the country Ayodhya; punaH bharata Agamanam Asha~Nkya= again, Bharata's, coming over there, doubting; utsuka sAra~NgAm citrakUTa sthalIm jahau= having enthusiastic, deer, chitrakUTa, place, left off.
And now Rama fearing the return of Bharata on account of the proximity of the area he is living to the city of Ayodhya, abandoned the slopes of ChitrakUTa which were full of enthusiastic antelopes. [12-24]
प्रययावातिथेयेषु वसन्नृषिकुलेषु सः।
दक्षिणाम् दिशमृक्षेषु वार्षिकेष्विव भास्करः॥ १२-२५
prayayāvātitheyeṣu vasannṛṣikuleṣu saḥ|
dakṣiṇām diśamṛkṣeṣu vārṣikeṣviva bhāskaraḥ || 12-25
prayayAvAtitheyeShu vasannR^iShikuleShu saH |
dakShiNAm dishamR^ikSheShu vArShikeShviva bhAskaraH || 12-25
prayayau AtitheyeShu vasan R^iShi kuleShu saH dakShiNAm dishamR^ikSheShu vArShikeShu iva bhAskaraH
12-25. saH= he that Rama; AtitheyeShu R^iShi kuleShu= hospitable, families, of sages; vasan = while sojourning; vArShikeShu= appertaining to rainy season; R^ikSheShu= in asterisms; bhAskaraH iva= sun, as with; vasan= while sojourning; dakShiNAm disham prayayau= to south, quarter, he journeyed.
Sojourning with the hospitable families of sages on his route Rama travelled southward like the sun passing down the ten asterisms coming in the rainy season beginning with Ardra and end with svAti called the rainy asterisms.
The word Riksha may also be taken in the sense of rAshi-s, the 12 constellations; and in that case the constellations would be from karka [Cancer] to makara [Capricorn]. Rama, who gradually journeyed from Ayodhya southwards, is likened to the sun travelling through constellations from the northern solstice to the southern.
बभौ तमनुगच्छन्ती विदेहाधिपतेः सुता।
प्रतिषिद्धापि कैकेय्या लक्ष्मीरिव गुणोन्मुखी॥ १२-२६
babhau tamanugacchantī videhādhipateḥ sutā|
pratiṣiddhāpi kaikeyyā lakṣmīriva guṇonmukhī || 12-26
videhAdhipateH sutA |
pratiShiddhApi kaikeyyA lakShmIriva guNonmukhI || 12-26
babhau tam anugacChantI videha adhipateH sutA pratiShiddhA api kaikeyyA lakShmIH iva guNa unmukhI
12-26. tam anugacChantI videha adhipateH sutA= him, following, Videha, king's, daughter - Seetha; kaikeyyA pratiShiddhA api= by Kaikeyi, forbidden, even though; guNa unmukhI= one who is looking up to virtues; lakShmIH iva = goddess of kingdom-fortune, as if; babhau = shone forth.
Though queen Kaikeyi forbidden Rama to not to associate himself with the goddess of kingdom, Seetha, the daughter of the king of Videha, ardently attracted by Rama's virtues still followed him, as if she is the goddess of kingdom following the path of virtue. [12-26]
Him following Videha's Princess shone,/Bright as the Kingdom's Genius, fain to woo/His Royal virtues, by Kaikeyi's wiles/Forbid to wed him.
अनसूयातिसृष्टेन पुण्यगन्धेन काननम्।
सा चकाराङ्गरागेण पुष्पोच्चलितषट्पदम्॥ १२-२७
anasūyātisṛṣṭena puṇyagandhena kānanam|
sā cakārāṅgarāgeṇa puṣpoccalitaṣaṭpadam || 12-27
anasUyAtisR^iShTena puNyagandhena kAnanam |
sA cakArA~NgarAgeNa puShpoccalitaShaTpadam || 12-27
anasUyA atisR^iShTena puNya gandhena kAnanam sA cakAra a~NgarAgeNa puShpa uccalita ShaTpadam
12-27. sA= she that Seetha; anasUyA atisR^iShTena puNya gandhena a~NgarAgeNa = by lady anasUya, given, with a nicely, smelling, by body-cosmetic; kAnanam puShpa uccalita ShaTpadam cakAra = forest, flown away [from flowers], honeybees, she made.
With the richly fragrant unguent bestowed upon her by lady Anasuya Seetha made the forest fragrant, such that the bees gave up the flowers and swarmed around her. [12-27]
Perfumes strangely sweet,/From Anasuya's ointment on her limbs,/She shed around her, luring so the bees/From forest-blossoms.
संध्याभ्रकपिशस्तस्य विराधो नाम राक्षसः।
अतिष्ठन्मार्गमावृत्य रामस्येन्दोरिव ग्रहः॥ १२-२८
saṁdhyābhrakapiśastasya virādho nāma rākṣasaḥ|
atiṣṭhanmārgamāvṛtya rāmasyendoriva grahaḥ || 12-28
sa.ndhyAbhrakapishastasya virAdho nAma rAkShasaH
atiShThanmArgamAvR^itya rAmasyendoriva grahaH || 12-28
sa.ndhya abhra kapishaH tasya virAdho nAma rAkShasaH atiShThat mArgam AvR^itya rAmasya indoH iva grahaH
12-28. sa.ndhya abhra kapishaH= like evening, cloud, black-red in colour; virAdhaH nAma rAkShasaH= virAdha, named, demon; grahaH indoH iva = planet rAhu, to moon, as with; tasya rAmasya mArgam AvR^itya atiShThat= that, Rama's, pathway, obstructing, he stood.
Then a monster named virAdha whose complexion was tawny like the evening cloud, stood obstructing the path of Rama as the planet rAhu does of the moon during lunar eclipse. [12-28]
स जहार तयोर्मध्ये मैथिलीम् लोकशोषणः।
नभोनभस्ययोर्वृष्टिमवग्रह इवान्तरे॥ १२-२९
sa jahāra tayormadhye maithilīm lokaśoṣaṇaḥ|
nabhonabhasyayorvṛṣṭimavagraha ivāntare || 12-29
tayormadhye maithilIm lokashoShaNaH |
nabhonabhasyayorvR^iShTimavagraha ivAntare || 12-29
sa jahAra tayoH madhye maithilIm loka shoShaNaH nabho nabhasyayoH vR^iShTim avagraha iva antare
12-29. loka shoShaNaH saH= world, torturer, he that virAdha; tayoH madhye maithilIm= in between those two, she who is there - that Seetha; nabho nabhasyayoH antare vR^iShTim = shrAvaNa and bhAdrapada months, in between, occurring rains; avagraha iva = drought, as with; jahAra = stole away.
That demon virAdha who is a torturer of the people forced away Maithili from between Rama and Lakshmana just as drought takes away rains occurring between the months of shrAvaNa and bhAdrapada.
Then sudden from between/The guardian Brothers he the Princess tore,/As drought licks up the rain in Autumn months.
The months of shrAvaNa and bhAdrapada are the months during which rainfall is generally the strongest; and the absence of it just then makes people most anxious; hence the comparison is very appropriate.
तम् विनिष्पिष्य काकुत्स्थौ पुरा दूषयति स्थलीम्।
गन्धेनाशुचिना चेति वसुधायाम् निचख्नतुः॥ १२-३०
tam viniṣpiṣya kākutsthau purā dūṣayati sthalīm|
gandhenāśucinā ceti vasudhāyām nicakhnatuḥ || 12-30
tam viniShpiShya kAkutsthau purA dUShayati sthalIm |
gandhenAshucinA ceti vasudhAyAm nicakhnatuH || 12-30
tam viniShpiShya kAkutsthau purA dUShayati sthalIm gandhena ashucinA ca iti vasudhAyAm nicakhnatuH
12-30. kAkutsthau tam viniShpiShya= Rama and Lakshmana, him - virAdha, on kneading down; ashucinA gandhena sthalIm purA dUShayati ca= by noisome stench, forest, he will contaminate, also; iti= thinking this way; vasudhAyAm nicakhnatuH= underground, they buried him.
The two descendants of Kakutstha ground him down, and lest he should ere long, by a noisome stench, contaminate the whole tract they buried him in the ground. [12-30]
But him the Heroes slew, Kakutstha's sons,/ And, ere the fetid stench from his foul limbs/ Could taint the world, they quickly buried him.
पञ्चवट्याम् ततो रामः शासनात्कुम्भजन्मनः।
अनपोढस्थितिस्तस्थौ विन्ध्याद्रिः प्रकृताविव॥ १२-३१
pañcavaṭyām tato rāmaḥ śāsanātkumbhajanmanaḥ|
anapoḍhasthitistasthau vindhyādriḥ prakṛtāviva || 12-31
anapoDhasthitistasthau vindhyAdriH prakR^itAviva || 12-31
pa~ncavaTyAm tataH rAmaH shAsanAt kumbha-janmanaH anapoDha sthitiH tasthau vindhya adriH prakR^itau iva
12-31. tataH rAmaH= then, Rama; kumbha-janmanaH shAsanAt= by pot-born one - sage Agastya, by his ordainment; vindhya adriH prakR^itau iva = vindhya, mountain's, nature, as with; anapoDhasthitiH= without deviating from his inborn conduct; pa~ncavaTyAm tasthau = in panchavaTi, he remained.
Then Rama, without deviating from his inborn conduct, sojourned in panchavaTi hermitage by order of the pitcher-born-sage Agastya, just as the mountain vindhya sedentarily remained in its normal state under the command of the same sage, without taking wings. [12-31]
रावणावरजा तत्र राघवम् मदनातुरा।
अभिपेदे निदाघार्ता व्यालीव मलयद्रुमम्॥ १२-३२
rāvaṇāvarajā tatra rāghavam madanāturā|
abhipede nidāghārtā vyālīva malayadrumam || 12-32
rAghavam madanAturA |
abhipede nidAghArtA vyAlIva malayadrumam || 12-32
rAvaNa avarajA tatra rAghavam madana AturA abhipede nidAgha ArtA vyAlI iva malaya-drumam
12-33. tatra= there in panchavaTi hermitage; madana AturA rAvaNa avarajA= infatuated by passion, Ravana's younger sister - shUrpaNakha; rAghavam= to Raghava; nidAgha ArtA vyAlI malaya-drumam iva= tortured by heat, a she-serpent, resorting to a sandalwood tree, as with; abhipede = approached.
There in panchavaTi hermitage the younger sister of Ravana infatuated by passion approached Raghava, just as a sun scorched she-serpent resorts to a sandalwood tree. [12-33]
सा सीतासंनिधावेव तम् वव्रे कथितान्वया।
अत्यारूढो हि नारीणामकालज्ञो मनोभवः॥ १२-३३
sā sītāsaṁnidhāveva tam vavre kathitānvayā|
atyārūḍho hi nārīṇāmakālajño manobhavaḥ || 12-33
tam vavre kathitAnvayA |
atyArUDho hi nArINAmakAladnyo manobhavaH || 12-33
sA sItA sa.nnidhau eva tam vavre kathita anvayA atyArUDhaH hi nArINAm akAlaj~nyaH manobhavaH
12-33. sA sItA sa.nnidhau eva= she that shUrpaNakha, Seetha, in presence of, alone; kathita anvayA= detailing her lineage; tam vavre= him - with Rama, made overtures of love; atyArUDhaH nArINAm manobhavaH a+kAlaj~nyaH hi= unbound, of women, passion, not, time knows - knows no time; hi= indeed.
She that sUrpaNakha detailing her lineage made overtures of love to Rama even in the presence of Seetha; for, the unbound passion of women knows no time. [12-33]
कलत्रवानहम् बाले कनीयांसम् भजस्व मे।
इति रामो वृषस्यन्तीम् वृषस्कन्धः शशास ताम्॥ १२-३४
kalatravānaham bāle kanīyāṁsam bhajasva me |
iti rāmo vṛṣasyantīm vṛṣaskandhaḥ śaśāsa tām || 12-34
kanIyA.nsam bhajasva me|
iti rAmo vR^iShasyantIm vR^iShaskandhaH shashAsa tAm || 12-34
kalatravAn aham bAle kanIyA.nsam bhajasva me iti rAmaH vR^iShasyantIm vR^iShaskandhaH shashAsa tAm
12-34. vR^iShaskandhaH rAmaH= one who had shoulders like those of a bull, such a Rama; vR^iShasyantIm tAm = to that lustful woman, to her; hè bAle= oh, young girl; aham kalatravAn= I am a married man; me kanIyA.nsam bhajasva= my, younger brother, you approach; iti shashAsa = thus, he said.
"I have a wife, young girl; you may therefore resort to my younger brother..." Thus bull-shouldered Rama directed that lustful sUrpaNakha. [12-34]
"Ah, Maiden, I am wedded! seek the love/Of my young brother!/"so the love-sick maid Bull-shouldered Rama counselled.
साऽभूद्रामाश्रया भूयो नदीवोभयकूलभाक्॥ १२-३५
sā'bhūdrāmāśrayā bhūyo nadīvobhayakūlabhāk || 12-35
jyeShThAbhigamanAtpUrvam tenApyanabhinanditAm |
sA.abhUdrAmAshrayA bhUyo nadIvobhayakUlabhAk || 12-35
jyeShTha abhigamanAt pUrvam tena api an+abhinanditAm sA abhUt rAma AshrayA bhUyaH nadI iva ubhaya kUla bhAk
12-35. pUrvam jyeShTha abhigamanAt = earlier, to elder brother, she who approached; tena api = by that reason, also; an+abhinanditAm= not, entertained; bhUyaH rAma AshrayA sA= again, to Rama, she approached, such a she is she; ubhaya kUla bhAk nadI iva abhUt = between, two banks, tossed, river, as with, she became.
Lakshmana did not entertain her because she sought to gain the love of the elder brother in the first instance; then, she again tried to gain the approbation of Rama: in taking these back and forth advances she appeared like a stream of river tossing and turning between both banks. [12-35]
संरम्भम् मैथिलीहासः क्षणसौम्याम् निनाय ताम्।
निवातस्तिमिताम् वेलाम् चन्द्रोदय इवोदधेः॥ १२-३६
saṁrambham maithilīhāsaḥ kṣaṇasaumyām nināya tām|
nivātastimitām velām candrodaya ivodadheḥ || 12-36
kShaNasaumyAm ninAya tAm |
nivAtastimitAm velAm candrodaya ivodadheH || 12-36
sa.nrambham maithilI hAsaH kShaNa saumyAm ninAya tAm nivAta stimitAm velAm candra udaya iva udadheH
12-36. maithilI hAsaH= Seetha's, smile - at the discomfiture of shUrpaNakha in her failure to win either Rama or Lakshmana; kShaNa saumyAm tAm= for a while, calmness, she who is having - her; nivAta stimitAm udadheH velAm candra udaya iva = at windless time, quiet, ocean's, shore, moon's, raining, as with; sa.nrambham ninAya = perturbation, led into.
The smile of Maithili at the rejection of shUrpaNakha by both brothers led shUrpaNakha, who till then had assumed temporary calmness, into an agitation just as the rising of the moon does to the oceanic waters which are hitherto smooth in a windless atmosphere. [12-36]
फलमस्योपहासस्य सद्यः प्राप्स्यसि पश्य माम्।
मृग्याः परिभवो व्याघ्र्यामित्यवेहि त्वया कृतम्॥ १२-३७
phalamasyopahāsasya sadyaḥ prāpsyasi paśya mām|
mṛgyāḥ paribhavo vyāghryāmityavehi tvayā kṛtam || 12-37
phalamasyopahAsasya sadyaH prApsyasi pashya mAm |
mR^igyAH paribhavo vyAghryAmityavehi tvayA kR^itam || 12-37
phalam asya upahAsasya sadyaH prApsyasi pashya mAm mR^igyAH paribhavaH vyAghryAm iti avehi tvayA kR^itam
12-37. asya upahAsasya phalam= this, jeering, result of; sadyaH prApsyasi= immediately, you will get; mAm pashya= me, you see - mark me; tvayA kR^itam= by you, done - this act; vyAghryAm mR^igyAH paribhavaH iti= towards a tigress, by a doe, insult, thus as; avehi = you know.
"Mark me! Thou shalt get the fruit of this jeering before long; understand, what has been done by thee is an insult to a tigress from a doe..." So said that demoness to Seetha. [12-37]
इत्युक्त्वा मैथिलीम् भर्तुरङ्के निविशतीम् भयात्।
रूपम् शूर्पणखा नाम्नः सदृशम् प्रत्यपद्यत॥ १२-३८
ityuktvā maithilīm bharturaṅke niviśatīm bhayāt|
rūpam śūrpaṇakhā nāmnaḥ sadṛśam pratyapadyata || 12-38
bhartura~Nke nivishatIm bhayAt |
rUpam shUrpaNakhA nAmnaH sadR^isham pratyapadyata || 12-38
iti uktvA maithilIm bhartuH a~Nke nivishatIm bhayAt rUpam shUrpaNakhA nAmnaH sadR^isham pratyapadyata
12-38. bhayAt bhartuH a~Nke nivishatIm maithilIm iti uktvA= by fear, on husband's, side, sitting, to Seetha, in this way, on saying; shUrpaNakhA nAmnaH sadR^isham rUpam= to shUrpaNakha, name, befitting, form; pratyapadyata - she assumed.
Having said this to Maithili who was seeking the side of her husband through fear, that demoness assumed a form which was in keeping with her name - shUrpaNakha. [12-38]
लक्ष्मणः प्रथमम् श्रुत्वा कोकिलामञ्जुवादिनीम्।
शिवाघोरस्वनाम् पश्चाद्बुबुधे विकृतेति ताम्॥ १२-३९
lakṣmaṇaḥ prathamam śrutvā kokilāmañjuvādinīm|
śivāghorasvanām paścādbubudhe vikṛteti tām || 12-39
shivAghorasvanAm pashcAdbubudhe vikR^iteti tAm || 12-39
lakShmaNaH prathamam shrutvA kokilA ma~nju vAdinIm shivA ghora svanAm pashcAt bubudhe vikR^itA iti tAm
12-39. lakShmaNaH; prathamam= firstly; kokilA ma~nju vAdinIm= like a kokila, melodiously, one who is talking; pashcAt shivA ghora svanAm= later, like that of she-jackal, in a horrible, voice one who spoke; shrutvA= having heard; vikR^itA iti tAm bubudhe= unnatural [a voice-changing demoness], thus, her, he understood.
Lakshmana first hearing her speak sweetly like a kokila and then in a terrific voice like that of a she-jackal made her out as one who had an 'assumed appearance,' there by as a demoness. [12-39]
पर्णशालामथ क्षिप्रम् विकृष्टासिः प्रविश्य सः।
वैरूप्यपौनरुक्त्येन भीषणाम् तामयोजयत्॥ १२-४०
parṇaśālāmatha kṣipram vikṛṣṭāsiḥ praviśya saḥ|
vairūpyapaunaruktyena bhīṣaṇām tāmayojayat || 12-40
vikR^iShTAsiH pravishya saH |
vairUpyapaunaruktyena bhIShaNAm tAmayojayat || 12-40
parNashAlAm atha kShipram vikR^iShTa asiH pravishya saH vairUpya paunaruktyena bhIShaNAm tAm ayojayat
12-40. athaH saH= then, he that Lakshmana; vikR^iShTa asiH san= drawing sword; kShipram parNashAlAm pravishya= quickly, into hermitage, on entering; bhIShaNAm tAm= horrendous, her; vairUpya paunaruktyena= her ghoulish form, with doubly ghoulish form; ayojayat = he joined - made.
Now with drawn sword Lakshmana promptly entered the hermitage and made the uncouth form of shUrpaNakha doubly hideous by mangling her nose and ears. [12-40]
सा वक्रनखधारिण्या वेणुकर्कशपर्वया।
अङ्कुशाकारयाङ्गुल्या तावतर्जयदम्बरे॥ १२-४१
sā vakranakhadhāriṇyā veṇukarkaśaparvayā|
aṅkuśākārayāṅgulyā tāvatarjayadambare || 12-41
a~NkushAkArayA~NgulyA tAvatarjayadambare || 12-41
sA vakra nakha dhAriNyA veNu karkasha parvayA a~Nkusha AkArayA a~NgulyA tau atarjayat ambare
12-41. sA= she that shUrpaNakha; vakra nakha dhAriNyA= curved, nails, one who is having; veNu karkasha parvayA= like bamboo joints, hard, having such joints [of arms]; a~Nkusha AkArayA= in the form of a goad, whose finger is; ambare [sthitA] = staying on sky; a~NgulyA tau atarjayat= with finger, them the brother, she threatened.
Hovering in the upper regions shUrpaNakha then menaced both the brothers with her finger which resembled an elephant's goad on account of having a curved nail and joints hard as those of a bamboo. [12-41]
प्राप्य चाशु जनस्थानम् खरादिभ्यस्तथाविधम्।
रामोपक्रममाचख्यौ रक्षःपरिभवम् नवम्॥ १२-४२
prāpya cāśu janasthānam kharādibhyastathāvidham|
rāmopakramamācakhyau rakṣaḥparibhavam navam || 12-42
rAmopakramamAcakhyau rakShaHparibhavam navam || 12-42
prApya ca Ashu janasthAnam kharAdibhyaH tathA vidham rAma upakramam Acakhyau rakShaH paribhavam navam
12-42. Ashu janasthAnam prApya ca= quickly, janasthAna, on reaching; kharAdibhyaH= to Khara et al demons; tathA vidham rAma upakramam= that kind of, Rama's, embarkation; navam rakShaH paribhavam= new kind of, demons, degradation; Acakhyau = reported.
And reaching JanasthAna without loss of time she narrated to Khara and other demons that insult which was given to her and which was a fresh kind of degradation of the RAkshasa-s started by Rama. [12-42]
मुखावयवलूनाम् ताम् नैरृता यत्पुरो दधुः।
रामाभियायिनाम् तेषाम् तदेवाभूदमङ्गलम्॥ १२-४३
mukhāvayavalūnām tām nairṛtā yatpuro dadhuḥ|
rāmābhiyāyinām teṣām tadevābhūdamaṅgalam || 12-43
mukhAvayavalUnAm tAm nairR^itA yatpuro
rAmAbhiyAyinAm teShAm tadevAbhUdama~Ngalam || 12-43
mukha avayava lUnAm tAm nairR^itAH yat puraH dadhuH rAma abhiyAyinAm teShAm tat eva AbhUt ama~Ngalam
12-43. nairR^itAH= those demons; mukha avayava lUnAm= facial, organs, mutilated one; tAm= her; puraH dadhuH iti yat= kept, in their fore, that which is there; tat eva= that itself; rAma abhiyAyinAm= towards Rama, in marching ahead; teShAm ama~Ngalam AbhUt = to them, inauspicious it became.
The fact that the demons placing shUrpaNakha whose facial organs were mutilated in their front as a guide became by itself an inauspicious omen to those who went forward as assailants against Rama. [12-43]
निदधे विजयाशंसाम् चापे सीताम् च लक्ष्मणे॥ १२-४४
nidadhe vijayāśaṁsām cāpe sītām ca lakṣmaṇe || 12-44
nidadhe vijayAsha.nsAm cApe sItAm ca lakShmaNe || 12-44
udAyudhAn AtpatataH tAn dR^iptAn prekShya rAghavaH nidadhe vijaya Asha.nsAm cApe sItAm ca lakShmaNe
12-44. udAyudhAn AtpatataH= with raised weapons, coming and falling on him; dR^iptAn tAn prekShya= arrogant ones, them, on seeing; rAghavaH cApe vijaya Asha.nsAm= Raghava, in his bow, hope of victory; sItAm lakShmaNe ca = Seetha, in [the care of] Lakshmana, as well; nidadhe= kept.
Beholding those wild rAkshasas rushing on him with uplifted weapons, Raghava placed his hope of victory in his bow and Seetha in the care of Lakshmana as well. [12-44]
एको दाशरथिः कामम् यातुधानाः सहस्रशः।
ते तु यावन्त एवाजौ तावांश्च ददृशे स तैः॥ १२-४५
eko dāśarathiḥ kāmam yātudhānāḥ sahasraśaḥ|
te tu yāvanta evājau tāvāṁśca dadṛśe sa taiḥ || 12-45
kAmam yAtudhAnAH sahasrashaH |
te tu yAvanta evAjau tAvA.nshca dadR^ishe sa taiH || 12-45
ekaH dAsharathiH kAmam yAtudhAnAH sahasrashaH te tu yAvanta eva ajau tAvA.n ca dadR^ishe sa taiH
12-45. dAsharathiH ekaH= Rama, is alone; yAtudhAnAH kAmam sahasrashaH= demons, perhaps, in thousands; taiH tu= by them, but; saH= Rama; ajau= in combat; te yAvanta eva tAvA.n ca = as many as they are he has also became; dadR^ishe= appeared so.
Admitted that the son of Dasharatha was only one and the RAkshasas are in thousands; however, he was seen by them in the battle to be just as many as they were. [12-45]
असज्जनेन काकुत्स्थः प्रयुक्तमथ दूषणम्।
न चक्षमे शुभाचारः स दूषणमिवात्मनः॥ १२-४६
asajjanena kākutsthaḥ prayuktamatha dūṣaṇam|
na cakṣame śubhācāraḥ sa dūṣaṇamivātmanaḥ || 12-46
prayuktamatha dUShaNam |
na cakShame shubhAcAraH sa dUShaNamivAtmanaH || 12-46
asat-janena kAkutsthaH prayuktam atha dUShaNam na cakShame shubha AcAraH saH dUShaNam iva AtmanaH
12-46. atha shubha AcAraH saH kAkutsthaH= then, of right conduct [in combat], he, Rama; asat-janena prayuktam dUShaNam= by wicked ones, sent out, dUshaNa named demon; AtmanaH dUShaNam iva= like his, censure [by unworthy], as with; na cakShame= did not tolerate.
Now Kakutstha who conducted himself correctly in a given combat did not excuse the demon called dUshaNa who was sent out to fight by the body of the wicked demons; just as Rama, being spotless in his behaviour, would not overlook any censure bruited against him by bad people. [12-46]
तम् शरैः प्रतिजग्राह खरत्रिशिरसौ च सः।
क्रमशस्ते पुनस्तस्य चापात्सममिवोद्ययुः॥ १२-४७
tam śaraiḥ pratijagrāha kharatriśirasau ca saḥ|
kramaśaste punastasya cāpātsamamivodyayuḥ || 12-47
tam sharaiH pratijagrAha
kharatrishirasau ca saH |
kramashaste punastasya cApAtsamamivodyayuH || 12-47
tam sharaiH pratijagrAha khara trishirasau ca saH kramashaH te punaH tasya cApAt samam iva udyayuH
12-47. saH= he - Rama; tam= him - dUshaNa; khara trishirasau ca= demons called Khara, trishira, as well; pratijagrAha= retaliated; kramashaH [prayuktA api]= successively [though arrows are discharged]; tasya te sharaiH punaH= his, those, arrows, again; cApAt samam iva udyayuH= from bow, at one time [three arrows], as if, came out.
Rama retaliated demon dUshaNa and Khara and Trishiras as well with his arrows which though released one after another from his bow appeared as triple arrows shot in one go. [12-47]
आयुर्देहातिगैः पीतम् रुधिरम् तु पतत्रिभिः॥ १२-४८
āyurdehātigaiḥ pītam rudhiram tu patatribhiḥ || 12-48
AyurdehAtigaiH pItam rudhiram tu patatribhiH || 12-48
taiH trayANAm shitaiH bANaiH yathA pUrva vishuddhibhiH AyuH deha atigaiH pItam rudhiram tu patatribhiH
12-48. deha atigaiH= piercing through bodies; yathA pUrva vishuddhibhiH= as before, very clean; shitaiH= very sharp; taiH bANaiH= by those arrows; trayANAm= of three demons Khara, dUshaNa, trishiras; AyuH pItam= life, is drunk; rudhiram tu patatribhiH pItam = their blood, but, by vultures, drunk.
Those three sharp arrows, piercing right through the bodies remained as clean as before when they exited from their bodies, have drunk the life of those three demons, namely Khara, dUshaNa, trishiras, while their blood by vultures. [12-48]
तस्मिन्रामशरोत्कृत्ते बले महति रक्षसाम्।
उत्थितम् ददृशेऽन्न्यच्च कबन्धेभ्यो न किंचन॥ १२-४९
tasminrāmaśarotkṛtte bale mahati rakṣasām|
utthitam dadṛśe'nnyacca kabandhebhyo na kiṁcana || 12-49
tasminrAmasharotkR^itte bale mahati rakShasAm |
utthitam dadR^ishe.annyacca kabandhebhyo na ki.ncana || 12-49
tasmin rAma shara utkR^itte bale mahati rakShasAm utthitam dadR^ishe annyat ca kabandhebhyaH na ki.ncana
12-49. tasmin rAma shara utkR^itte mahati rakShasAm bale= in that, Rama's, by arrows, severed, huge, army of demons; utthitam= that was upstanding; kabandhebhyaH = trunks; annyat ca ki.ncana na dadR^ishe= other than, anything, not, seen.
And in that large army of the demons, which was cut down by the arrows of Rama, nothing else but headless trunks was seen standing. [12-49]
सा बाणवर्षिणम् रामम् योधयित्वा सुरद्विषाम्।
अप्रबोधाय सुष्वाप गृध्रच्छाये वरूथिनी॥ १२-५०
sā bāṇavarṣiṇam rāmam yodhayitvā suradviṣām|
aprabodhāya suṣvāpa gṛdhracchāye varūthinī || 12-50
rAmam yodhayitvA suradviShAm |
aprabodhAya suShvApa gR^idhracChAye varUthinI || 12-50
sA bANa varShiNam rAmam yodhayitvA suradviShAm aprabodhAya suShvApa gR^idhra cChAye varUthinI
12-50. sA suradviShAm varUthinI= that, god, abhorring, army of demons; bANa varShiNam rAmam yodhayitvA= arrows, showering, Rama, having made to retaliate; gR^idhra cChAye = under eagles wings, shade; a+prabodhAya suShvApa= not to be wakened again, slept.
That army of god-abhorring demons, having made the arrow-storming Rama to fight with themselves, grabbed a shuteye under the shade of the wings of vultures, never to wake again. [12-50]
राघवास्त्रविदीर्णानाम् रावणम् प्रति रक्षसाम्।
तेषाम् शूर्पणखैवैका दुष्प्रवृत्तिहराऽभवत्॥ १२-५१
rāghavāstravidīrṇānām rāvaṇam prati rakṣasām|
teṣām śūrpaṇakhaivaikā duṣpravṛttiharā'bhavat || 12-51
rAghavAstravidIrNAnAm rAvaNam prati rakShasAm
teShAm shUrpaNakhaivaikA duShpravR^ittiharA.abhavat || 12-51
rAghava astra vidIrNAnAm rAvaNam prati rakShasAm teShAm shUrpaNakhA eva ekA duShpravR^itti harA abhavat
12-51. ekA shUrpaNakhA eva= only one, shUrpaNakha, alone; rAvaNam prati= Ravana, towards; rAghava astra vidIrNAnAm= by Rama's, arrows, mutilated; teShAm rakShasAm= of those, demons; duShpravR^itti harA= about their evil-doing whereby they all dead, as a messenger; abhavat= she became.
There remained only shUrpaNakha to become the conveyor of the evil-news of those RAkshasas who had been mangled by the missiles of Raghava to Ravana. [12-51]
निग्रहात्स्वसुराप्तानाम् वधाच्च धनदानुजः।
रामेण निहितम् मेने पदम् दशसु मूर्धसु॥ १२-५२
nigrahātsvasurāptānām vadhācca dhanadānujaḥ|
rāmeṇa nihitam mene padam daśasu mūrdhasu || 12-52
nigrahAtsvasurAptAnAm vadhAcca dhanadAnujaH |
rAmeNa nihitam mene padam dashasu mUrdhasu || 12-52
nigrahAt svasuH AptAnAm vadhAt ca dhanada anujaH rAmeNa nihitam mene padam dashasu mUrdhasu
12-52. svasuH nigrahAt= sister, by punishment; AptAnAm vadhAt ca= dear ones, by eliminating, also; dhanada anujaH= kubera's brother - Ravana; rAmeNa= by Rama; dashasu mUrdhasu padam nihitam mene = on ten, of his heads, foot, placed, thus he deemed.
From the chastisement inflicted upon his sister and the slaughter of his kinsmen, Ravana, the younger brother of Kubera deemed that Rama had become a trampler of his ten heads. [12-52]
रक्षसा मृगरूपेण वञ्चयित्वा स राघवौ।
जहार सीताम् पक्षीन्द्रप्रयासक्षणविघ्नितः॥ १२-५३
rakṣasā mṛgarūpeṇa vañcayitvā sa rāghavau|
jahāra sītām pakṣīndraprayāsakṣaṇavighnitaḥ || 12-53
va~ncayitvA sa rAghavau |
jahAra sItAm pakShIndraprayAsakShaNavighnitaH || 12-53
rakShasA mR^iga rUpeNa va~ncayitvA saH rAghavau jahAra sItAm pakShIndra prayAsa kShaNa vighnitaH
12-53. saH= Ravana; mR^iga rUpeNa rakShasA= in deer's, disguise, by a demon called mArIcha; rAghavau va~ncayitvA= both Raghava-s, on cheating; pakShIndra = by lord of birds - jaTAyu; prayAsa= by his effort to confronting Ravana in sky; kShaNa= for a while; vighnitaH= obstructed - Ravana; sItAm jahAra = [ultimately] Seetha, he abducted.
Both the descendants of emperor Raghu were decoyed by means of a demon called mArIcha in the guise of an antelope, and Ravana bore away Seetha in spite of his being obstructed for a time by the combating efforts of the great bird called jaTAyu in mid sky. [12-53]
तौ सीतावेषिणौ गृध्रम् लूनपक्षमपश्यताम्।
प्राणैर्दशरथप्रीतेरनृणम् कण्ठवर्तिभिः॥ १२-५४
tau sītāveṣiṇau gṛdhram lūnapakṣamapaśyatām|
prāṇairdaśarathaprīteranṛṇam kaṇṭhavartibhiḥ || 12-54
prANairdasharathaprIteranR^iNam kaNThavartibhiH || 12-54
tau sItA aveShiNau gR^idhram lUna pakSham apashyatAm prANaiH dasharatha prIteH anR^iNam kaNTha vartibhiH
12-54. sItA aveShiNau tau= while searching for Seetha, those two Raghava-s; lUna pakSham= with severed wings; kaNTha vartibhiH prANaiH= in throat, moving, with lives; dasharatha prIteH= with Dasharatha, for friendship; a+nR^iNam= without debt - requiting his friendship vow; gR^idhram apashyatAm = such an eagle, they saw.
Rama and Lakshmana in their search for Seetha saw the friend of their father Dasharatha, namely great eagle jaTAyu, who discharged his debt of that friendship in thwarting the abduction of Seetha by combating with Ravana, and who lay slain with his wings lopped off and with last-breaths lingering in his throat. [12-54]
स रावणहृताम् ताभ्याम् वचसाचष्ट मैथिलीम्।
आत्मनः सुमहत्कर्म व्रणैरावेद्य संस्थितः॥ १२-५५
sa rāvaṇahṛtām tābhyām vacasācaṣṭa maithilīm|
ātmanaḥ sumahatkarma vraṇairāvedya saṁsthitaḥ || 12-55
saH rAvaNa hR^itAm tAbhyAm vacasA AcaShTa maithilIm AtmanaH sumahat karma vraNaiH Avedya sa.nsthitaH
12-55. saH= he that jaTAyu; rAvaNa hR^itAm maithilIm tAbhyAm vacasA AcaShTa= by Ravana, abducted, about Maithili, to both of them, in words, informed; AtmanaH sumahat karma vraNaiH Avedya= his own, great deed of attacking Ravana, through war wounds, on informing; sa.nsthitaH = settled down - eternally.
Informing both the brothers that Ravana abducted Maithili in voice; voicelessly about the difficult countermeasure he undertook to combat with Ravana through the wounds he sustained, that great bird settled down - eternally. [12-55]
पितरीवाग्निसंस्कारात्परा ववृतिरे क्रियाः॥ १२-५६
pitarīvāgnisaṁskārātparā vavṛtire kriyāḥ || 12-56
tayoH tasmin navIbhUta pitR^i vyApatti shokayoH pitari iva agni sa.nskArAt parAH vavR^itire kriyAH
12-56. navIbhUta pitR^i vyApatti shokayoH= newly bechanced, by father's, death, grief; tayoH= those two brothers; tasmin= to him - jaTAyu; pitari iva agni sa.nskArAt= father, as with, cremation; parAH kriyAH vavR^itire = funeral rites, they conducted.
As if their father's death recurred once again they conducted the cremation and funeral rites to that fatherly eagle in a regular series. [12-56]
anAtha preta samskAram kOTi yaj~na tulyam.
मुमूर्च्छ सख्यम् रामस्य समानव्यसने हरौ॥ १२-५७
mumūrccha sakhyam rāmasya samānavyasane harau || 12-57
vadhanirdhUtashApasya kabandhasyopadeshataH |
mumUrcCha sakhyam rAmasya samAnavyasane harau || 12-57
vadha nirdhUta shApasya kabandhasya upadeshataH mumUrcCha sakhyam rAmasya samAna vyasane harau
12-57. vadha nirdhUta shApasya= by elimination, washed away, curse; kabandhasya= of kabandha; upadeshataH= by his advise; rAmasya= for Rama; samAna vyasane harau = one in similar, predicament, with a monkey - sugrIva; sakhyam mumUrcCha= friendship, grew strong.
Upon the advice of kabandha whose curse of becoming a monstrous bole from his celestial form had been washed away by his being killed at the hand of Rama, Rama's friendship with a similarly situated monkey as himself, named sugrIva, grew strong. [12-57]
स हत्वा वालिनम् वीरस्तत्पदे चिरकाङ्क्षिते।
धातोः स्थान इवादेशम् सुग्रीवम् संन्यवेशयत्॥ १२-५८
sa hatvā vālinam vīrastatpade cirakāṅkṣite|
dhātoḥ sthāna ivādeśam sugrīvam saṁnyaveśayat || 12-58
sa hatvA vAlinam vIrastatpade cirakA~NkShite |
dhAtoH sthAna ivAdesham sugrIvam sa.nnyaveshayat || 12-58
sa hatvA vAlinam vIraH tat pade cira kA~NkShite dhAtoH sthAna iva Adesham sugrIvam sa.nnyaveshayat
12-58. sa vIraH vAlinam hatvA= he that Rama, the warrior, vAli, on killing; cira kA~NkShite tat pade= for a long time, desired, in that, place; dhAtoH sthAna Adesham iva= in the place of verbal root, its substitution, as with; sugrIvam sa.nnyaveshayat= sugrIva, is placed.
That warrior Rama having killed vAli established Sugr1va in his place, which place sugrIva had coveted for a long time, just as a substitute is put in place of a verbal root. [12-58]
इतस्ततश्च वैदेहीमन्वेष्टुम् भर्तृचोदिताः।
कपयश्चेरुरार्तस्य रामस्येव मनोरथाः॥ १२-५९
itastataśca vaidehīmanveṣṭum bhartṛcoditāḥ|
kapayaścerurārtasya rāmasyeva manorathāḥ || 12-59
itaH tataH ca vaidehIm anveShTum bhartR^i coditAH kapayaH ceruH Artasya rAmasyeva manorathAH
12-59. vaidehIm anveShTum bhartR^i coditAH= Vaidehi, to search, by lord's, enjoinment; kapayaH= monkeys; Artasya rAmasyeva manorathAH [iva]= anguished, Rama's, thought [as with]; itaH tataH ceruH ca= here and there, moved [searched].
Enjoined by their lord sugrIva to seek out Vaidehi, the monkeys wandered here and there in searching her like the wandering thoughts of anguished Rama. [12-59]
प्रवृत्तावुपलब्धायाम् तस्याः संपातिदर्शनात्।
मारुतिः सागरम् तीर्णः संसारमिव निर्ममः॥ १२-६०
pravṛttāvupalabdhāyām tasyāḥ saṁpātidarśanāt|
mārutiḥ sāgaram tīrṇaḥ saṁsāramiva nirmamaḥ || 12-60
pravR^ittau upalabdhAyAm tasyAH sa.npAti darshanAt mArutiH sAgaram tIrNaH sa.nsAram iva nirmamaH
12-60. sa.npAti darshanAt= sampAti, on seeing; tasyAH pravR^ittau upalabdhAyAm= about her Seetha, news, on getting; mArutiH sAgaram= Hanuma, ocean; nirmamaH sa.nsAram iva = one having no attachment for worldly, of worldly existence, as with; tIrNaH= crossed the ocean.
On meeting sampAti, the elder brother of slain jaTAyu, Hanuma gained the news of Seetha's whereabouts, whereby he crossed the ocean, just as one having no attachment for worldly objects crosses the ocean of this worldly existence. [12-60]
दृष्टा विचिन्वता तेन लङ्कायाम् राक्षसीवृता।
जानकी विषवल्लीभिः परितेव महौषधिः॥ १२-६१
dṛṣṭā vicinvatā tena laṅkāyām rākṣasīvṛtā|
jānakī viṣavallībhiḥ pariteva mahauṣadhiḥ || 12-61
tena la~NkAyAm rAkShasIvR^itA |
jAnakI viShavallIbhiH pariteva mahauShadhiH || 12-61
dR^iShTA vicinvatA tena la~NkAyAm rAkShasI vR^itA jAnakI viSha vallIbhiH parita iva mahauShadhiH
12-61. la~NkAyAm vicinvatA tena= in Lanka, while searching, by him - Hanuma; rAkShasI vR^itA jAnakI= by demonesses, surrounded by, jAnaki; viSha vallIbhiH parita mahauShadhiH iva= by poisonous, creepers, entwined, a great herb, as with; dR^iShTA = had been seen.
While Hanuma was searching for Janaki in lanka, he found her surrounded by demonesses just like a potent medicinal plant entwined by poisonous creepers. [12-61]
तस्यै भर्तुरभिज्ञ्यानमङ्गुलीयम् ददौ कपिः।
tasyai bharturabhijñyānamaṅgulīyam dadau kapiḥ|
pratyudgatamivānuṣṇaistadānandāśrubindubhiḥ || 12-62
dadau kapiH |
pratyudgatamivAnuShNaistadAnandAshrubindubhiH || 12-62
tasyai bhartuH abhij~nyAnam a~NgulIyam dadau kapiH pratyudgatam iva anuShNaiH tat Ananda ashru bindubhiH
12-62. kapiH= that monkey Hanuma; bhartuH; abhij~nyAnam a~NgulIyam tasyai dadau= husband's, token of recognition, a ring of Rama, to her, he gave; [that ring is welcomed with]; an+uShNaiH tat Ananda ashru bindubhiH pratyudgatam [prati+ut+gatam= coming forward as in welcoming] iva= not, hot, of joy, eye, water drops - she did not leap at the ring, but her cool tears of joy leapt from her eyes came forward to receive that ring.
That monkey Hanuma handed over to her a ring, as the token of recognition from her husband Rama; and her cool tears of joy stepped forward to receive it. [12-62]
निर्वाप्य प्रियसंदेशैः सीतामक्षवधोद्धतः।
स ददाह पुरीम् लङ्काम् क्षणसोढारिनिग्रहः॥ १२-६३
nirvāpya priyasaṁdeśaiḥ sītāmakṣavadhoddhataḥ|
sa dadāha purīm laṅkām kṣaṇasoḍhārinigrahaḥ || 12-63
sa dadAha purIm la~NkAm kShaNasoDhArinigrahaH || 12-63
nirvApya priya sa.ndeshaiH sItAm akSha vadha uddhataH saH dadAha purIm la~NkAm kShaNa soDha ari nigrahaH
12-63. saH= he that Hanuma; priya sa.ndeshaiH sItAm nirvApya= with her beloved's, message, Seetha, pacified; akSha vadha uddhataH= who was emboldened by the destruction of Ravana's son, akshakumAra; kShaNa soDha ari nigrahaH= who for a moment suffered capture at the hands of the enemy - by way of projecting brahma-astram; purIm la~NkAm dadAha= city, Lanka, he burnt down.
Having consoled Seetha with tidings of her dear lord, that Hanuma who was emboldened by the destruction of the son of Ravana, namely aksha-kumAra, and who for a moment suffered capture of brahma-astra at the hands of the enemy, set the city of Lanka on fire. [12-63]
प्रत्यभिज्ञानरत्नम् च रामायादर्शयत्कृती।
हृदयम् स्वयमायातम् वैदेह्या इव मूर्तिमत्॥ १२-६४
pratyabhijñānaratnam ca rāmāyādarśayatkṛtī|
hṛdayam svayamāyātam vaidehyā iva mūrtimat || 12-64
pratyabhidnyAnaratnam ca rAmAyAdarshayatkR^itI |
hR^idayam svayamAyAtam vaidehyA iva mUrtimat || 12-64
pratyabhij~nyAna ratnam ca rAmAya adarshayat kR^itI hR^idayam svayam AyAtam vaidehyA iva mUrtimat
12-64. kR^itI= a successful one [in his errand]; svayam AyAtam= personally, came; vaidehyA mUrtimat hR^idayam iva = Vaidehi's, in material form, heart, as if - vastu rUpa sItA hR^idayam; pratyabhij~nyAna ratnam ca = counter recognition jewel - chUDAmaNi - hairpin; rAmAya adarshayat- to Rama, he showed.
That successful monkey Hanuma showed the hairpin-jewel of Seetha to Rama as a piece of counter-recognition, whereby Rama deemed that the very heart of Vaidehi itself come to him in a material form of that jewel. [12-64]
स प्राप हृदयन्यस्तमणिस्पर्शनिमीलितः।
अपयोधरसंसर्गाम् प्रियालिङ्गननिर्वृतिम्॥ १२-६५
sa prāpa hṛdayanyastamaṇisparśanimīlitaḥ|
apayodharasaṁsargām priyāliṅgananirvṛtim || 12-65
sa prApa hR^idayanyastamaNisparshanimIlitaH |
apayodharasa.nsargAm priyAli~NgananirvR^itim || 12-65
sa prApa hR^idaya nyasta maNi sparsha nimIlitaH apayodhara sa.nsargAm priya Ali~Ngana nirvR^itim
12-65. hR^idaya nyasta maNi sparsha nimIlitaH= on heart, kept, hairpin-jewel, by its touch, eyes half closed; saH= such a Rama; a+payodhara sa.nsargAm= without [touch of] breast, an embrace; priya Ali~Ngana nirvR^itim= dear one's, embrace, satisfaction; prApa= he derived.
With the touch of the jewelled hairpin placed on his heart, Rama with half-closed eyes through infatuation for Seetha gained the satisfaction of an embrace of his beloved, minus the touch of her breasts. [12-65]
श्रुत्वा रामः प्रियोदन्तम् मेने तत्सङ्गमोत्सुकः।
महार्णवपरिक्षेपम् लङ्कायाः परिखालघुम्॥ १२-६६
śrutvā rāmaḥ priyodantam mene tatsaṅgamotsukaḥ|
mahārṇavaparikṣepam laṅkāyāḥ parikhālaghum || 12-66
priyodantam mene tatsa~NgamotsukaH |
mahArNavaparikShepam la~NkAyAH parikhAlaghum || 12-66
shrutvA rAmaH priya udantam mene tat sa~Ngama utsukaH mahArNava parikShepam la~NkAyAH parikhA laghum
12-66. priya udantam shrutvA= dear one's, tidings, having heard; tat sa~Ngama utsukaH= with her, to join, eager to; rAmaH= such Rama; la~NkAyAH mahArNava parikShepam= Lanka's, great oceanic, moat; parikhA laghum mene = trough, a small, he deemed.
Eager to join with Seetha on hearing tidings of his beloved, Rama deemed the great oceanic moat around Lanka to be as small as a trough. [12-66]
स प्रतस्थेऽरिनाशाय हरिसैन्यैरनुद्रुतः।
न केवलम् भुवः पृष्ठे व्योम्नि संबाधवर्तिभिः॥ १२-६७
sa pratasthe'rināśāya harisainyairanudrutaḥ|
na kevalam bhuvaḥ pṛṣṭhe vyomni saṁbādhavartibhiḥ || 12-67
na kevalam bhuvaH pR^iShThe vyomni sa.nbAdhavartibhiH || 12-67
saH pratasthe ari nAshAya hari sainyaiH anudrutaH na kevalam bhuvaH pR^iShThe vyomni sa.nbAdha vartibhiH
12-67. kevalam bhuvaH pR^iShThe na= just, on earth's, surface, not; vyomni= even on skyway; sa.nbAdha vartibhiH= on roads pressing against each other for want of leeway; hari sainyaiH= with such monkey forces; anudrutaH= one who is followed; saH= such Rama; ari nAshAya pratasthe = for enemy, elimination, started out.
Rama set out to destroy his enemies with monkey-host marching after him, which host in its hop to Lanka stampeded not only on earth's surface but even on sky for a leeway. [12-67]
निविष्टमुदधेः कूले तम् प्रपाद बिभीषणः।
स्नेहाद्राक्षसलक्ष्म्येव बुद्धिमाविश्य चोदितः॥ १२-६८
niviṣṭamudadheḥ kūle tam prapāda bibhīṣaṇaḥ|
snehādrākṣasalakṣmyeva buddhimāviśya coditaḥ || 12-68
niviShTamudadheH kUle tam prapAda bibhIShaNaH |
snehAdrAkShasalakShmyeva buddhimAvishya coditaH || 12-68
niviShTam udadheH kUle tam prapAda vibhIShaNaH snehAt rAkShasa lakShmyA iva buddhim Avishya coditaH
12-68. udadheH kUle niviShTam tam= ocean's, on shore, who encamped, him - Rama; vibhIShaNaH; rAkShasa lakShmyA snehAt= by the good fortune of the demons; buddhim Avishya= in his mind, on entering; coditaH iva= impelled, as if; prapAda= approached Rama.
Favourable genius of the RAkshasas prompting him, thereby impelling him with the sense of doing what was most desirable; Vibhishana approached Rama who by then had encamped on the shore of the ocean. [12-68]
तस्मै निशाचरैश्वर्यम् प्रतिशुश्राव राघवः।
काले खलु समालब्धाः फलम् बध्नन्ति नीतयः॥ १२-६९
tasmai niśācaraiśvaryam pratiśuśrāva rāghavaḥ|
kāle khalu samālabdhāḥ phalam badhnanti nītayaḥ || 12-69
pratishushrAva rAghavaH |
kAle khalu samAlabdhAH phalam badhnanti nItayaH || 12-69
tasmai nishAcara aishvaryam pratishushrAva rAghavaH kAle khalu samAlabdhAH phalam badhnanti nItayaH
12-69. rAghavaH; tasmai= to him, Vibhishana; nishAcara aishvaryam pratishushrAva= night-walkers, lordship, promised; kAle samAlabdhAH= in time, commenced; nItayaH= right conduct - prudence; phalam badhnanti khalu = fruit, enjoins, certainly.
Raghava promised Vibhishana the sovereignty over the rAkshasa-s: political expedients made use of at the right juncture do most decidedly bear fruit. [12-69]
स सेतुम् बन्धयामास प्लवगैर्लवणाम्भसि।
रसातलादिवोन्मग्नम् शेषम् स्वप्नाय शार्ङ्गिणः॥ १२-७०
sa setum bandhayāmāsa plavagairlavaṇāmbhasi|
rasātalādivonmagnam śeṣam svapnāya śārṅgiṇaḥ || 12-70
sa setum bandhayAmAsa plavagairlavaNAmbhasi
rasAtalAdivonmagnam sheSham svapnAya shAr~NgiNaH || 12-70
sa setum bandhayAmAsa plavagaiH lavaNa ambhasi rasAtalAt iva unmagnam sheSham svapnAya shAr~NgiNaH
12-70. saH lavaNa ambhasi plavagaiH= he, on salt, ocean, with monkeys; shAr~NgiNaH svapnAya= for Vishnu, to repose; rasAtalAt unmagnam sheSham iva= from netherworld, came up, Adi-sheSa, as with; setum bandhayAmAsa= a bridge, started to construct.
Rama caused to construct a bridge over the briny waters by the monkeys, which looked like the thousand-hooded serpent, Adi-sheSha, surging from netherworld had become the wonted bed of Vishnu to repose. [12-70]
तेनोत्तीर्य पथा लङ्काम् रोधयामास पिङ्गलैः।
द्वितीयम् हेमप्राकारम् कुर्वद्भिरिव वानरैः॥ १२-७१
tenottīrya pathā laṅkām rodhayāmāsa piṅgalaiḥ|
dvitīyam hemaprākāram kurvadbhiriva vānaraiḥ || 12-71
la~NkAm rodhayAmAsa pi~NgalaiH |
dvitIyam hemaprAkAram kurvadbhiriva vAnaraiH || 12-71
tena uttIrya pathA la~NkAm rodhayAmAsa pi~NgalaiH dvitIyam hema prAkAram kurvadbhiH iva vAnaraiH
12-71. tena pathA uttIrya= by that, way - by that improvised bridge, having crossed ocean; pi~NgalaiH= by the monkeys in golden grey colour; dvitIyam hema prAkAram kurvadbhiH iva = second, rampart, making, as if; vAnaraiH la~NkAm rodhayAmAsa= with such monkeys, Lanka, Rama started to lay seize.
Crossing the ocean on the path of that improvised bridge, Rama laid seize to Lanka with golden coloured monkeys forming around it as another gold rampart, besides the real golden rampart already available around Lanka. [12-71]
रणः प्रववृते तत्र भीमः प्लवग रक्षसाम्।
raṇaḥ pravavṛte tatra bhīmaḥ plavaga rakṣasām|
digvijṛmbhitakākutsthapaulastyajayaghoṣaṇaḥ || 12-72
tatra bhImaH plavaga rakShasAm |
digvijR^imbhitakAkutsthapaulastyajayaghoShaNaH || 12-72
raNaH pravavR^ite tatra bhImaH plavaga rakShasAm dik vijR^imbhita kAkutstha paulastya jaya ghoShaNaH
12-72. tatra= there in Lanka; plavaga rakShasAm= between monkeys, and demons; bhImaH= fierce combat; dik vijR^imbhita kAkutstha paulastya jaya ghoShaNaH= in all quarters, filling, Rama's, and Ravana's, with cries to war whooping; raNaH pravavR^ite = a battle, commenced.
There came to pass a fierce contest of the monkeys and demons wherein the war-whooping on both sides like 'victory to Kakutstha,' 'victory to Paulastya' filled up all quarters. [12-72]
अतिशस्त्रनखन्यासः शैलरुग्णमतंगजः॥ १२-७३
atiśastranakhanyāsaḥ śailarugṇamataṁgajaḥ || 12-73
pAdapAviddhaparighaH shilAniShpiShTamudgaraH |
atishastranakhanyAsaH shailarugNamata.ngajaH || 12-73
pAdapa Aviddha parighaH shilA niShpiShTa mudgaraH ati-shastra nakha nyAsaH shaila rugNa mata.ngajaH
12-73. that battle is having: pAdapa Aviddha parighaH= by trees, broken, iron clubs; shilA niShpiShTa mudgaraH= by stones, pulverised, mallets; ati-shastra nakha nyAsaH= more than sword-gashes, are nail-nicks; shaila rugNa mata.ngajaH= boulder, killed, elephants.
In that battle trees hurled shattered iron-clubs; stones pelted pulverised mallets; nail-nicks hew more than sword-gashes; boulder- strafing bumped off huge elephants. [12-73]
The four adjectival clauses in this stanza go with raNa in the foregoing stanza.
सीताम् मायेति शंसन्ती त्रिजटा समजीवयत्॥ १२-७४
sītām māyeti śaṁsantī trijaṭā samajīvayat || 12-74
sItAm mAyeti sha.nsantI trijaTA samajIvayat || 12-74
atha rAma shiraH Cheda darshana udbhrAnta cetanAm sItAm mAyA iti sha.nsantI trijaTA samajIvayat
12-74. atha= then; rAma shiraH Cheda darshana udbhrAnta cetanAm= Rama's, head, severed, to see it, bewildered, at heart; sItAm= such a Seetha; trijaTA= demoness trijaTa; mAyA iti sha.nsantI= this is maya, thus, telling; samajIvayat= made her to live.
Then did demoness trijaTa restore Seetha to life for was bewildered and had swooned at the sight of the severed head of Rama, by assuring her that it was only a demonical delusion. [12-74]
कामम् जीवति मे नाथ इति सा विजहौ शुचम्।
प्राङ्मत्वा सत्यमस्यान्तम् जीवितास्मीति लज्जिता॥ १२-७५
kāmam jīvati me nātha iti sā vijahau śucam|
prāṅmatvā satyamasyāntam jīvitāsmīti lajjitā || 12-75
me nAtha iti sA vijahau shucam
prA~NmatvA satyamasyAntam jIvitAsmIti lajjitA || 12-75
kAmam jIvati me nAtha iti sA vijahau shucam prAk matvA satyam asya antam jIvitAsmi iti lajjitA
12-75. sA= she that Seetha; me nAtha jIvati iti = 'my husband is living' thinking so; kAmam shucam vijahau= fully, grief, gave up; prAk asya antam satyam matvA jIvitAsmi = earlier, his, end, as truth, thinking, I was living; iti lajjitA= in this way, she felt ashamed of herself.
Seetha gave up her grief since her husband was alive for a fact, but she was ashamed that she continued to live although some time ago she considered his death to be a fact, where this shamefulness is more bothersome than believing and grieving for the death of that valiant one, Rama. [12-75]
दाशरथ्योः क्षणक्लेशः स्वप्नवृत्त इवाभवत्॥ १२-७६
dāśarathyoḥ kṣaṇakleśaḥ svapnavṛtta ivābhavat || 12-76
dAsharathyoH kShaNakleshaH svapnavR^itta ivAbhavat || 12-76
garuDa ApAta vishliShTa meghanAda astra bandhanaH dAsharathyoH kShaNa kleshaH svapna vR^itta iva abhavat
12-76. garuDa ApAta vishliShTa meghanAda astra bandhanaH= by garuDa's, swooping down, loosened, meghanAda's, serpent-missile, fastening; kShaNa kleshaH= momentary, inconvenience; dAsharathyoH= for both Rama and Lakshmana; svapna vR^itta iva abhavat = in dream, as has happened, it looked.
The captiovity with the serpent-missile hurled by meghanAda being loosened by the sudden swoop of the divine eagle garuDa, became to both the sons of Dasharatha a momentary painful event, as if, befallen in a dream. [12-76]
ततो बिभेद पौलस्त्यः शक्त्या वक्षसि लक्ष्मणम्।
रामस्त्वनाहतोऽप्यासीद्विदीर्णहॄदयः शुचा॥ १२-७७
tato bibheda paulastyaḥ śaktyā vakṣasi lakṣmaṇam|
rāmastvanāhato'pyāsīdvidīrṇahṝdayaḥ śucā || 12-77
paulastyaH shaktyA vakShasi lakShmaNam |
rAmastvanAhato.apyAsIdvidIrNahR^IdayaH shucA || 12-77
tataH bibheda paulastyaH shaktyA vakShasi lakShmaNam rAmaH tu anAhataH api AsIt vidIrNa hR^IdayaH shucA
12-77. tataH= then; paulastyaH shaktyA lakShmaNam vakShasi bibheda= Ravana, with Power-missile, on Lakshmana's, chest, blasted; [but] rAmaH tu= Rama, but; anAhataH api= not, hit [with such missile], even though; shucA vidIrNa hR^IdayaH AsIt= with grief, blasted, at heart, he became.
Then Ravana blasted the breast of Lakshmana with Power-missile; but Rama, though not struck with any missile as such, became one with his heart broken to pieces, by grief for Lakshmana's condition. [12-77]
लङ्कास्त्रीणाम् पुनश्चक्रे विलापाचार्यकम् शरैः॥ १२-७८
laṅkāstrīṇām punaścakre vilāpācāryakam śaraiḥ || 12-78
la~NkAstrINAm punashcakre vilApAcAryakam sharaiH || 12-78
saH mAruti samAnIta mahauShadhi hata vyathaH la~NkAstrINAm punaH cakre vilApa AcAryakam sharaiH
12-78. saH= he that Rama; mAruti samAnIta mahauShadhi= by Hanuma, brought, with great herb - sanjIvani; hata vyathaH= killed, agony - one freed from agony; punaH la~NkAstrINAm= again, for Lanka, females; sharaiH= with arrows; vilApa AcAryakam= in lamentation, tutorship; cakre= started to.
When Hanuma brought the powerful medicinal herb sanjIvani to make Lakshmana to live, Rama's agonies vanished whereby he once more performed the task of teaching lamentations to the females of Lank through his arrows. [12-78]
स नादम् मेघनादस्य धनुश्चेन्द्रायुधप्रभम्।
मेघस्येव शरत्कालो न किञ्चित्पर्यशेषयत्॥ १२-७९
sa nādam meghanādasya dhanuścendrāyudhaprabham|
meghasyeva śaratkālo na kiñcitparyaśeṣayat || 12-79
sa nAdam meghanAdasya dhanushcendrAyudhaprabham
meghasyeva sharatkAlo na ki~ncitparyasheShayat || 12-79
sa nAdam meghanAdasya dhanuH ca indra Ayudha prabham meghasya iva sharatkAlaH na ki~ncit paryasheShayat
12-79. saH= Lakshmana - who relived owing to sanjIvani; sharatkAlaH= autumnal season; meghasya iva= clouds, as with; meghanAdasya nAdam= meghanAda's, roaring; indra Ayudha prabham= Indra's, weapon, in hue of; [asya] dhanuH ca= [meghanAda's] bow, as well; ki~ncit na paryasheShayat= in the least, not, made to remain.
Lakshmana springing back to life owing to sanjIvani allowed nothing to remain behind - neither the terrific roaring of meghanAda nor his bow dazzling in the hue of Indra's weapon, namely rainbow, just as the autumnal season does in the case of the sound of the clouds as well as the rain-bow. [12-79]
कुम्भकर्णः कपीन्द्रेण तुल्यावस्थः स्वसुः कृतः।
रुरोध रामम् शृङ्गीव टङ्कच्छिन्नमनःशिलः॥ १२-८०
kumbhakarṇaḥ kapīndreṇa tulyāvasthaḥ svasuḥ kṛtaḥ|
rurodha rāmam śṛṅgīva ṭaṅkacchinnamanaḥśilaḥ || 12-80
tulyAvasthaH svasuH kR^itaH |
rurodha rAmam shR^i~NgIva Ta~NkacChinnamanaHshilaH || 12-80
kumbhakarNaH kapIndreNa tulya avasthaH svasuH kR^itaH rurodha rAmam shR^i~NgI iva Ta~Nka cChinna manaH-shilaH
12-80. kapIndreNa= by money-king sugrIva; svasuH tulya avasthaH kR^itaH = [as his] sister, equalling, situation, one who is rendered - when sugrIva was unconscious on battlefield kumbhakarNa lifted him away; when sugrIva came to consciousness, he cut off the nose and ears of kumbhakarNa and brought him in to a shape on a par with his sister shUrpaNakha; whereby kumbhakarNa started to bleed horribly appearing as a mountain with chiselled sides of ores; kumbhakarNaH= such kumbhakarNa; Ta~Nka cChinna= with chisel, chiselled; manaH-shilaH= red-ore at mountainsides; shR^i~NgI iva= a mountain, as like; rAmam rurodha = [by such a kumbhakarNa] Rama is, stalled.
Heretofore the chief of monkeys sugrIva had cut off the ears and nose of kumbhakarNa, bringing him to the same condition as that of his sister shUrpaNakha; now such a kumbhakarNa with streams of red blood bleeding from the gashes looking more like a mountain bleeding red coloured ores when chiselled, stalled Rama on battlefield. [12-80]
अकाले बोधितो भ्राता प्रियस्वप्नो वृथा भवान्।
रामेषुभिरितीवासौ दीर्घनिद्राम् प्रवेशितः॥ १२-८१
akāle bodhito bhrātā priyasvapno vṛthā bhavān|
rāmeṣubhiritīvāsau dīrghanidrām praveśitaḥ || 12-81
bhrAtA priyasvapno vR^ithA bhavAn |
rAmeShubhiritIvAsau dIrghanidrAm praveshitaH || 12-81
akAle bodhitaH bhrAtA priya svapnaH vR^ithA bhavAn rAma iShubhiH iti iva asau dIrgha nidrAm praveshitaH
12-81. priya svapnaH bhavAn = [you] who are fond of sleep, you; vR^ithA= in vain; bhrAtA= by your brother Ravana; a+kAle bodhitaH iti iva = unseasonably, awakened, thus [saying] as if; asau= that kumbhakarNa; rAma iShubhiH dIrgha nidrAm praveshitaH= by Rama's, arrow, eternal, sleep, went into.
The arrow of Rama as if soothing kumbhakarNa of disturbed sleep with words, "for naught your brother Ravana awakened you who are fond of sound sleep at an unseasonable time... nonetheless, let me accord that facility..."; saying so put him to eternal sleep. [12-81]
इतराण्यपि रक्षांसि पेतुर्वानरकोटिषु।
रजांसि समरोत्थानि तच्छोणितनदीष्विव॥ १२-८२
itarāṇyapi rakṣāṁsi peturvānarakoṭiṣu|
rajāṁsi samarotthāni tacchoṇitanadīṣviva || 12-82
rajA.nsi samarotthAni tacChoNitanadIShviva || 12-82
itarANi api rakShA.nsi petuH vAnara koTiShu rajA.nsi samara utthAni tat shoNita nadIShu iva
12-82. itarANi rakShA.nsi api= other, demons, too; samara utthAni rajA.nsi iva = on battlefield, raised, dust, as with; tat shoNita nadIShu= their [demons], in bloodstreams; vAnara koTiShu= on monkey, hosts; petuH= fell.
Other demons that fell on hoards of monkeys too, have been smothered like particles of dust raised on the battlefield getting suppressed in the streams of blood flowing from the bodies of the combatants. [12-82]
निर्ययावथ पौलस्त्यः पुनर्युद्धाय मन्दिरात्।
अरावणमरामम् वा जगदद्येति निश्चितः॥ १२-८३
niryayāvatha paulastyaḥ punaryuddhāya mandirāt|
arāvaṇamarāmam vā jagadadyeti niścitaḥ || 12-83
punaryuddhAya mandirAt |
arAvaNamarAmam vA jagadadyeti nishcitaH || 12-83
niryayau atha paulastyaH punaH yuddhAya mandirAt a+rAvaNam a+rAmam vA jagat adya iti nishcitaH
12-83. atha paulastyaH= then Ravana - after the death of main combatant kumbhakarNa; adya jagat a+rAvaNam vA a+rAmam= today, world must be, without Ravana, or else, without Raghava; iti nishcitaH = in this way, on resolving; punaH= again; mandirAt yuddhAya niryayau = from palace, for conducting war, came out.
"Today the world must be either sans Rama or sans Ravana..." so resolving Ravana again came out of his palace to wage war personally with Rama. [12-83]
रामम् पदातिमालोक्य लङ्केशम् च वरूथिनम्।
हरियुग्यम् रथम् तस्मै प्रजिघाय पुरंदरः॥ १२-८४
rāmam padātimālokya laṅkeśam ca varūthinam|
hariyugyam ratham tasmai prajighāya puraṁdaraḥ || 12-84
la~Nkesham ca varUthinam |
hariyugyam ratham tasmai prajighAya pura.ndaraH || 12-84
rAmam padAtim Alokya la~Nka Isham ca varUthinam hari yugyam ratham tasmai prajighAya pura.ndaraH
12-84. padAtim rAmam= at footslogger, Rama; varUthinam la~Nka Isham ca= seated on chariot, a Ravana, also; Alokya= on seeing; pura.ndaraH= Indra; hari yugyam ratham tasmai prajighAya = having bay-coloured horses, a chariot, to him, sent.
Seeing the footslogger Rama and the chariot-rider Ravana, the destroyer of the cities of the enemies, namely Indra, sent his own chariot having bay-coloured horses to Rama. [12-84]
देवसूतभुजालम्बी जैत्रमध्यास्त राघवः॥ १२-८५
devasūtabhujālambī jaitramadhyāsta rāghavaḥ || 12-85
tamAdhUtadhvajapaTam vyomaga~NgormivAyubhiH |
devasUtabhujAlambI jaitramadhyAsta rAghavaH || 12-85
tam AdhUta dhvaja paTam vyoma ga~Nga Urmi vAyubhiH deva sUta bhuja AlambI jaitram adhyAsta rAghavaH
12-85. rAghavaH= Rama; vyoma ga~Nga Urmi vAyubhiH= celestial, river, of ripples, by breezes - by the breezes coming over the ripples of Ganga river running in the celestial regions; AdhUta dhvaja paTam= [by such breezes] wafted, chariot-flag staff's, flag; jaitram= which chariot is ever victorious; tam= that chariot; deva-sUta bhuja AlambI = celestial charioteer called mAtali, his shoulder, taking a grip on it; adhyAsta= mounted the chariot.
Bracing himself on the shoulder of mAtali, the celestial-charioteer of Indra, Raghava mounted that ever-victorious chariot whose banner cloth ever flutters with the breezes coming over the ripples of the celestial river Ganga. [12-85]
मातलिस्तस्य माहेन्द्रमामुमोच तनुच्छदम्।
यत्रोत्पलदलक्लैब्यमस्त्राण्यापुः सुरद्विषाम्॥ १२-८६
mātalistasya māhendramāmumoca tanucchadam|
yatrotpaladalaklaibyamastrāṇyāpuḥ suradviṣām || 12-86
yatrotpaladalaklaibyamastrANyApuH suradviShAm || 12-86
mAtaliH tasya mAhendram Amumoca tanu cChadam yatra utpala dala klaibyam astrANi ApuH sura-dviShAm
12-86. mAtaliH= charioteer mAtali; mAhendram= sent by Indra; tanu cChadam= body covering - armour; tasya Amumoca= by him made to wear; yatra= where - on falling upon which armour; sura-dviShAm astrANi= demons', missiles; utpala dala klaibyam ApuH = lotus, petal, softness, those [missiles] derive.
At the instance of charioteer mAtali, Rama put on the armour sent by Indra, for missiles of the enemies of the gods hitting it have acquired the softness of lotus petals, thus became futile. [12-86]
रामरावणयोर्युद्धम् चरितार्थमिवाभवत्॥ १२-८७
rāmarāvaṇayoryuddham caritārthamivābhavat || 12-87
rAmarAvaNayoryuddham caritArthamivAbhavat || 12-87
anyonya darshana prApta vikrama avasaram cirAt rAma rAvaNayoH yuddham caritArtham iva abhavat
12-87. cirAt = after a long time; anyonya darshana= each other, on seeing face to face; prApta vikrama avasaram = thereby chanced, bravery, time to show it; rAma rAvaNayoH yuddham= Rama, Ravana, conflict; caritArtham abhavat iva = one that had accomplished its object, as though it became.
That warfare between Rama and Ravana wherein an opportunity for showing bravery presented itself after a long time when they fought en face became, as it were, one that had accomplished its object. [12-87]
ददृशे ह्ययथापूर्वो मातृवंश इव स्थितः॥ १२-८८
dadṛśe hyayathāpūrvo mātṛvaṁśa iva sthitaḥ || 12-88
bhujamUrdhorubAhulyAdeko.api dhanadAnujaH |
dadR^ishe hyayathApUrvo mAtR^iva.nsha iva sthitaH || 12-88
bhuja mUrdhaH uru bAhulyAt ekaH api dhanada-anujaH dadR^ishe hi a+yathA pUrvaH mAtR^i va.nsha iva sthitaH
12-88. a+yathA pUrvaH= not, as before [Ravana now is not surrounded by his kith and kin slain in this war]; ekaH api= only one, even though; dhanada-anujaH= Ravana; bhuja mUrdhaH uru bAhulyAt= shoulders, heads, legs, by their plurality; mAtR^i va.nsha iva sthitaH= with mother's side, dynastic demons, as if, standing; dadR^ishe hi = appeared, indeed
That younger brother of Kubera, namely Ravana, though single and not surrounded by his followers as before, for they all are slain in this battle, but on account of the plurality of his hands, heads, and legs, appeared as if standing among his maternal kinsmen, namely the demons. [12-88]
Ravana acquired demonhood from his mother's side, being the son of Lady Keshini or Kaikasi, a rAkshasa lady, where his father was a brahma-Rishi.
जेतारम् लोकपालानाम् स्वमुखैरर्चितेश्वरम्।
रामस्तुलितकैलासमारातिम् बह्वमन्यत॥ १२-८९
jetāram lokapālānām svamukhairarciteśvaram|
rāmastulitakailāsamārātim bahvamanyata || 12-89
rAmastulitakailAsamArAtim bahvamanyata || 12-89
jetAram loka-pAlAnAm sva mukhaiH arcita Ishvaram rAmaH tulita kailAsam ArAtim bahu amanyata
12-89. loka-pAlAnAm jetAram= guardians of the quarters, who conquered; sva mukhaiH arcita Ishvaram= with his, heads, worshipped, Shiva; tulita kailAsam= one who lifted up Kailasa; ArAtim = about such an enemy Ravana; rAmaH bahu amanyata= Rama, highly, thought of him.
Rama thought highly of this enemy Ravana, who had conquered the guardians of the quarters, who had worshipped Shiva by the offer of his own heads, and who had lifted up Mount Kailasa, and as a befitting opponent to his own valour. [12-89]
तस्य स्फुरति पौलस्त्यः सीतासंगमशंसिनि।
निचखानाधिकक्रोधः शरम् सव्येतरे भुजे॥ १२-९०
tasya sphurati paulastyaḥ sītāsaṁgamaśaṁsini|
nicakhānādhikakrodhaḥ śaram savyetare bhuje || 12-90
nicakhAnAdhikakrodhaH sharam savyetare bhuje || 12-90
tasya sphurati paulastyaH sItA sa.ngama sha.nsini nicakhAna adhika krodhaH sharam savya itare bhuje
12-90. adhika krodhaH paulastyaH = highly, infuriated, Ravana; sphurati= [right hand of Rama, which is] throbbing [indicating]; sItA sa.ngama sha.nsini= with Seetha, meeting, indicating; tasya savya itare bhuje = his, left, other than, on shoulder - on right shoulder of Rama]; sharam nicakhAna = an arrow, he implanted.
The highly infuriated Ravana drove an arrow into Rama's right hand which was throbbing and therefore betokened his meeting with Sita in no time. [12-90]
रावणस्यापि रामास्तो भित्त्वा हृदयमाशुगः।
विवेश भुवमाख्यातुमुरगेभ्य इव प्रियम्॥ १२-९१
rāvaṇasyāpi rāmāsto bhittvā hṛdayamāśugaḥ|
viveśa bhuvamākhyātumuragebhya iva priyam || 12-91
bhittvA hR^idayamAshugaH |
vivesha bhuvamAkhyAtumuragebhya iva priyam || 12-91
rAvaNasya api rAma AstaH bhittvA hR^idayam AshugaH vivesha bhuvam AkhyAtum uragebhya iva priyam
12-91. rAma AstaH AshugaH = by Rama, discharged, quick going - arrow; rAvaNasya api hR^idayam bhittvA= Ravana's, also, heart on rending; uragebhya priyam AkhyAtum iva= to serpents [living in netherworlds], dear news, to tell them, as though; bhuvam vivesha= into earth, entered.
A fleetly arrow discharged by Rama pierced the heart of Ravana and also went right through the earth to announce, as it were, this happy news to the serpents dwelling in netherworld. [12-91]
वचसैव तयोर्वाक्यमस्त्रमस्त्रेण निघ्नतोः।
अन्योन्यजयसंरम्भो ववृधे वादिनोरिव॥ १२-९२
vacasaiva tayorvākyamastramastreṇa nighnatoḥ|
anyonyajayasaṁrambho vavṛdhe vādinoriva || 12-92
anyonyajayasa.nrambho vavR^idhe vAdinoriva || 12-92
vacasA eva tayoH vAkyam astram astreNa nighnatoH anyonya jaya sa.nrambhaH vavR^idhe vAdinoH iva
12-92. vAkyam vacasA eva vAdinoH iva = like disputants volleying words against words; astram astreNa nighnatoH= missile, with missile, retaliating; tayoH= their [combat]; anyonya jaya sa.nrambhaH vavR^idhe = over each other, vehemence of victory, increased.
Between those two adversaries, just as the words of one were met by those of the other in verbal warfare, so of both of them, the weapon of one striking that of the other, the vehemence of the victory over each other increased like that of two disputants. [12-92]
जयश्रीरन्तरा वेदिर्मत्तवारणयोरिव॥ १२-९३
jayaśrīrantarā vedirmattavāraṇayoriva || 12-93
vikramavyatihAreNa sAmAnyA.abhUddvayorapi |
jayashrIrantarA vedirmattavAraNayoriva || 12-93
vikrama vyatihAreNa sAmAnya abhUt dvayoH api jayashrIH antarA vediH matta vAraNayoH iva
12-93. jayashrIH= goddess of victory; vikrama vyatihAreNa= by virtue of valour's, equal reciprocity; dvayoH api= among those two, even; antarA vediH matta vAraNayoH iva= an intermediate, buttress [- a platform like structure], of ruttish elephants - while in fight, as with; sAmAnya abhUt= [goddess of victory] common, it has become.
When two ruttish elephants are arranged to fight each other, a common raised platform-like quadrangular structure with ramps on either side will be arranged, so that any of the two or both the elephants can place their forelegs on it and fight the other. This is common platform for both the fighters. So also, the goddess of victory has now has become like that platform claimable by both the warriors, Rama and Ravana, for Ravana is winning sometime and Rama the other time, allowing none to imagine as to who will succeed. [12-93]
Swayed by their equal valour Victory/Long wavered, as a rampart set between/Two raging elephants.
परस्परशरव्राताः पुष्पवृष्टिम् न सेहिरे॥ १२-९४
parasparaśaravrātāḥ puṣpavṛṣṭim na sehire || 12-94
parasparasharavrAtAH puShpavR^iShTim na sehire || 12-94
kR^ita prati-kR^ita prItaiH tayoH muktAm sura asuraiH paraspara shara vrAtAH puShpa vR^iShTim na sehire
12-94. kR^ita prati-kR^ita prItaiH= by attacking, by counter-attacking, gladdened; sura asuraiH= by such gods and demons; tayoH muktAm puShpa vR^iShTim= on those two warriors, released, flower-rains; paraspara shara vrAtAH= mutually [discharged], arrow, fusillade; na sehire= not, tolerated.
Gods as well as demons gratified with the performance of their respective hero in charging and counter-charging the other with suitable missiles showered flowers on him; but those flowers did not get down on either of the heroes, for the missiles they are fusillading were jam-packed on the firmament.
The showers of shafts/That either poured on other stayed the fall/Of flowers rained down by Gods and Demons, keen/To mark the rapid interchange of blows.
अयःशङ्कुचिताम् रक्षः शतघ्नीमथ शत्रवे।
हृताम् वैवस्वतस्येव कूटशाल्मलिमक्षिपत्॥ १२-९५
ayaḥśaṅkucitām rakṣaḥ śataghnīmatha śatrave|
hṛtām vaivasvatasyeva kūṭaśālmalimakṣipat || 12-95
ayaHsha~NkucitAm rakShaH shataghnImatha shatrave |
hR^itAm vaivasvatasyeva kUTashAlmalimakShipat || 12-95
ayaH sha~Nku citAm rakShaH shataghnIm atha shatrave hR^itAm vaivasvatasyeva kUTa-shAlmalim akShipat
12-95. atha rakShaH= then, the demon Ravana; ayaH sha~Nku citAm shataghnIm= with iron, spokes, studded, [a mace capable of ] killing a hundred soldiers at a time; hR^itAm vaivasvatasyeva= usurped from god Yama [in Ravana's conquest on Yama]; kUTa-shAlmalim= such a mace named - kUta-shAlmali; shatrave akShipat = on enemy, Ravana hurled.
Then Ravana hurled on his enemy a mace capable of killing a hundred in one throw, called kUta-shAlmali, an instrument of torture wielded by god Yama which is studded with very hard spikes on its thick end with which a sinner is impaled and which Ravana usurped from god Yama in one of his conquests. [12-95]
राघवो रथमप्राप्ताम् तामाशाम् च सुरद्विषाम्।
अर्धचन्द्रमुखैर्बाणैश्चिच्छेद कदलीसुखम्॥ १२-९६
rāghavo rathamaprāptām tāmāśām ca suradviṣām|
ardhacandramukhairbāṇaiściccheda kadalīsukham || 12-96
tAmAshAm ca suradviShAm |
ardhacandramukhairbANaishcicCheda kadalIsukham || 12-96
rAghavaH ratham a+prAptAm tAm AshAm ca suradviShAm ardha-candra-mukhaiH bANaiH cicCheda kadalI sukham
12-96. rAghavaH= Raghava on his part; ratham a+prAptAm= to chariot, not, reaching - before its reaching the chariot; tAm= them; suradviShAm AshAm ca= god-haters, hope, also; ardha-candra-mukhaiH bANaiH cicCheda= with half-moon, arrow, shattered; kadalI sukham = as comfortably as he would cut the stalk of a banana plant.
By means of the crescent-shaped arrow Raghava cut off that mace, including the hope of god-haters, eyen before it had reached his chariot as easily as he would have chopped off a plantain-stalk.
But Rama with keen shafts,/Curved-headed, cut the mace in twain or e'er/It reached the chariot, like a slender twig,/Thus shattering the Demons' soaring hopes.
अमोघम् संदधे चास्मै धनुष्येकधनुर्धरः।
ब्राह्ममस्त्रम् प्रियाशोकशल्यनिष्कर्षणौषधम्॥ १२-९७
amogham saṁdadhe cāsmai dhanuṣyekadhanurdharaḥ|
brāhmamastram priyāśokaśalyaniṣkarṣaṇauṣadham || 12-97
brAhmamastram priyAshokashalyaniShkarShaNauShadham || 12-97
amogham sa.ndadhe ca asmai dhanuShi eka dhanurdharaH brAhmam astram priya shoka shalya niShkarShaNa auShadham
12-97. ekaH dhanurdharaH= that single, archer; priya shoka shalya niShkarShaNa auShadham= his beloved's, grief, called a splinter [smote in her heart], one capable of extricating it - his arrow], such a medicament; amogham= an unfailing one -arrow; brAhmam-astram= pertaining to Brahma, such a missile; asmai ca= to him, also - also to extricate Ravana from world; dhanuShi sa.ndadhe = on his bow, he emplaced.
That unrivalled archer Rama emplaced on his bow an infallible missile which had Brahma for its presiding deity, and which was, as it were, the remedy for the extraction of the splinter called grief struck in the heart of his beloved Seetha, and Ravana as well from this world. [12-97]
Then did the matchless archer to his string/Lay that unerring arrow, Brahma named,/A simple meet to heal the stinging pain/That gnawed his Seetha's heart.
तद्व्योम्नि शतधा भिन्नम् ददृशे दीप्तिमन्मुखम्।
वपुर्महोरगस्येव करालफलमण्डलम्॥ १२-९८
tadvyomni śatadhā bhinnam dadṛśe dīptimanmukham|
vapurmahoragasyeva karālaphalamaṇḍalam || 12-98
bhinnam dadR^ishe dIptimanmukham |
vapurmahoragasyeva karAlaphalamaNDalam || 12-98
tat vyomni shatadhA bhinnam dadR^ishe dIptimat mukham vapuH mahA uragasya iva karAla-phaNa-maNDalam
12-98. vyomni shatadhA bhinnam= on sky, in a hundred ways, divided itself; dIptimat mukham= with dazzling, faces; tat= that arrow of Rama; karAla-phaNa-maNDalam= horrendous, serpent-hoods, with circlet; mahA uragasya vapuH iva= great, serpent's, body, as with; dadR^ishe = appeared.
On the sky that missile diffused itself into numerous moulds with as many dazzling tips, appeared as a staggering serpent having horrendous circlet of hoods with wide opened fangs. [12-98]
With flaming points,/Split in a hundred parts, resembling most/The Serpent-King's huge frame, when baleful gleams/His awful hood, it hurtled through the air.
तेन मन्त्रप्रयुक्तेन निमेषार्धादपातयत्।
स रावणशिरःपङ्क्तिमज्ञातव्रणवेदनाम्॥ १२-९९
tena mantraprayuktena nimeṣārdhādapātayat|
sa rāvaṇaśiraḥpaṅktimajñātavraṇavedanām || 12-99
sa rAvaNashiraHpa~NktimadnyAtavraNavedanAm || 12-99
tena mantra prayuktena nimeSha ardhAt apAtayat sa rAvaNa shiraH pa~Nktim aj~nyAta vraNa vedanAm
12-99. saH = that Rama; mantra prayuktena tena= properly incanted, with such arrow; aj~nyAta vraNa vedanAm= unknowing, of wounds, pain - to Ravana; rAvaNa shiraH pa~Nktim= Ravana's, heads, row of; nimeSha ardhAt apAtayat = within half a twinkling, [Rama] felled.
Within half a twinkling of discharge with due incantation that missile of Rama decapitated whole row of Ravana's heads ere he felt any trauma of gashing. [12-99]
Then in a moment, winged with spells, the shaft/Smote off, the wound unfelt, the whole ten heads/Of Ravan.
बालार्कप्रतिमेवाप्सु वीचिभिन्ना पतिष्यतः।
रराज रक्षःकायस्य कण्ठच्छेदपरम्परा॥ १२-१००
bālārkapratimevāpsu vīcibhinnā patiṣyataḥ|
rarāja rakṣaḥkāyasya kaṇṭhacchedaparamparā || 12-100
bAlArkapratimevApsu vIcibhinnA patiShyataH |
rarAja rakShaHkAyasya kaNThacChedaparamparA || 12-100
bAla arka pratimeA iva Apsu vIci bhinnA patiShyataH rarAja rakShaH kAyasya kaNTha cCheda
12-100. patiShyataH= those that are about to fall on earth - heads of Ravana; rakShaH kAyasya kaNTha cCheda paramparA = demon's, from body, throats [heads], severed, the line of; vIci bhinnA Apsu= by ripples, segregated, in water; bAla arka pratimeA iva= tender, sun's, reflection, as with; rarAja= shone forth.
The row of heads cut off from the demon's body which was about to fall, shone forth like the disc of the early sun reflected in ripple segregated water separated into so many images. [12-100]
But the line of headless necks/Shone, as the body fell, with fitful gleams,/Like morning sunbeams sparkling on a lake,/By wavelets broken.
मरुताम् पश्यताम् तस्य शिरांसि पतितान्यपि।
मनो नातिविशस्वास पुनःसंधानशङ्किनाम्॥ १२-१०१
marutām paśyatām tasya śirāṁsi patitānyapi|
mano nātiviśasvāsa punaḥsaṁdhānaśaṅkinām || 12-101
tasya shirA.nsi patitAnyapi |
mano nAtivishasvAsa punaHsa.ndhAnasha~NkinAm || 12-101
marutAm pashyatAm tasya shirA.nsi patitAni api manaH na ati vishasvAsa punaH sa.ndhAna sha~NkinAm
12-100. patitAni tasya shirA.nsi= though fallen, his, heads; pashyatAm api= to those who actually witnessed it, even; punaH sa.ndhAna sha~NkinAm= again, they may rejoin his body, thus doubting; marutAm= to gods; manaH na ati vishasvAsa= their minds, not, much, believed.
Though gods have seen the actual fall of Ravana's heads to ground, their minds desisted from believing it, for those heads peradventure restore themselves on his neck. [12-101]
Even then the Gods,/Though all the heads had fallen, scarce rejoiced/With full rejoicing; for they feared those heads/(As erst befell) might join the trunk once more.
उपनतमणिबन्धे मूर्ध्नि पौलस्त्यशत्रोः
सुरभि सुरविमुक्तम् पुष्पवर्षम् पपात॥ १२-१०२
upanatamaṇibandhe mūrdhni paulastyaśatroḥ
surabhi suravimuktam puṣpavarṣam papāta || 12-102
upanatamaNibandhe mUrdhni paulastyashatroH
surabhi suravimuktam puShpavarSham papAta || 12-102
atha mada guru pakShaiH loka pAla dvipAnAm anugatam ali bR^indaiH gaNDa bhittIH vihAya upanata maNi bandhe mUrdhni paulastya shatroH surabhi sura vimuktam puShpa varSham papAta
12-102. atha= then; mada guru pakShaiH ali bR^indaiH = with ichors of elephants, laden with, wings, of honeybee swarms; loka pAla dvipAnAm gaNDa bhittIH vihAya= lords of quarters, their elephants, temples [on which they swarmed so far for secreting ichor], on leaving off; anugatam surabhi sura vimuktam puShpa varSham = coming along, fragrance, by gods, released, flower, showers; upanata maNi bandhe= soon, crown, where it is to placed - whereon the crown was soon to be placed [- on Rama's head]; paulastya shatroH mUrdhni = of Ravana's, enemy, on such a head - of Rama; papAta= [flower-shower] fell.
Then gods poured down a shower of fragrant flowers which incidentally was accompanied by swarms of honeybees that have left swarming around the broad temples of the elephants of the guardian-deities of the quarters, and wings laden with ichor secreted from the temples of the elephants of the regents of the quarters, on the head of the enemy of Paulastya, namely Ravana, whereon the crown was soon to be placed. [12-102]
Then fell on Rama's head, which soon should wear / The Kingly crown, a rain of fragrant flowers,/Poured by the joyful Gods, while on them swarmed/(Their wings with honey laden) bees that late/Forsook the perfumed streams which from the brows/Distilled of Elephants that guard the Worlds.
यन्ता हरेः सपदि संहृतकार्मुकज्य
मूर्ध्वम् रथम् हरिसहस्रयुजम् निनाय॥ १२-१०३
yantā hareḥ sapadi saṁhṛtakārmukajya
mūrdhvam ratham harisahasrayujam nināya || 12-103
mApR^icChya rAghavamanuShThitadevakAryam |
mUrdhvam ratham harisahasrayujam ninAya || 12-103
yantA hareH sapadi sa.nhR^ita kArmuka jyam ApR^icChya rAghavam anuShThita deva kAryam nAmA~Nka rAvaNa sharA~Nkita ketu yaShTim Urdhvam ratham hari sahasra yujam ninAya
12-103. hareH yantA= Indra's, charioteer - mAtali; sapadi= right then; sa.nhR^ita kArmuka jyam= one who removed, bow's, bowstring; anuShThita deva kAryam= who accomplished, gods, errand; rAghavam ApR^icChya= Rama, on asking; nAmA~Nka= those that are stamped with name - arrows of Ravana; rAvaNa sharA~Nkita ketu yaShTim= with Ravana's, arrows, ingrained, flag, staff - a chariot that has these things; hari sahasra yujam= horses, numerous, yoked with; ratham= such a chariot of Indra lent to Rama to fight with Ravana; Urdhvam ninAya = upwards [skyward], led it.
The charioteer of Indra, namely mAtali, took leave of Raghava, who by then disengaged bowstring at once on the fall of Ravana, and who had accomplished the task of the gods, and went heavenward with that chariot whose flagstaff is ingrained with the arrows of Ravana stamped with his name, and which is now harnessed with a thousand horses. [12-103]
रघुपतिरपि जातवेदोविशुद्धाम् प्रगृह्य प्रियाम्
प्रियसुहृदि बिभीषणे संगमय्य श्रियम् वैरिणः।
रविसुतसहितेन तेनानुयातः ससौमित्रिणा
भुजविजितविमानरत्नाधिरूढः प्रतस्थे पुरीम्॥ १२-१०४
raghupatirapi jātavedoviśuddhām pragṛhya priyām
priyasuhṛdi bibhīṣaṇe saṁgamayya śriyam vairiṇaḥ|
ravisutasahitena tenānuyātaḥ sasaumitriṇā
bhujavijitavimānaratnādhirūḍhaḥ pratasthe purīm || 12-104
priyasuhR^idi bibhIShaNe sa.ngamayya shriyam vairiNaH |
ravisutasahitena tenAnuyAtaH sasaumitriNA
bhujavijitavimAnaratnAdhirUDhaH pratasthe purIm || 12-104
raghupatiH api jAtavedo vishuddhAm pragR^ihya priyAm priya suhR^idi vibhIShaNe sa.ngamayya shriyam vairiNaH ravi suta sahitena tena anuyAtaH sa saumitriNA bhuja vijita vimAna ratna adhirUDhaH pratasthe purIm
12-104. raghupatiH api= Rama, even; jAtavedo vishuddhAm priyAm pragR^ihya= by Sacred-fire, purified, his beloved, on taking; priya suhR^idi vibhIShaNe vairiNaH shriyam sa.ngamayya= dear, good-hearted, Vibhishana, with enemy's, [kingdom] wealth, on associating; ravi suta sahitena= Sun's, son [sugrIva], along with; sa saumitriNA= with, Lakshmana; tena anuyAtaH= by him [by Vibhishana], followed; bhuja vijita vimAna ratna adhirUDhaH= by his own, arm, won, aircraft, a jewel like aircraft, on boarding; purIm pratasthe= to his city, started the journey.
Rama having accepted his wife Seetha who by then is purified by Sacred-fire; having bestowed the wealth of enemy's kingdom on his dear friend Vibhishana; accompanied by the son of Sun sugrIva, Vibhishana, and by Saumirti; boarded the jewel of an airplane, called pushpaka, which he acquired with the force of his arm, and set out for his town Ayodhya. [12-104]
The Lord of Raghu's line/Took back his well-loved Bride from purging fires,/And to his loyal friend Vibhishan gave/The crown he tore from Ravan. Then by him/ Followed, by Lakshman, and by Hanuman,/King o'er the Monkey-host, the radiant Car/Won by his valour from proud Ravana/He mounted joyfully, and homeward sped.
The metre of this stanzla is nArAcha consisting of eighteen syllables of which the first six make up two na gaNA-s and the remaining twelve make four ra gaNA-s. The pause is first after the eighth syllable, then after the fifth, and lastly at the end of the quarter. This differcnce of metre of the last stanza of a canto from the general metre in it is in keeping with the definition of a mahA-kAvya.
इति कालिदास कृत रघुवंश महाकाव्ये द्वादशः सर्गः
iti kālidāsa kṛta raghuvaṁśa mahākāvye dvādaśaḥ sargaḥ
|previous : chapter 11||contents||Next chapter|
|Revised : Desiraju Hanumanta Rao - August 2010|
Krishnarao Mahadeva Joglekar, 1916 - KMJ, or Joglekar
Gopala Raghunath Nandargikar, 1897 GRN
pithy, terse sayings or foots of poem appearing in comment section - from The Story of Raghu's Line by Kalidasa; translated by P. De Lacy Johnston, Published by Adine House, London, 1902 - De Lacy or Lacy
upama is roughly said as metaphor, transferred epithet, or condensed simile, or expanded simile, or whatever, but not stabilised, as with atishayokti and utpreksha both made to fall under the category of a hyperbole.
u.mA o : upamAna - comparable object; or the object itself.
u.me oc : upameya - object
sA.dha c: sAdhAraNa dharma:
commonality in sharing attributes.
sA. vA cw: sAdharaNa vAcaka:
coupula, conjunctional word used.
anu.dha uq : anugAmi dharma :
underlying quality of factors.
bimba om, or O: object to be mirrored.
prati-bimba mo: reflected object with mirror symmetry, mirrored object.
shleSa innuendo: lexically mixing, imbibed in; better we use this innuendo= 2 a remark with a double meaning, usu. suggestive; till pundits object.
zeugma : a figure of speech using a verb or adjective with two nouns, to one of which it is strictly applicable while the word appropriate to the other is not used (e.g. with weeping eyes and [sc. grieving] hearts).
syllepsis : a figure of speech in which a word is applied to two others in different senses (e.g. caught the train and a bad cold) or to two others of which it grammatically suits one only (e.g. neither they nor it is working) - but not innuendo, or double meaning.
atishayokti - hybo: hyperbole.
utpreksha - mglq: magniloqui, gasconade.
Out of many mind-boggling Sanskrit poetics, upama is one, and only 23 of its shades are presented here as illustration. Please construe that hero is telling these se ntences to his heroine.
1] candra iva mukham manoj~nam = Like moon your face is heart-pleasing - upama alankAra.
2] candra iva mukham mukham iva candraH - That moon is like your face, and your face is like that moon - upameya upamA alankAra.
3] mukham iva mukham = face is face - ananvaya alankAra.
4] mukham iva candraH - moon is like your face - pratIpa alankAra
5] candram dR^iSTvA mukham smarAmi - on seeing I reminisce your face - smaraNa alankAra
6] mukham eva candraH - your face is moon alone - rUpaka alankAra
7] mukha candreNa tApaH shAmayati - on seeing moonlike face of yours, fervidity is lessening - pariNAma alankAra
8] kim idam mukham? uta aho! candraH - is this your face or that moon? - sandeha alankAra.
9] candra iti cakorAH tvat mukham anudhAvanti - thinking your face is moon songbirds are after it - bhrAntimat alankAra
10] candra iti cakorAH, kamala iti bhramarAH tvat mukhe ra~njanti - thinking your face to be moon, songbirds and bees [wish to take] delight in it.
11] camdro ayam, na mukham - this is moon, but not a face - apahnava
12] idam nUnam candraH - this is definitely the moon - utpreksha
13] candro ayam bhUpatiH - this king is the moon - atishayokti
14] mukhena candra kamale nirjite - moon or lotus is conquered by your face - tulya yogitA alankAra
15] nishi candraH tvat mukham ca hR^iSyati - night's moon delights your face - dIpaka alankAra
16] tvat mukha eva aham rajyAmi, candra eva cakoro rajyate - I take delight in your face, while songbirds take delight in that moon - prati vastu upama
17] divi candro yathA, bhuvi tathA tvat mukham bhAti - as to how the moon shines in the sky, thus your face shines forth on the earth - dR^iSTAnta alankAra
18] mukham candra shriyam bhibharti - your face is bearing the shine of that moon - nidarshana alankAra
19] niSkalankam mukham candrAt atiricyate - immaculate face of yours is surpassing that moon - vyatireka alankAra
20] tvat mukheva saha nishAsu candro hR^iSyati - along with your face, moon is also delightful in nights - saha ukti alankAra
21] mukham netra a.nka ruciram, smita jyostno upashobhitam - your face is delightful with eyes called its embellishments, and with moonshine like smiles - samAsa ukti alankAra
22] abjena tvat mukham tulyam hariNA hitasaktinA - your face vies with moon who has a deer in him, [or, your face vies with rising sun with lotus...] abhanga sabhanga shleSa alankAra
23] mukhasya puirataH candro niSprabhaH - before your face moon is loosing his shine a prastuta prashamsha.
desiraju hanumanta rao, August 2010
desirajuhrao at yahoo.com